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    Sun Salutation

    Sun Salutation

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    Sculpture of the 12 asanas of one form of the Sun Salutation[a] in Indira Gandhi Airport, Delhi[1] (figures sculpted by Nikhil Bhandari)

    Sun Salutation or Salute to the Sun (Surya Namaskar: Sanskrit: सूर्यनमस्कार, romanized: ),[2] is a practice in yoga as exercise incorporating a flow sequence of some twelve gracefully linked asanas.[3][4] The asana sequence was first recorded as yoga in the early 20th century, though similar exercises were in use in India before that, for example among wrestlers. The basic sequence involves moving from a standing position into Downward and Upward Dog poses and then back to the standing position, but many variations are possible. The set of 12 asanas is dedicated to the Hindu solar deity Surya. In some Indian traditions, the positions are each associated with a different mantra.

    The precise origins of the Sun Salutation are uncertain, but the sequence was made popular in the early 20th century by Bhawanrao Shriniwasrao Pant Pratinidhi, the Rajah of Aundh, and adopted into yoga by Krishnamacharya in the Mysore Palace, where the Sun Salutation classes, not then considered to be yoga, were held next door to his yogasala. Pioneering yoga teachers taught by Krishnamacharya, including Pattabhi Jois and B. K. S. Iyengar, taught transitions between asanas derived from the Sun Salutation to their pupils worldwide.


    1 Etymology and origins

    2 Description 3 Mantras 4 Variations

    4.1 Inserting other asanas

    4.2 Chandra Namaskar

    5 As exercise 6 Muscle usage 7 In culture 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 10.1 Sources 11 External links

    Etymology and origins[edit]

    Bhawanrao Shriniwasrao Pant Pratinidhi provided this double-page guide to the Sun Salutation at the back of his 1928 book as well as in the body of the text, stating that it could be removed for use without damaging the text of the book.[5][6]

    The name Surya Namaskar is from the Sanskrit सूर्य , "Sun" and नमस्कार , "Greeting" or "Salute".[7] Surya is the Hindu demigod of the sun.[8] This identifies the Sun as the soul and source of all life.[9] Chandra Namaskar is similarly from Sanskrit चन्द्र , "Moon".[10]

    The origins of the Sun Salutation are vague; Indian tradition connects the 17th century saint Samarth Ramdas with Surya Namaskar exercises, without defining what movements were involved.[11] In the 1920s, Bhawanrao Shriniwasrao Pant Pratinidhi, the Rajah of Aundh, popularized and named the practice, describing it in his 1928 book .[5][6][12][13] It has been asserted that Pant Pratinidhi invented it,[14] but Pant stated that it was already a commonplace Marathi tradition.[15]

    Ancient but simpler Sun salutations such as Aditya Hridayam, described in the "Yuddha Kaanda" Canto 107 of the ,[16][17][18] are not related to the modern sequence.[19] The anthropologist Joseph Alter states that the Sun Salutation was not recorded in any Haṭha yoga text before the 19th century.[20] At that time, the Sun Salutation was not considered to be yoga, and its postures were not considered asanas; the pioneer of yoga as exercise, Yogendra, wrote criticising the "indiscriminate" mixing of sun salutation with yoga as the "ill-informed" were doing.[6]

    Elliott Goldberg called Vishnudevananda's 1960 sequence (positions 5 to 8 shown) a "new utilitarian conception of Surya Namaskar", rejecting his guru Sivananda's view of it as a health cure.[21]

    The yoga scholar-practitioner Norman Sjoman suggested that Krishnamacharya, "the father of modern yoga",[22][23] used the traditional and "very old"[24] Indian wrestlers' exercises called (Sanskrit: दण्ड , a staff), described in the 1896 ,[25] as the basis for the sequence and for his transitioning vinyasas.[24] Different closely resemble the Sun Salutation asanas Tadasana, Padahastasana, Caturanga Dandasana, and Bhujangasana.[24] Krishnamacharya was aware of the Sun Salutation, since regular classes were held in the hall adjacent to his Yogasala in the Rajah of Mysore's palace.[26] The yoga scholar Mark Singleton states that "Krishnamacharya was to make the flowing movements of the basis of his Mysore yoga style".[27] His students, K. Pattabhi Jois,[28] who created modern day Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga,[29] and B. K. S. Iyengar, who created Iyengar Yoga, both learned Sun Salutation and flowing vinyasa movements between asanas from Krishnamacharya and used them in their styles of yoga.[26]

    The historian of modern yoga Elliott Goldberg writes that Vishnudevananda's 1960 book "proclaimed in print" a "new utilitarian conception of Surya Namaskar"[21][30] which his guru Sivananda had originally promoted as a health cure through sunlight. Goldberg notes that Vishnudevananda modelled the positions of the Sun Salutation for photographs in the book, and that he recognised the sequence "for what it mainly is: not treatment for a host of diseases but fitness exercise."[21]

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    [Answer] Sun salutations are a series of asanas used to do what?

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    [Answer] Sun salutations are a series of asanas used to do what?

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    ...Surya namaskar, or sun salutations, can be done both at the start of a yoga sequence or on their own. When doing this sequence, it’s best to face either the rising or setting sun, depending on the time of day it is performed. Above all, it’s important to do these poses with gratitude to create the best experience.

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    How to Do a Sun Salutation: Key Yoga Tips

    Sun Salutations, or Surya Namaskars, are twelve-posture sequences of flowing motion that offer an entire body stretch. Learn proper sun salutation techniques.


    How to Practice a Traditional Sun Salutation in Yoga

    Written by the MasterClass staff

    Last updated: Feb 24, 2022 • 4 min read

    Teaches Yoga Foundations

    In traditional yoga practices, Surya Namaskars, or Sun Salutations, are practiced early in the morning to greet the sun, at the end of the day during sunset, as its own physical exercise at any time of day, or the beginning of practice as a full-body warm-up.

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    What Is a Sun Salutation?

    How to Perform a Traditional Sun Salutation Sequence

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    What Is a Sun Salutation?

    Sun Salutations, also called Surya Namaskars or "Sun Salutes" by yogi practitioners, are a 12-posture sequence of flowing movements that offer an entire body stretch, counterbalancing bending of the spine, and an opening of the heart, shoulders, and chest. In Sanskrit, Surya Namaskar means "sun" (Surya) and "to bow down" or "adore." (Namaskar)

    Traditionally, the series is practiced facing the east at sunrise or west at sunset and focuses on Pranayama (breathwork), asana (movement), mantra (chanting), and chakra (energy center) awareness. In the West, the series is commonly practiced as a warm-up at the beginning of a yoga class. The yoga teacher will then lead students through one of the many variations of this sequence.

    When you practice this series regularly, you can increase your flexibility and overall well-being. When focusing on preceding breath to movement and flowing gracefully from one pose to the next, you will move from practicing physical asana to practicing a moving meditation.

    How to Perform a Traditional Sun Salutation Sequence

    Practice this series at least twice, with each foot leading the way once. Always breathe in and out through the nose, and focus on breath coordination when transitioning between poses. Here is a step-by-step guide to the most traditional Hatha yoga version of the Sun Salutation classically taught in India:

    1. Start in mountain pose (Tadasana). Begin on your yoga mat in Tadasana, rooting all four corners of your feet to the ground, stand tall, roll your shoulders back, and maintain awareness of your breath.

    2. Move into prayer pose (Pranamasana). Bring your hands together at your heart in Anjali mudra. The thumbs are pressed lightly against the sternum, and each hand is equally pressing against the other with fingers spread wide.

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