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    Select the correctly ordered list of psychological perspectives, with the earliest perspective listed first.

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    C. structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, humanism

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    Which of the following defines hypothesis?

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    C. tentative explanation

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    Terms in this set (20)

    Select the correctly ordered list of psychological perspectives, with the earliest perspective listed first.

    C. structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, humanism

    Which of the following defines hypothesis?

    C. tentative explanation

    William James was the ________.

    C. first American psychologist

    Psychology is a social science discipline. Psychologists scientifically study ________.

    C. the mind and behavior

    Ashya wants to focus on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and other problematic patterns of behavior. What area of psychology should she work in?

    clinical psychology

    Penelope studies how the structure and function of the nervous system is related to behavior. She is a ________.

    A. biopsychologist

    Who was the first person referred to as a psychologist?

    C. Wilhelm Wundt

    Lucy wants to study changes in cognitive skills, moral reasoning, and social behavior across the lifespan. Lucy should specialize in ________ psychology.

    B. developmental

    Which kind of psychological area does the work of Jean Piaget exemplify?

    developmental psychology

    Psychoanalytic theory focuses on ________ and early childhood experiences.

    a person's unconsciou

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    What is the correct chronological order of the following perspectives of psychology, from past to present? 1: Behaviorism 2: Psychoanalysis 3: Structuralism 4: Humanism

    Answer to: What is the correct chronological order of the following perspectives of psychology, from past to present? 1: Behaviorism 2: Psychoanalysis 3:...

    Psychology

    What is the correct chronological order of the following perspectives of psychology, from past to...

    What is the correct chronological order of the following perspectives of psychology, from past to... Question:

    What is the correct chronological order of the following perspectives of psychology, from past to present?

    1: Behaviorism 2: Psychoanalysis 3: Structuralism 4: Humanism

    Approaches in Psychology:

    Psychology includes vast interpretations surrounding behavior, thought processes, emotion, motivation, and approaches to therapy. Psychotherapy often uses a specific psychological approach, based on research and theory, to influence a person's mental state.

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    The correct chronological order is 3: Structuralism, 2: Psychoanalysis, 1: Behaviorism, 4: Humanism.

    In the second half of the 19th century,...

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    Psychology Perspectives

    Psychology Perspectives

    By Dr. Saul McLeod, updated 2013

    There are various approaches in contemporary psychology.

    An approach is a perspective (i.e., view) that involves certain assumptions (i.e., beliefs) about human behavior: the way they function, which aspects of them are worthy of study and what research methods are appropriate for undertaking this study.

    There may be several different theories within an approach, but they all share these common assumptions.

    The five major perspectives in psychology are biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive and humanistic.

    You may wonder why there are so many different psychology approaches and whether one approach is correct and others wrong.

    Most psychologists would agree that no one approach is correct, although in the past, in the early days of psychology, the behaviorist would have said their perspective was the only truly scientific one.

    Each approach has its strengths and weaknesses, and brings something different to our understanding of human behavior.  For this reason, it is important that psychology does have different perspectives on the understanding and study of human and animal behavior.

    Below is a summary of the six main psychological approaches (sometimes called perspectives) in psychology.

    Behaviorist Perspective

    If your layperson's idea of psychology has always been about people in laboratories wearing white coats and watching hapless rats try to negotiate mazes in order to get to their dinner, then you are probably thinking about behavioral psychology.

    Behaviorism is different from most other approaches because they view people (and animals) as controlled by their environment and specifically that we are the result of what we have learned from our environment. The behaviorist perspective is concerned with how environmental factors (called stimuli) affect observable behavior (called the response).

    The behaviorist perspective proposes two main processes whereby people learn from their environment: namely classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning involves learning by association, and operant conditioning involves learning from the consequences of behavior.

    Classical conditioning (CC) was studied by the Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov. Though looking into natural reflexes and neutral stimuli he managed to condition dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell through repeated associated with the sound of the bell and food.

    The principles of CC have been applied in many therapies. These include systematic desensitization for phobias (step-by-step exposed to a feared stimulus at once) and aversion therapy.

    B.F. Skinner investigated operant conditioning of voluntary and involuntary behavior. Skinner felt that some behavior could be explained by the person's motive. Therefore behavior occurs for a reason, and the three main behavior shaping techniques are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment.

    Behaviorism also believes in scientific methodology (e.g., controlled experiments), and that only observable behavior should be studied because this can be objectively measured. Behaviorism rejects the idea that people have free will, and believes that the environment determines all behavior. Behaviorism is the scientific study of observable behavior working on the basis that behavior can be reduced to learned S-R (Stimulus-Response) units.

    Behaviorism has been criticized in the way it under-estimates the complexity of human behavior. Many studies used animals which are hard to generalize to humans, and it cannot explain, for example, the speed in which we pick up language. There must be biological factors involved.

    Psychodynamic Perspective

    Who hasn't heard of Sigmund Freud? So many expressions of our daily life come from Freud's theories of psychoanalysis - subconscious, denial, repression and anal personality to name only a few.

    Freud believes that events in our childhood can have a significant impact on our behavior as adults. He also believed that people have little free will to make choices in life. Instead, our behavior is determined by the unconscious mind and childhood experiences.

    Freud’s psychoanalysis is both a theory and therapy. It is the original psychodynamic theory and inspired psychologists such as Jung and Erikson to develop their own psychodynamic theories. Freud’s work is vast, and he has contributed greatly to psychology as a discipline.

    Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, explained the human mind as like an iceberg, with only a small amount of it being visible, that is our observable behavior, but it is the unconscious, submerged mind that has the most, underlying influence on our behavior. Freud used three main methods of accessing the unconscious mind: free association, dream analysis and slips of the tongue.

    He believed that the unconscious mind consisted of three components: the 'id' the 'ego' and the 'superego.'  The 'id' contains two main instincts: 'Eros', which is the life instinct, which involves self-preservation and sex which is fuelled by the 'libido' energy force. 'Thanatos' is the death instinct, whose energies, because they are less powerful than those of 'Eros' are channeled away from ourselves and into aggression towards others.

    Source : www.simplypsychology.org

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