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    Gregor Mendel

    Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk who discovered the basic principles of heredity through experiments in his garden. Mendel's observations became the foundation of modern genetics and the study of heredity, and he is widely considered a pioneer in the field of genetics.

    Gregor Mendel

    Biography (1822–1884) APR 27, 2017 COMMENT

    Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk who discovered the basic principles of heredity through experiments in his garden. Mendel's observations became the foundation of modern genetics and the study of heredity, and he is widely considered a pioneer in the field of genetics.

    Who Was Gregor Mendel?

    Gregor Mendel, known as the "father of modern genetics," was born in Austria in 1822. A monk, Mendel discovered the basic principles of heredity through experiments in his monastery's garden. His experiments showed that the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants follows particular patterns, subsequently becoming the foundation of modern genetics and leading to the study of heredity.

    Early Life

    Gregor Johann Mendel was born Johann Mendel on July 20, 1822, to Anton and Rosine Mendel, on his family’s farm, in what was then Heinzendorf, Austria. He spent his early youth in that rural setting, until age 11, when a local schoolmaster who was impressed with his aptitude for learning recommended that he be sent to secondary school in Troppau to continue his education. The move was a financial strain on his family, and often a difficult experience for Mendel, but he excelled in his studies, and in 1840, he graduated from the school with honors.

    Following his graduation, Mendel enrolled in a two-year program at the Philosophical Institute of the University of Olmütz. There, he again distinguished himself academically, particularly in the subjects of physics and math, and tutored in his spare time to make ends meet. Despite suffering from deep bouts of depression that, more than once, caused him to temporarily abandon his studies, Mendel graduated from the program in 1843.

    That same year, against the wishes of his father, who expected him to take over the family farm, Mendel began studying to be a monk: He joined the Augustinian order at the St. Thomas Monastery in Brno, and was given the name Gregor. At that time, the monastery was a cultural center for the region, and Mendel was immediately exposed to the research and teaching of its members, and also gained access to the monastery’s extensive library and experimental facilities.

    In 1849, when his work in the community in Brno exhausted him to the point of illness, Mendel was sent to fill a temporary teaching position in Znaim. However, he failed a teaching-certification exam the following year, and in 1851, he was sent to the University of Vienna, at the monastery’s expense, to continue his studies in the sciences. While there, Mendel studied mathematics and physics under Christian Doppler, after whom the Doppler effect of wave frequency is named; he studied botany under Franz Unger, who had begun using a microscope in his studies, and who was a proponent of a pre-Darwinian version of evolutionary theory.

    In 1853, upon completing his studies at the University of Vienna, Mendel returned to the monastery in Brno and was given a teaching position at a secondary school, where he would stay for more than a decade. It was during this time that he began the experiments for which he is best known.

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    Experiments and Theories

    Around 1854, Mendel began to research the transmission of hereditary traits in plant hybrids. At the time of Mendel’s studies, it was a generally accepted fact that the hereditary traits of the offspring of any species were merely the diluted blending of whatever traits were present in the “parents.” It was also commonly accepted that, over generations, a hybrid would revert to its original form, the implication of which suggested that a hybrid could not create new forms. However, the results of such studies were often skewed by the relatively short period of time during which the experiments were conducted, whereas Mendel’s research continued over as many as eight years (between 1856 and 1863), and involved tens of thousands of individual plants.

    Mendel chose to use peas for his experiments due to their many distinct varieties, and because offspring could be quickly and easily produced. He cross-fertilized pea plants that had clearly opposite characteristics—tall with short, smooth with wrinkled, those containing green seeds with those containing yellow seeds, etc.—and, after analyzing his results, reached two of his most important conclusions: the Law of Segregation, which established that there are dominant and recessive traits passed on randomly from parents to offspring (and provided an alternative to blending inheritance, the dominant theory of the time), and the Law of Independent Assortment, which established that traits were passed on independently of other traits from parent to offspring. He also proposed that this heredity followed basic statistical laws. Though Mendel’s experiments had been conducted with pea plants, he put forth the theory that all living things had such traits.

    Source : www.biography.com

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    124 Cards in this Set

    The Austrian monk whose experiments with pea plants were the beginning of our understanding of genetics was _____________________.

    Gregor Mendel

    The different alternatives or choices for a gene (like blue, green, or brown eyes) are called _____________.

    alleles

    Crossing organisms from the F1 generation produces the _____ generation.

    F2

    Crossing organisms from the P1 generation produces the _____ generation.

    F1

    Mendel’s “factors” are now called ___________________.

    genes

    Self-pollination produces seeds with genetic information from _______ parent plant(s).

    ONE

    What pattern did Mendel see when crossing pure TALL with pure SHORT pea plants?

    ALL the F1 offspring were tall, but 25% the F2 generation were short and 75% were tall.

    If a dominant allele is present, the __________________ won’t be seen.

    recessive allele

    Pollen is produced by the _________________ part of the flower.

    male

    Dominant alleles are represented by a _______ case letter.

    upper

    Mendel’s Law of ____________ ____________ explains why alleles end up in different gametes following meiosis.

    independent assortment

    _______________________ A characteristic that can be observed such as hair color, seed shape, flower color, etc

    Trait

    _______________________ The joining of a sperm and egg to make a zygote

    fertilization

    _______________________ A gene choice that MASKS ANOTHER choice for a trait

    dominant

    _______________________ A gene choice that IS MASKED BY ANOTHER choice for a trait

    recessive

    _______________________ the branch of biology that studies how characteristics are transmitted from parent to offspring

    genetics

    _______________________ the passing of characteristics from parent to offspring

    heredity

    _______________________ An alternative choice for a gene (such as brown, green, or blue eyes)

    allele

    _______________________ An organism that always produces offspring identical to itself if self pollinated

    pure breeding

    What is the genotype of a HETEROZYGOUS YELLOW plant? ______________________

    Yy

    What is the genotype of A HOMOZYGOUS GREEN SEED plant? ______________________

    yy

    Make a cross between a PURE YELLOW SEED parent and a PURE GREEN SEED parent.

    Genotypes of Parents: __________ X __________

    YY x yy

    POSSIBLE OFFSPRING OF CROSS BETWEEN TWO HOMOLOGOUS PAIRS (ONE DOMINANT, ONE RECESSIVE) GENOTYPES

    HETEROZYGOUS (100%)

    If you cross 2 parent plants that are BOTH HETEROZYGOUS for a trait the offspring will show a ____ : ____ phenotypic ratio.

    ________ % of the offspring will show the DOMINANT trait and

    Source : www.cram.com

    Genetics

    Start studying Genetics - Chapter 11-1 Questions. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

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    Gregor Mendel

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    1/19 Created by MiaM9

    Terms in this set (19)

    The Austrian monk whose experiments with pea plants were the beginning of our understanding of genetics was...

    Gregor Mendel

    The different alternatives or choices for a gene (like blue, green, or brown eyes) are called...

    Alleles

    Cross organisms from the F1 generation produces the _____ generation.

    F2

    Crossing organisms from the P1 generation produces the _____ generation.

    F1

    Mendel's "factors" are now called...

    Genes

    Self-pollination produces seeds with genetic information from _______ parent plant(s).

    One

    What pattern did Mendel see when crossing pure TALL with pure SHORT pea plants?

    ALL of the F1 offspring were tall, but 25% of the F2 generation were short and 25% tall

    Which of the following istrue of Mendelian inheritance?

    If a dominant allele is present, teh recessive allele won't be seen.

    Pollen is produced by the _______ part of the flower.

    Male TRUE OR FALSE:

    Dominant alleles are represented by a lower case letter.

    False TRUE OR FALSE:

    Mendel's Law of Fertilization explains why alleles end up in different gamets following meioisis.

    True

    What is a characteristic that can be observed such as hair color, seed shape, flower color, etc.?

    A Trait

    What is the joining of a sperm and egg to make a zygote called?

    Fertilization

    What is a gene choice that MASKS ANOTHER choice for a trait called?

    Dominance

    What is a gene choice that is MASKED BY ANOTHER choice for a trait?

    Recessive

    What is the branch of biology called that studies how chracteristics are transmitted from parent to offspring?

    Genetics

    What is the passing of characteristics from parent to offspring called?

    Heredity

    What is an alternative choice for a gene called (such as brown, green, or blue eyes)?

    Allele

    What is an organism that produces offspring identical to itself if self-pollinated?

    True breeding

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