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    the act of getting information out of memory storage and back into conscious awareness is known as ________.

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    How Memory Functions – Psychology

    HOW MEMORY FUNCTIONS

    Learning Objectives

    By the end of this section, you will be able to:

    Discuss the three basic functions of memory

    Describe the three stages of memory storage

    Describe and distinguish between procedural and declarative memory and semantic and episodic memory

    Memory is an information processing system; therefore, we often compare it to a computer. Memory is the set of processes used to encode, store, and retrieve information over different periods of time.

    Encoding involves the input of information into the memory system. Storage is the retention of the encoded information. Retrieval, or getting the information out of memory and back into awareness, is the third function.

    Watch this video for more information on some unexpected facts about memory.

    ENCODING

    We get information into our brains through a process called encoding, which is the input of information into the memory system. Once we receive sensory information from the environment, our brains label or code it. We organize the information with other similar information and connect new concepts to existing concepts. Encoding information occurs through automatic processing and effortful processing.

    If someone asks you what you ate for lunch today, more than likely you could recall this information quite easily. This is known as automatic processing, or the encoding of details like time, space, frequency, and the meaning of words. Automatic processing is usually done without any conscious awareness. Recalling the last time you studied for a test is another example of automatic processing. But what about the actual test material you studied? It probably required a lot of work and attention on your part in order to encode that information. This is known as effortful processing.

    When you first learn new skills such as driving a car, you have to put forth effort and attention to encode information about how to start a car, how to brake, how to handle a turn, and so on. Once you know how to drive, you can encode additional information about this skill automatically. (credit: Robert Couse-Baker)

    What are the most effective ways to ensure that important memories are well encoded? Even a simple sentence is easier to recall when it is meaningful (Anderson, 1984). Read the following sentences (Bransford & McCarrell, 1974), then look away and count backwards from 30 by threes to zero, and then try to write down the sentences (no peeking back at this page!).

    The notes were sour because the seams split.

    The voyage wasn’t delayed because the bottle shattered.

    The haystack was important because the cloth ripped.

    How well did you do? By themselves, the statements that you wrote down were most likely confusing and difficult for you to recall. Now, try writing them again, using the following prompts: bagpipe, ship christening, and parachutist. Next count backwards from 40 by fours, then check yourself to see how well you recalled the sentences this time. You can see that the sentences are now much more memorable because each of the sentences was placed in context. Material is far better encoded when you make it meaningful.

    There are three types of encoding. The encoding of words and their meaning is known as semantic encoding. It was first demonstrated by William Bousfield (1935) in an experiment in which he asked people to memorize words. The 60 words were actually divided into 4 categories of meaning, although the participants did not know this because the words were randomly presented. When they were asked to remember the words, they tended to recall them in categories, showing that they paid attention to the meanings of the words as they learned them.

    Visual encoding is the encoding of images, and acoustic encoding is the encoding of sounds, words in particular. To see how visual encoding works, read over this list of words: car, level, dog, truth, book, value. If you were asked later to recall the words from this list, which ones do you think you’d most likely remember? You would probably have an easier time recalling the words car, dog, and book, and a more difficult time recalling the words level, truth, and value. Why is this? Because you can recall images (mental pictures) more easily than words alone. When you read the words car, dog, and book you created images of these things in your mind. These are concrete, high-imagery words. On the other hand, abstract words like level, truth, and value are low-imagery words. High-imagery words are encoded both visually and semantically (Paivio, 1986), thus building a stronger memory.

    Now let’s turn our attention to acoustic encoding. You are driving in your car and a song comes on the radio that you haven’t heard in at least 10 years, but you sing along, recalling every word. In the United States, children often learn the alphabet through song, and they learn the number of days in each month through rhyme: “Thirty days hath September, / April, June, and November; / All the rest have thirty-one, / Save February, with twenty-eight days clear, / And twenty-nine each leap year.” These lessons are easy to remember because of acoustic encoding. We encode the sounds the words make. This is one of the reasons why much of what we teach young children is done through song, rhyme, and rhythm.

    Source : opentextbc.ca

    Retrieval

    Retrieval

    LEARNING OBJECTIVES

    Explain retrieval cues and define recall, recognition, and relearning

    So you have worked hard to encode (via effortful processing) and store some important information for your upcoming final exam. How do you get that information back out of storage when you need it? The act of getting information out of memory storage and back into conscious awareness is known as retrieval. This would be similar to finding and opening a paper you had previously saved on your computer’s hard drive. Now it’s back on your desktop, and you can work with it again. Our ability to retrieve information from long-term memory is vital to our everyday functioning. You must be able to retrieve information from memory in order to do everything from knowing how to brush your hair and teeth, to driving to work, to knowing how to perform your job once you get there.

    Psychologists distinguish information that is available in memory from that which is accessible (Tulving & Pearlstone, 1966). Available information is the information that is stored in memory—but precisely how much and what types are stored cannot be known. That is, all we can know is what information we can retrieve—accessible information. The assumption is that accessible information represents only a tiny slice of the information available in our brains. Most of us have had the experience of trying to remember some fact or event, giving up, and then—all of a sudden!—it comes to us at a later time, even after we’ve stopped trying to remember it. Similarly, we all know the experience of failing to recall a fact, but then, if we are given several choices (as in a multiple-choice test), we are easily able to recognize it.

    Figure 1. We can’t know the entirety of what is in our memory, but only that portion we can actually retrieve. Something that cannot be retrieved now and which is seemingly gone from memory may, with different cues applied, reemerge. [Photo: sean dreilinger]

    Memory Cues

    What factors determine what information can be retrieved from memory? One critical factor is the type of hints, or cues, in the environment. You may hear a song on the radio that suddenly evokes memories of an earlier time in your life, even if you were not trying to remember it when the song came on. Nevertheless, the song is closely associated with that time, so it brings the experience to mind.

    The general principle that underlies the effectiveness of retrieval cues is the encoding specificity principle (Tulving & Thomson, 1973): when people encode information, they do so in specific ways. For example, take the song on the radio: perhaps you heard it while you were at a terrific party, having a great, philosophical conversation with a friend. Thus, the song became part of that whole complex experience. Years later, even though you haven’t thought about that party in ages, when you hear the song on the radio, the whole experience rushes back to you. In general, the encoding specificity principle states that, to the extent a retrieval cue (the song) matches or overlaps the memory trace of an experience (the party, the conversation), it will be effective in evoking the memory. A classic experiment on the encoding specificity principle had participants memorize a set of words in a unique setting. Later, the participants were tested on the word sets, either in the same location they learned the words or a different one. As a result of encoding specificity, the students who took the test in the same place they learned the words were actually able to recall more words (Godden & Baddeley, 1975) than the students who took the test in a new setting. In this instance, the physical context itself provided cues for retrieval. This is why it’s good to study for midterms and finals in the same room you’ll be taking them in.

    One caution with this principle, though, is that, for the cue to work, it can’t match too many other experiences (Nairne, 2002; Watkins, 1975). Consider a lab experiment. Suppose you study 100 items; 99 are words, and one is a picture—of a penguin, item 50 in the list. Afterwards, the cue “recall the picture” would evoke “penguin” perfectly. No one would miss it. However, if the word “penguin” were placed in the same spot among the other 99 words, its memorability would be exceptionally worse. This outcome shows the power of distinctiveness: one picture is perfectly recalled from among 99 words because it stands out. Now consider what would happen if the experiment were repeated, but there were 25 pictures distributed within the 100-item list. Although the picture of the penguin would still be there, the probability that the cue “recall the picture” (at item 50) would be useful for the penguin would drop correspondingly. Watkins (1975) referred to this outcome as demonstrating the cue overload principle. That is, to be effective, a retrieval cue cannot be overloaded with too many memories. For the cue “recall the picture” to be effective, it should only match one item in the target set (as in the one-picture, 99-word case).

    To sum up how memory cues function: for a retrieval cue to be effective, a match must exist between the cue and the desired target memory; furthermore, to produce the best retrieval, the cue-target relationship should be distinctive.

    Source : courses.lumenlearning.com

    Psychology Chapter 8 Flashcards

    Start studying Psychology Chapter 8. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Psychology Chapter 8

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    Ben is asked to memorize the words canine, feline, and avian. He remembers the words by associating them with their synonyms: dog, cat, and bird. This is an example of ________ encoding.

    A. acoustic B. semantic C. sensory D. visual

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    semantic

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    What is the set of processes used to encode, store, and retrieve information over different periods of time?

    A. automatic processing

    B. effortful processing

    C. memory D. sensory encoding

    Click card to see definition 👆

    memory

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/80 Created by Amy_Rogers63

    Terms in this set (80)

    Ben is asked to memorize the words canine, feline, and avian. He remembers the words by associating them with their synonyms: dog, cat, and bird. This is an example of ________ encoding.

    A. acoustic B. semantic C. sensory D. visual semantic

    What is the set of processes used to encode, store, and retrieve information over different periods of time?

    A. automatic processing

    B. effortful processing

    C. memory D. sensory encoding memory

    Encoding information occurs through ________.

    A. automatic processing and effortful storing

    B. automatic storing and effortful retrieving

    C. processing and storing

    D. storing and retrieving

    automatic processing and effortful storing

    Felipe looks over his presentation, and he notices that some of the words are written in bold and some are written in italic. His ability to remember these differences is an example of ________ encoding.

    A. acoustic B. semantic C. sensory D. visual visual

    What should be changed to make the following sentence true? There are three types of encoding: semantic, visual, and sensory.

    A. change the word "encoding" to the word "decoding"

    B. change the word "semantic" to the word "memory"

    C. change the word "sensory" to the word "acoustic"

    D. change the word "visual" to the word "acoustic"

    change the word "sensory" to the word "acoustic"

    The encoding of words and their meaning is known as ________ encoding.

    A. acoustic B. effortful C. semantic D. visual semantic

    Pan finds it difficult to learn the alphabet, until he hears the alphabet song. Then he can easily remember it. This is an example of ________ encoding.

    A. acoustic B. semantic C. sensory D. visual acoustic

    What is the tendency for an individual to have better memory for information that relates to oneself in comparison to material that has less personal relevance?

    A. Atkinson-Shiffrin model

    B. self-reference effect

    C. sensory memory D. Stroop effect

    self-reference effect

    In order for a memory to go into storage (i.e., long-term memory), it has to pass through three distinct stages: sensory memory, short-term memory, and ________ memory.

    A. encoded B. long-term C. sensory D. visual long-term

    ________ encoding is the encoding of images.

    A. acoustic B. effortful C. semantic D. visual visual

    According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, ________.

    A. colors are more easily named when they appear printed in that color

    B. happy memories are processed better than sad memories

    C. memories are processed the same way that a computer processes information

    D. short-term memory itself has different forms

    memories are processed the same way that a computer processes information

    What type of memories do we consciously try to remember and recall?

    A. explicit memories

    B. implicit memories

    C. sensory memories

    D. short-term memories

    explicit memories

    What is procedural memory?

    A. information about events we have personally experienced

    B. knowledge about words, concepts, and language-based knowledge and facts

    C. storage of facts and events we personally experienced

    D. type of implicit memory that stores information about how to do things

    type of implicit memory that stores information about how to do things

    ________ encoding is the encoding of sounds.

    A. acoustic B. effortful C. semantic D. visual acoustic

    The act of getting information out of memory storage and back into conscious awareness is known as ________.

    A. encoding B. hyperthymesia D. retrieval C. storage retrieval

    According to Baddeley and Hitch, ________.

    A. animals process memories the same way as people

    B. short-term memory itself has different forms

    C. people process happy memories better than sad memories

    D. people will name a color more easily if it appears printed in that color

    short-term memory itself has different forms

    What is semantic memory?

    A. information about events we have personally experienced

    B. knowledge about words, concepts, and language-based knowledge and facts

    C. storage of facts and events we personally experienced

    D. type of implicit memory that stores information about how to do things

    knowledge about words, concepts, and language- based knowledge and facts

    What kind of memory involves storage of brief events, such as sights, sounds, and tastes?

    Source : quizlet.com

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