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    Responding to a substance, such as a sugar pill or a saline injection, as if it were the real drug is referred to as a. the placebo effect. b. an anthropomorphic error. c. the somatization variable. d. a psychosomatic complication.

    Answer to: Responding to a substance, such as a sugar pill or a saline injection, as if it were the real drug is referred to as a. the placebo effect. b....


    Responding to a substance, such as a sugar pill or a saline injection, as if it were the real...

    Responding to a substance, such as a sugar pill or a saline injection, as if it were the real... Question:

    Responding to a substance, such as a sugar pill or a saline injection, as if it were the real drug is referred to as

    a. the placebo effect.

    b. an anthropomorphic error.

    c. the somatization variable.

    d. a psychosomatic complication.


    Doctors would apply drugs to individuals for several reasons, such as to remedy an illness (the obvious use case), to test out medications (equally relevant), or to subdue a crazy individual.

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    What is a Placebo? - Definition & Explanation


    Chapter 2 / Lesson 11


    This lesson defines placebo and placebo effect. It also brings examples of research and study designs involving the inactive substance.

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    The Placebo Effect: What Is It?

    WebMD explains what the placebo effect is, how it works, and its potential benefits for medical treatment.

    Pain Management Reference


    What Is the Placebo Effect?

    By Joseph Saling

    Medically Reviewed by Carol DerSarkissian, MD on February 08, 2022

    A placebo is anything that seems to be a "real" medical treatment -- but isn't. It could be a pill, a shot, or some other type of "fake" treatment. What all placebos have in common is that they do not contain an active substance meant to affect health.

    How Are Placebos Used?

    Researchers use placebos during studies to help them understand what effect a new drug or some other treatment might have on a particular condition.

    For instance, some people in a study might be given a new drug to lower cholesterol. Others would get a placebo. None of the people in the study will know if they got the real treatment or the placebo.

    Researchers then compare the effects of the drug and the placebo on the people in the study. That way, they can determine the effectiveness of the new drug and check for side effects.

    What Is the Placebo Effect?

    Sometimes a person can have a response to a placebo. The response can be positive or negative. For instance, the person's symptoms may improve. Or the person may have what appears to be side effects from the treatment. These responses are known as the "placebo effect."

    There are some conditions in which a placebo can produce results even when people know they are taking a placebo. Studies show that placebos can have an effect on conditions such as:

    Depression Pain Sleep disorders

    Irritable bowel syndrome


    In one study involving asthma, people using a placebo inhaler did no better on breathing tests than sitting and doing nothing. But when researchers asked for people's perception of how they felt, the placebo inhaler was reported as being as effective as medicine in providing relief.

    How Does the Placebo Effect Work?

    Research on the placebo effect has focused on the relationship of mind and body. One of the most common theories is that the placebo effect is due to a person's expectations. If a person expects a pill to do something, then it's possible that the body's own chemistry can cause effects similar to what a medication might have caused.

    For instance, in one study, people were given a placebo and told it was a stimulant. After taking the pill, their pulse rate sped up, their blood pressure increased, and their reaction speeds improved. When people were given the same pill and told it was to help them get to sleep, they experienced the opposite effects.

    Experts also say that there is a relationship between how strongly a person expects to have results and whether or not results occur. The stronger the feeling, the more likely it is that a person will experience positive effects. There may be a profound effect due to the interaction between a patient and healthcare provider.

    The same appears to be true for negative effects. If people expect to have side effects such as headaches, nausea, or drowsiness, there is a greater chance of those reactions happening.

    The fact that the placebo effect is tied to expectations doesn't make it imaginary or fake. Some studies show that there are actual physical changes that occur with the placebo effect. For instance, some studies have documented an increase in the body's production of endorphins, one of the body's natural pain relievers.

    One problem with the placebo effect is that it can be difficult to distinguish from the actual effects of a real drug during a study. Finding ways to distinguish between the placebo effect and the effect of treatment may help improve the treatment and lower the cost of drug testing. And more study may also lead to ways to use the power of the placebo effect in treating disease.


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    Research Methods Flashcards

    this counts for 8-10% on the AP exam Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.

    Research Methods

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    A psychologist using the method of naturalistic observation would

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    observe behavior as it happens outside the laboratory or clinic.

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    In a study of effects of alcohol on driving ability, the control group should be given

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    no alcohol at all.

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    1/89 Created by Kayla0wen

    this counts for 8-10% on the AP exam

    Terms in this set (89)

    A psychologist using the method of naturalistic observation would

    observe behavior as it happens outside the laboratory or clinic.

    In a study of effects of alcohol on driving ability, the control group should be given

    no alcohol at all.

    A scientific explanation that remains tentative until it has been adequately tested is called a(n)


    A study to determine the degree of relationship between two events is called

    the correlational method.

    __________ is an ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize information.

    Critical thinking

    The phrase "a theory must also be falsifiable" means

    a theory must be defined so it can be disconfirmed.

    The products of naturalistic observation are best described in terms of


    A teacher believes that one group of children is very bright and that a second is below average in ability. Actually, the groups are identical, but the first group progresses more rapidly than the second. This demonstrates

    the self fulfilling prophecy.

    A psychologist observes the confrontation between two rival neighborhood gangs from the window of an abandoned building. This method of collecting observations is best described as

    naturalistic observation.

    In an experiment to find out if taking ginseng increases IQ scores, the IQ scores would be

    the dependent variable.

    Which of the following is considered a disadvantage of naturalistic observation?

    It does not identify the cause of observed behavior.

    Subjects are said to be assigned randomly when

    they each have an equal chance of being assigned to either the experimental or control group.

    A psychologist watches the rapid eye movements of sleeping subjects and wakes them to find they report that they were dreaming. She concludes that dreams are linked to rapid eye movements. This conclusion is based on

    deduction from direct observation.

    To prevent ethical abuse in psychological research, the APA has suggested that

    psychologists must treat all subjects with respect and concern for the subject's dignity.

    A common method for selecting representative samples is to select them

    randomly from the larger population.

    Three major ethical concerns of psychological researchers are deception, lasting harm to subjects, and

    invasion of privacy.

    An experimenter conducts an experiment on the effects of a drug to control hallucinations. He declares the results to be "statistically significant," which usually means that

    differences between experimental and control groups of this size occur by chance only 5 times out of 100 (or less).

    We wish to test the hypothesis that music improves learning. We compare test scores of students who study to music with those who study in silence. Which of the following is an extraneous variable in this experiment?

    the amount of time allowed for the studying

    The statistical technique that combines results of a large number of studies is called

    meta analysis.

    An experiment is performed to see if background music improves learning. Two groups study the same material, one while listening to music and another without music. The independent variable is


    The chief function of the control group in an experiment is that it

    provides a point of reference against which the behavior of the experimental group can be compared.

    What two coefficients of correlation indicates the strongest relationship between two sets of variables?

    -1or 1

    The most powerful research tool is a (an)


    A major disadvantage of the experimental method is that

    there is a certain amount of artificiality attached to it.

    A researcher determines that the crime rate in a large city fluctuates with the phases of the moon. He concludes that the gravitational pull of the moon influences human behavior. He has committed what error?

    He incorrectly inferred causation from correlation.

    Students who do better in high school tend to do better in college. This is an example of a ____ correlation.


    In the traditional learning experiment, the effect of practice on performance is investigated. Performance is the __________ variable.


    Collection of observable evidence, precise definition, and replication of results all form the basis for

    the scientific method.

    An advantage of the experimental method in psychology is

    the identification of a cause and effect relationship.

    A correlation coefficient of 0 means that there is

    no relationship between the two variables.

    The independent variable in an experiment is

    the variable that the experimenter chooses to manipulate.

    In order to summarize or organize a series of observations in some meaningful way, psychologists may develop

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