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    prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have many differences, but they also share some common features. which of the following may be found in either type of cell?

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    3.2 Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells – Concepts of Biology – 1st Canadian Edition

    3.2 COMPARING PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS

    Learning Objectives

    By the end of this section, you will be able to:

    Name examples of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms

    Compare and contrast prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells

    Describe the relative sizes of different kinds of cells

    Cells fall into one of two broad categories: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. The predominantly single-celled organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea are classified as prokaryotes (pro– = before; –karyon– = nucleus). Animal cells, plant cells, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (eu– = true).

    COMPONENTS OF PROKARYOTIC CELLS

    All cells share four common components: 1) a plasma membrane, an outer covering that separates the cell’s interior from its surrounding environment; 2) cytoplasm, consisting of a jelly-like region within the cell in which other cellular components are found; 3) DNA, the genetic material of the cell; and 4) ribosomes, particles that synthesize proteins. However, prokaryotes differ from eukaryotic cells in several ways.

    A prokaryotic cell is a simple, single-celled (unicellular) organism that lacks a nucleus, or any other membrane-bound organelle. We will shortly come to see that this is significantly different in eukaryotes. Prokaryotic DNA is found in the central part of the cell: a darkened region called the nucleoid.

    Figure 3.6 This figure shows the generalized structure of a prokaryotic cell.

    Unlike Archaea and eukaryotes, bacteria have a cell wall made of peptidoglycan, comprised of sugars and amino acids, and many have a polysaccharide capsule (Figure 3.6). The cell wall acts as an extra layer of protection, helps the cell maintain its shape, and prevents dehydration. The capsule enables the cell to attach to surfaces in its environment. Some prokaryotes have flagella, pili, or fimbriae. Flagella are used for locomotion, while most pili are used to exchange genetic material during a type of reproduction called conjugation.

    EUKARYOTIC CELLS

    In nature, the relationship between form and function is apparent at all levels, including the level of the cell, and this will become clear as we explore eukaryotic cells. The principle “form follows function” is found in many contexts. For example, birds and fish have streamlined bodies that allow them to move quickly through the medium in which they live, be it air or water. It means that, in general, one can deduce the function of a structure by looking at its form, because the two are matched.

    A eukaryotic cell is a cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-bound compartments or sacs, called organelles, which have specialized functions. The word eukaryotic means “true kernel” or “true nucleus,” alluding to the presence of the membrane-bound nucleus in these cells. The word “organelle” means “little organ,” and, as already mentioned, organelles have specialized cellular functions, just as the organs of your body have specialized functions.

    CELL SIZE

    At 0.1–5.0 µm in diameter, prokaryotic cells are significantly smaller than eukaryotic cells, which have diameters ranging from 10–100 µm (Figure 3.7). The small size of prokaryotes allows ions and organic molecules that enter them to quickly spread to other parts of the cell. Similarly, any wastes produced within a prokaryotic cell can quickly move out. However, larger eukaryotic cells have evolved different structural adaptations to enhance cellular transport. Indeed, the large size of these cells would not be possible without these adaptations. In general, cell size is limited because volume increases much more quickly than does cell surface area. As a cell becomes larger, it becomes more and more difficult for the cell to acquire sufficient materials to support the processes inside the cell, because the relative size of the surface area across which materials must be transported declines.

    Figure 3.7 This figure shows the relative sizes of different kinds of cells and cellular components. An adult human is shown for comparison.

    SECTION SUMMARY

    Prokaryotes are predominantly single-celled organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea. All prokaryotes have plasma membranes, cytoplasm, ribosomes, a cell wall, DNA, and lack membrane-bound organelles. Many also have polysaccharide capsules. Prokaryotic cells range in diameter from 0.1–5.0 µm.

    Like a prokaryotic cell, a eukaryotic cell has a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes, but a eukaryotic cell is typically larger than a prokaryotic cell, has a true nucleus (meaning its DNA is surrounded by a membrane), and has other membrane-bound organelles that allow for compartmentalization of functions. Eukaryotic cells tend to be 10 to 100 times the size of prokaryotic cells.

    Exercises

    Glossary

    eukaryotic cell: a cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus and several other membrane-bound compartments or sacsorganelle: a membrane-bound compartment or sac within a cellprokaryotic cell: a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelle

    Source : opentextbc.ca

    Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Organisms

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    QUIZ

    Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Organism...

    Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Organism... 60%

    81

    Biology 5 years

    23 Qs

    1. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    These diagrams demonstrate how cells can be differentiated by their...

    answer choices modes of locomotion

    means of replication

    sizes and densities cell structures 2. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    How does the size of a eukaryotic organism normally compare to the size of a prokaryotic organism?

    answer choices

    eukaryotes are normally much smaller than prokaryotes

    eukaryotes and prokaryotes are both normally very small organims

    eukaryotes and prokaryotes are both very large organisms

    eukaryotes are much larger than prokaryotes

    3. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The life forms exhibiting the simplest cellular structure are_____.

    answer choices organelles proteins prokaryotes eukaryotes 4. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    Which of the following is true about cells?

    answer choices

    neither prokaryotes nor eukaryotes ever contain both a true nucleus that is well-defined and organelles that are separated from the cytoplasm by membranes

    Generally, prokaryotes do not have a true nucleus or membrane-bound organelles and eukaryotes contain both a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

    Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes contain a true nucleus that is well-defined and organelles that are membrane-bound

    Generally, eukaryotes do not have a true nucleus or membrane-bound organelles and prokaryotes contain both a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

    5. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    John is examining cells under the microscope. She is using the 40x objective lens to view the slide with a 10x eyepiece.  What is the total magnification she is using to view the cells?

    answer choices 10x 40x 100x 400x 6. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    Sometimes samples can be placed directly under a microscope. At other times, it is necessary to add water to the slide and make a wet mount.

    For a wet mount, the steps are shown below.  In what order should these steps be followed?

    1. If necessary, remove excess water by holding a paper towel next to coverslip.

    2. Use eyedropper to place a drop of water on the sample.

    3. Place a sample on the slide.

    4. Place a coverslip on the slide.

    answer choices 2-3-1-4 1-2-3-4 4-3-2-1 3-2-4-1 7. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Many protozoa have tiny hair-like structures that beat back and forth to aid a protozoan's movement.  What are these hair-like structures called?

    answer choices pseudopods cilia flagella hydrophilic hairs 8. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Some prokaryotes and eukaryotes have a cellular structure called a flagella.  What is the purpose of the flagella?

    answer choices

    to transport molecules across the cell membrane

    to propel the cell through liquid

    to collect food for the cell

    to tell the cell the direction of a food source

    9. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    What cell part does an amoeba use for locomotion and for capturing prey?

    answer choices pseudopod endoplasm vacuole lysosome 10. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    A bacterial cell is in a solution with a chemical gradient. The bacterial cell directs its movements in order to move toward the highest concentration of glucose molecules within the solution.  This is an example of positive _________.

    answer choices hydrotropism homeostasis chemotaxis phototaxis 11. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    How does DNA in prokaryotic cells differ from the DNA in eukaryotes?

    I. Prokaryotic DNA contains uracil instead of thymine.

    II. Prokaryotic DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by a nuclear membrane.

    III. Prokaryotic DNA is not packaged into chromosomes.

    IV. Prokaryotic DNA cannot be replicated.

    answer choices I and II only I, II, and III only III and IV only II and III only 12. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus, mitochondria, or other membrane-bound organelles, but they can possess...

    answer choices ribosomes cytoplasm cell membrane all of these 13. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    What type of cell is this?

    answer choices plant animal prokaryotic protist 14. Multiple-choice 1 minute

    Q.

    What is the purpose of the part labeled with number 3?

    answer choices

    makes large adjustments when focusing specimens by moving the stage up or down

    makes minor adjustments when focusing specimens by moving the stage up or down

    changes the magnification of the specimens

    site where slides or specimens are placed

    Source : quizizz.com

    Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes: What Are the Key Differences?

    Every living organism falls into one of two groups: eukaryotes or prokaryotes. Cellular structure determines which group an organism belongs to. In this article, we will explain in detail what prokaryotes and eukaryotes are and outline the differences between the two.

    Article

    Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes: What Are the Key Differences?

    Published: July 8, 2021

    | by Nicole Gleichmann

    Read time: 4 minutes

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    Every living organism falls into one of two groups: eukaryotes or prokaryotes. Cellular structure determines which group an organism belongs to. In this article, we will explain in detail what prokaryotes and eukaryotes are and outline the differences between the two.  

    Prokaryote definition

    Prokaryotes are unicellular organisms that lack membrane-bound structures, the most noteworthy of which is the nucleus. Prokaryotic cells tend to be small, simple cells, measuring around 0.1-5 μm in diameter.

    While prokaryotic cells do not have membrane-bound structures, they do have distinct cellular regions. In prokaryotic cells, DNA bundles together in a region called the nucleoid.

    Prokaryotic cell features

    Here is a breakdown of what you might find in a prokaryotic bacterial cell.

    Nucleoid: A central region of the cell that contains its DNA.Ribosome: Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis.Cell wall: The cell wall provides structure and protection from the outside environment. Most bacteria have a rigid cell wall made from carbohydrates and proteins called peptidoglycans.Cell membrane: Every prokaryote has a cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, that separates the cell from the outside environment.Capsule: Some bacteria have a layer of carbohydrates that surrounds the cell wall called the capsule. The capsule helps the bacterium attach to surfaces.Fimbriae: Fimbriae are thin, hair-like structures that help with cellular attachment.Pili: Pili are rod-shaped structures involved in multiple roles, including attachment and DNA transfer.Flagella: Flagella are thin, tail-like structures that assist in movement.

    Examples of prokaryotes

    Bacteria and archaea are the two types of prokaryotes.

    Do prokaryotes have mitochondria?

    No, prokaryotes do not have mitochondria. Mitochondria are only found in eukaryotic cells. This is also true of other membrane-bound structures like the nucleus and the Golgi apparatus (more on these later).

    One theory for eukaryotic evolution hypothesizes that mitochondria were first prokaryotic cells that lived inside other cells. Over time, evolution led to these separate organisms functioning as a single organism in the form of a eukaryote.

    Eukaryote definition

    Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus and other organelles enclosed by a plasma membrane. Organelles are internal structures responsible for a variety of functions, such as energy production and protein synthesis.

    Eukaryotic cells are large (around 10-100 μm) and complex. While most eukaryotes are multicellular organisms, there are some single-cell eukaryotes.

    Eukaryotic cell features

    Within a eukaryotic cell, each membrane-bound structure carries out specific cellular functions. Here is an overview of many of the primary components of eukaryotic cells.

    Nucleus: The nucleus stores the genetic information in chromatin form.Nucleolus: Found inside of the nucleus, the nucleolus is the part of eukaryotic cells where ribosomal RNA is produced.Plasma membrane: The plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer that surrounds the entire cell and encompasses the organelles within.Cytoskeleton or cell wall: The cytoskeleton or cell wall provides structure, allows for cell movement, and plays a role in cell division.Ribosomes: Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis.Mitochondria: Mitochondria, also known as the powerhouses of the cell, are responsible for energy production.Cytoplasm: The cytoplasm is the region of the cell between the nuclear envelope and plasma membrane.Cytosol: Cytosol is a gel-like substance within the cell that contains the organelles.Endoplasmic reticulum: The endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle dedicated to protein maturation and transportation.Vesicles and vacuoles: Vesicles and vacuoles are membrane-bound sacs involved in transportation and storage.

    Other common organelles found in many, but not all, eukaryotes include the Golgi apparatus, chloroplasts and lysosomes.

    Examples of eukaryotes

    Animals, plants, fungi, algae and protozoans are all eukaryotes.

    Comparing prokaryotes and eukaryotes 

    All life on Earth consists of either eukaryotic cells or prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotes were the first form of life. Scientists believe that eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes around 2.7 billion years ago.

    The primary distinction between these two types of organisms is that eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus and prokaryotic cells do not. The nucleus is where eukaryotes store their genetic information. In prokaryotes, DNA is bundled together in the nucleoid region, but it is not stored within a membrane-bound nucleus.

    Source : www.technologynetworks.com

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