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    read the excerpt from a letter. parkour, also known as free running, is becoming a popular sport. the object of parkour is to navigate obstacles using fluid, efficient movement. athletes run through urban areas using gymnastic-type leaps and jumps to move over and around walls, ledges, and other barricades. the sport’s name originates from parcours du combattant, an obstacle course used to train soldiers in the french army. what is the author’s purpose? to entertain the reader with an interesting story to provide examples of parkour movements to educate the reader about a popular sport to persuade readers that parkour is dangerous

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    Guys, does anyone know the answer?

    get read the excerpt from a letter. parkour, also known as free running, is becoming a popular sport. the object of parkour is to navigate obstacles using fluid, efficient movement. athletes run through urban areas using gymnastic-type leaps and jumps to move over and around walls, ledges, and other barricades. the sport’s name originates from parcours du combattant, an obstacle course used to train soldiers in the french army. what is the author’s purpose? to entertain the reader with an interesting story to provide examples of parkour movements to educate the reader about a popular sport to persuade readers that parkour is dangerous from EN Bilgi.

    The science of parkour, the sport that seems reckless but takes poise and skill

    Run, leap, scramble…it’s parkour! Science can help you run up walls more efficiently, and chose the best way to land from a height.

    James L Croft, Edith Cowan University

    People climbing up walls and jumping off buildings in films such as Brick Mansions, Assassin’s Creed, and Casino Royal aren’t tricks of cinema.

    The athletes that perform these stunts are part of a global community that practise parkour – a gymnastics-like activity that developed from military obstacle courses. The objective of parkour is to move rapidly and effectively through a complex physical environment.

    Our research shows that science can help you practise better parkour – through running up walls more efficiently, and expanding your landing options.

    Even if you don’t plan to take up the sport, it’s an incredible thing to watch.

    This is parkour.

    Traceurs and traceuses

    Although parkour has been recognised as an official sport in some countries, it’s impossible to determine how many people are involved worldwide. It’s an activity that is generally unorganised, which may be part of its sub-culture appeal.

    To a casual observer, parkour athletes may appear reckless – but most train very hard, practising a broad set of individual skills that they use as they run through the environment. Men and women in the sport are referred to as “traceurs” and “traceuses” respectively.

    Some of the individual movements in parkour parallel those of other sports, such as gymnastics, athletics, and trail running.

    But much less research has been done on parkour than on more mainstream sports. This is unfortunate because they shared fundamental principles of generating and redirecting momentum. A better understanding of these can benefit all of these activities.

    A woman who does parkour is called a traceuse.

    Running up walls

    One impressive feat that catches the eye of many parkour observers is the way traceurs run up high walls to get onto buildings.

    To climb high structures, parkour athletes run toward the wall and then kick off it with one (or more) contacts. This technique allows them to reach much higher than using a standing vertical jump, and also allows them to keep moving efficiently through the urban environment.

    To investigate how athletes accomplish this wall run efficiently we embedded a force plate in the ground and a second force plate in the wall. We then filmed study participants as they approached the wall.

    We watched how the athletes redirected their body by using a consistent transition strategy that depended on specific actions of the legs on the floor and wall.

    Although some parkour guides recommend athletes straddle the floor and wall simultaneously, we did not observe this – the traceurs always left the floor before they contacted the wall.

    Testing the launching capability of a traceur performing parkour. James Croft, Author provided

    Redirecting momentum

    We wanted to better understand the most efficient foot placement on the ground and the wall, and the effect of different approach speeds. So we built a computer simulation that could optimise each.

    The model corresponded well with what we observed – an intermediate run-up speed is best – and allowed us to understand why.

    During the run up you create horizontal momentum (the product of speed and body weight). Some of this horizontal momentum can be redirected into vertical momentum at take-off by keeping the leg on the ground rigid – a bit like a pole vault with a rigid pole.

    If the approach run is slow there is less horizontal momentum to transfer to vertical momentum. Then the take-off leg has to create vertical momentum by using the leg muscles – which is less efficient.

    With a very fast run-up, the take-off leg must act as a shock absorber, which wastes energy and wipes out the benefits of a faster approach.

    So, traceurs naturally select an intermediate run-up speed, allowing them to use the least amount of energy to scale the wall.

    To scale higher walls a faster approach may be required, but this also requires an ability to generate sufficient leg force. Greater speed does provide greater momentum but it also reduces the time available for the leg to generate the impulse (the product of force and time) necessary to scale the wall.

    Parkour involves strategic transfer of force and momentum. objetivarte/flickr, CC BY

    Returning to ground

    What goes up must come down!

    Our research on jumping off walls shows that the type of landing that traceurs choose is influenced by their height, body mass, and leg power.

    Landing safely involves managing a number of different forces. Imagine you step or jump off an object – your body accelerates due to gravity. Upon landing, your body has a certain momentum that is determined by your weight and your speed. And the higher the object you jump off, the faster your landing speed and vertical momentum prior to landing.

    The main task in landing is to dissipate your momentum in a way in which the load and speed (making up the accumulated energy level) do not exceed biological limits (leading to a muscle tear or tendon rupture).

    Source : theconversation.com

    Purpose and Format in "The Leader in the Mirror" Flashcards

    Start studying Purpose and Format in "The Leader in the Mirror". Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Purpose and Format in "The Leader in the Mirror"

    3.5 8 Reviews

    To effectively compare and contrast two texts written in different genres, a reader must

    Click card to see definition 👆

    c

    Click again to see term 👆

    Read the excerpt from a letter.

    Dear Ann,

    The funniest thing happened during my ski lesson! I tried a new ski run and I was doing very well. The sun was shining and the snow was fresh. My instructor encouraged me to bring my skis closer together so I could gain a little speed. I don't know exactly what happened next, but suddenly my skis had criss-crossed and I was skiing backward!

    What is the author's purpose?

    Click card to see definition 👆

    a

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/10 Created by mhouse2

    Terms in this set (10)

    To effectively compare and contrast two texts written in different genres, a reader must

    c

    Read the excerpt from a letter.

    Dear Ann,

    The funniest thing happened during my ski lesson! I tried a new ski run and I was doing very well. The sun was shining and the snow was fresh. My instructor encouraged me to bring my skis closer together so I could gain a little speed. I don't know exactly what happened next, but suddenly my skis had criss-crossed and I was skiing backward!

    What is the author's purpose?

    a

    Read Pat Mora's poem quoted in "The Leader in the Mirror."

    Immigrants

    wrap their babies in the American flag,

    feed them mashed hot dogs and apple pie,

    name them Bill and Daisy,

    buy them blonde dolls that blink blue

    eyes or a football and tiny cleats

    before the baby can even walk,

    speak to them in thick English

    Now read the excerpt from Mora's essay "The Leader in the Mirror."

    My own father was once a paper boy for the newspaper hosting the banquet. I might not have known that fact, nor his long history of hard work, had I not been listening to him with my tape recorder a few years ago. I did not want the students to wait as long as I had to begin preserving the rich inheritance of their family voices. The strength of their heritage would give them the courage to face the future.

    How are the two passages different?

    a

    Read the excerpt from a speech.

    I hope everyone in attendance tonight will consider making a donation to the City Park Fund. This neighborhood treasure provides a safe place for children to play. It is a gathering place for summer concerts and community sporting events. City Park makes our town unique and special.

    What is the author's purpose?

    d

    Read Pat Mora's poem quoted in "The Leader in the Mirror."

    Immigrants

    wrap their babies in the American flag,

    feed them mashed hot dogs and apple pie,

    name them Bill and Daisy,

    buy them blonde dolls that blink blue

    eyes or a football and tiny cleats

    before the baby can even walk,

    speak to them in thick English

    hallo, babee, hallo,

    whisper in Spanish or Polish

    when the baby sleeps, whisper

    in a dark parent bed, that dark

    parent fear, "Will they like

    our boy, our girl, our fine american

    boy, our fine american girl?"

    Now read the excerpt from Mora's essay "The Leader in the Mirror."

    When I was growing up on the U.S. side of that border, the society around me tried in subtle and not-so-subtle ways to convince me that my Mexican heritage was inferior to that of Anglo-Americans. I hope that today's educators on the border and throughout this nation are now committed to multiculturalism, to motivating the next generation to draw on their heritage as a resource for learning. The U.S. has been described as the first international country: Our varied cultures are our common wealth.

    How are the two passages similar?

    b

    Read the excerpt from a letter.

    Parkour, also known as free running, is becoming a popular sport. The object of parkour is to navigate obstacles using fluid, efficient movement. Athletes run through urban areas using gymnastic-type leaps and jumps to move over and around walls, ledges, and other barricades. The sport's name originates from parcours du combattant, an obstacle course used to train soldiers in the French army.

    What is the author's purpose?

    c

    A is a particular form or manner of expressing ideas.

    not genre

    Which genre would most likely be used to educate a large group of people?

    d

    An author's purpose is his or her for writing.

    reason

    Read the excerpt from Pat Mora's essay "The Leader in the Mirror."

    We will continue to squander our talent if our leaders—in politics, science, business, education and the arts—do not reflect our grand variety. I urged the students (and all of us) to ponder the strength of the mountains around us, to rise to the challenges.

    What is the author's purpose in this excerpt?

    b

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    Gazans run free with parkour

    Mohammed Jakhbir leans back, braces himself, and then leaps off the roof of a Khan Younis hospital building, flipping backwards before landing on the next roof over.He whoops with delight at performing the dangerous feat, his favorite of the moves he practices with his team — the first parkour group in the Gaza Strip.Parkour, also known as free running, is an extreme sport

    Gazans run free with parkour

    Updated 07 November 2012

    AGENCE FRANCE PRESSE

    November 07, 2012 03:14

    253

    Mohammed Jakhbir leans back, braces himself, and then leaps off the roof of a Khan Younis hospital building, flipping backwards before landing on the next roof over.

    He whoops with delight at performing the dangerous feat, his favorite of the moves he practices with his team — the first parkour group in the Gaza Strip.

    Parkour, also known as free running, is an extreme sport that involves getting around or over urban obstacles as quickly as possible, using a combination of running, jumping and gymnastic moves including rolls and vaults.

    Practitioners leap from roof-to-roof, run up the side of buildings until they flip backwards, vault over park benches, or cartwheel along walls.

    In Gaza, it’s still a novelty, and as Jakhbir and four members of his 12-man crew demonstrate their skills in the grounds of the southern city’s Nasser hospital, a crowd of patients and doctors look on, some filming with their cell phones. “He’s like Spiderman!” says one onlooker as 23-year-old Jakhbir runs up a wall, seemingly defying gravity as he scales the facade. As the crowd grows, the team decides to move to a quieter spot. Their practice sessions are occasionally interrupted when onlookers call the police to complain, and they prefer to avoid having to make a run for it.

    “When we first started practicing, we could do it anywhere. But gradually we found people would complain and the police would come. It became a game, we’d practice until they arrived and then run away,” Jakhbir laughs.

    He’s been practicing parkour for seven years, ever since his friend Abdullah showed him a documentary called “Jump London.” It instantly appealed to them, and they started to learn more about the sport online.

    “We would watch clips and try to imitate the moves that we saw. Gradually we started to make our own clips,” he says. “Now sometimes people even request that we make clips to show them certain moves. It’s been a long journey for us, seven years, but now we have a real team.” Jihad Abu Sultan, 24, joined the team four years ago after seeing some of Jakhbir’s clips on YouTube.

    He had a background in both kickboxing and kung fu, but saw something different in parkour.

    “It uses physical strength more than any other sport... I was so impressed by it, especially the jumping involved,” he says.

    One of Abu Sultan’s specialties is a move in which he flips his body in a full circle with one hand resting on a wall for him to pivot around.

    He’s also an accomplished tumbler, throwing himself along the ground in a series of handsprings, rolls and twists.

    “Parkour teaches us to overcome obstacles,” he says. “It makes me feel free, it makes me feel my body is strong, that I can overcome anything.” But practicing parkour in Gaza hasn’t been easy.

    At times they’ve had to shift practice locations because the areas have been targeted by Israeli air strikes. And both Abu Sultan and Jakhbir have battled disapproval from their families.

    “At first, my parents forbade it,” admits Abu Sultan.

    “They tried to stop me, especially after I was injured, but they couldn’t. It’s in my blood.” Jakhbir’s parents told him to stop practicing parkour and find a job. He graduated with a degree in multimedia from Gaza’s Islamic University, but has been largely unemployed ever since.

    “They told me there was no future to it,” he says with frustration. “I want people to change their ideas about sports, all sports,” he adds, raising his voice.

    “They need to understand that sport is something very important. Athletes can raise Palestine’s name throughout the world.” Jakhbir and other Gaza Parkour members were able to do just that earlier this year, when an Italian group called Unione Italiana Sport Per Tutti invited them to Italy.

    “They were able to make our biggest dream come true, which was to get past the biggest obstacle of all — the Israeli checkpoint — and travel abroad,” Jakhbir says.

    The trip took them to Rome and four other Italian cities, where they met with other enthusiasts, showing off their skills and learning a few new ones.

    The parkour Gazans practice three times a week, mostly in a cemetery on the outskirts of Khan Yunis, which is quiet and usually empty.

    In between modest headstones, they practice running and tumbling, and compete to see who can hold handstands the longest. They’ve spray painted “Gaza Parkour forever” on some of the walls, but they acknowledge the team has an uncertain future.

    Jakhbir and Abu Sultan say they’d like to continue parkour professionally, and are hoping to eventually win either local or international support that would allow them to commit to the sport full time.

    “Parkour teaches us we can overcome our problems even if we fail once or twice,” says Jakhbir.

    “We have to try and we can achieve our goals in life.”

    Source : www.arabnews.com

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