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    Big stick ideology

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    Big stick ideology

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    "Big stick" redirects here. For other uses, see Big stick (disambiguation).

    William Allen Rogers's 1904 cartoon recreates an episode in

    This article is part of

    a series about Theodore Roosevelt

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    1886 New York City mayoral election

    33rd Governor of New York

    Governorship"The Strenuous Life"

    25th Vice President of the United States

    1900 McKinley-Roosevelt campaign"Speak softly and carry a big stick"

    26th President of the United States

    Presidency Timeline First term

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    Booker T. Washington dinner

    Venezuela crisis Roosevelt Corollary

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    The letter in which Roosevelt first used his now-famous phrase

    Big stick ideology, big stick diplomacy, or big stick policy refers to President Theodore Roosevelt's foreign policy: "speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far".[1] Roosevelt described his style of foreign policy as "the exercise of intelligent forethought and of decisive action sufficiently far in advance of any likely crisis".[2] As practiced by Roosevelt, big stick diplomacy had five components. First, it was essential to possess serious military capability that would force the adversary to pay close attention. At the time that meant a world-class navy. Roosevelt never had a large army at his disposal. The other qualities were to act justly toward other nations, never to bluff, to strike only when prepared to strike hard, and to be willing to allow the adversary to save face in defeat.[3]

    The idea is negotiating peacefully but also having strength in case things go wrong. Simultaneously threatening with the "big stick", or the military, ties in heavily with the idea of Realpolitik, which implies a pursuit of political power that resembles Machiavellian ideals.[4] It is comparable to gunboat diplomacy, as used in international politics by the powers.

    Contents

    1 Background 2 Usage 2.1 Latin America

    2.1.1 Venezuelan Affair (1902) and the Roosevelt Corollary

    2.1.2 Canal diplomacy

    2.1.2.1 Proposed construction of the Nicaragua Canal

    2.1.2.2 Construction of the Panama Canal

    2.1.3 Cuba 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

    Background[edit]

    Roosevelt (then Governor of New York) to Henry L. Sprague, dated January 26, 1900.[5] Roosevelt wrote, in a bout of happiness after forcing New York's Republican committee to pull support away from a corrupt financial adviser:

    I have always been fond of the West African proverb: "Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far."

    Roosevelt would go on to be elected Vice President later that year, and subsequently used the aphorism publicly in an address to the Minnesota State Fair, entitled "National Duties", on September 2, 1901:[6][7]

    A good many of you are probably acquainted with the old proverb: "Speak softly and carry a big stick—you will go far."

    Four days later, President William McKinley was shot by an assassin; upon McKinley's death eight days after being shot, Roosevelt took his place as president.

    Usage[edit]

    Although used before his presidency, Roosevelt used military muscle several times throughout his two terms with a more subtle touch to complement his diplomatic policies and enforcing the Monroe Doctrine throughout multiple interventions in Latin America. This included the Great White Fleet, 16 battleships which peacefully circumnavigated the globe as an illustration of United States's rising yet neutral prestige under Roosevelt's direction.[8]

    Latin America[edit]

    Venezuelan Affair (1902) and the Roosevelt Corollary[edit]

    Some American uses of the "big stick" in Middle America, 1900–1906[9]

    In the early 20th century, Venezuela was receiving messages from Britain and Germany about "acts of violence against the liberty of British subjects and the massive capture of British vessels" who were from the UK and the lack of Venezuelan initiative to pay off long-standing debts.[10][11] After the Royal Navy and Imperial German Navy took naval action with a blockade on Venezuela (1902–1903), Roosevelt denounced the blockade. The blockade began the basis of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe doctrine.[12][13] Though he had mentioned the basis of his idea beforehand in private letters, he officially announced the corollary in 1904, stating that he only wanted the "other republics on this continent" to be "happy and prosperous". For that goal to be met, the corollary required that they "maintain order within their borders and behave with a just obligation toward outsiders".[13]

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    Sep 2, 1901 CE: Big Stick Diplomacy

    On September 2, 1901, Teddy Roosevelt used the phrase "speak softly, and carry a big stick" to describe his foreign policy. Big Stick diplomacy defined his presidency.

    RESOURCE LIBRARY

    HISTORIC ARTICLE 28

    Sep 2, 1901 CE: Big Stick Diplomacy

    On September 2, 1901, Teddy Roosevelt used the phrase "speak softly, and carry a big stick" to describe his foreign policy. Big Stick diplomacy defined his presidency.

    GRADES 5 - 11 SUBJECTS

    Civics, Social Studies, U.S. History

    PHOTOGRAPH

    Teddy's Christmas Surprise

    U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt was the surprise winner of the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize after using his "Big Stick" diplomacy to broker a peace treaty to end the Russo-Japanese War.

    ILLUSTRATION BY CHARLES LEWIS BARTHOLOMEW, COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

    On September 2, 1901, United States Vice President Theodore Roosevelt outlined his ideal foreign policy in a speech at the Minnesota State Fair in Falcon Heights, Minnesota: “Speak softly, and carry a big stick.” Two weeks later, Roosevelt became president and “Big Stick diplomacy” defined his leadership. Big Stick diplomacy is the policy of carefully mediated negotiation ("speaking softly") supported by the unspoken threat of a powerful military ("big stick"). The Great White Fleet, a group of American warships that toured the world in a show of peaceful strength, is the leading example of Big Stick diplomacy during Roosevelt’s presidency. President Roosevelt used Big Stick diplomacy in many foreign policy situations. He brokered an agreement for an American-led canal through Panama, expanded American influence in Cuba, and negotiated a peace treaty between Russia and Japan. For this, Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906.

    broker Verb

    to negotiate an agreement.

    canal Noun

    artificial waterway.

    diplomacy Noun

    art and science of maintaining peaceful relationships between nations, groups, or individuals.

    expand Verb

    to grow or get larger.

    foreign policy Noun

    courses of action or thought that guide a nation's relationship with other nations.

    ideal Adjective perfect. influence Noun

    force that effects the actions, behavior, or policies of others.

    mediate Verb

    to intervene or bring about change between different people, ideas, or methods of doing something.

    military Noun armed forces. negotiate Verb

    to discuss with others of different viewpoints in order to reach an agreement, contract, or treaty.

    Nobel Peace Prize Noun

    award recognizing the contributions of a person or organization to "work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace."

    outline Noun

    representation of a boundary or definition.

    policy Noun

    set of actions or rules.

    threat Noun danger. tour Verb

    to travel from place to place.

    treaty Noun

    official agreement between groups of people.

    warship Noun

    seagoing vessel built for armed conflict.

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    diplomacy

    Encyclopedic entry. Diplomacy is the art and science of maintaining peaceful relationships between nations, groups, or individuals. Often, diplomacy refers to representatives of different groups discussing such issues as conflict, trade, the environment, technology, or maintaining security.

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    Source : education.nationalgeographic.org

    Theodore Roosevelt

    Big Stick policy, in American history, policy popularized and named by Theodore Roosevelt that asserted U.S. domination when such dominance was considered the moral imperative. Roosevelt’s first noted public use of the phrase occurred when he advocated before the U.S. Congress increasing naval preparation to support the nation’s diplomatic objectives. Earlier, in a letter to a friend, while he was still the governor of New York, Roosevelt cited his fondness for a West African proverb, “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far.” The phrase was also used later by Roosevelt to explain his relations with domestic

    Theodore Roosevelt

    president of United States

    Alternate titles: TR, Teddy Roosevelt

    By John Milton Cooper • Edit History

    Theodore Roosevelt See all media

    Born: October 27, 1858 New York City New York

    Died: January 6, 1919 (aged 60) Oyster Bay New York

    Title / Office: presidency of the United States of America (1901-1909), United States vice president of the United States of America (1901-1901), United States governor (1899-1901), New York

    Founder: Rough Rider

    Political Affiliation: Bull Moose Party Republican Party

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    Theodore Roosevelt

    Learn about Theodore Roosevelt's progressive Square Deal and big-stick approach to foreign policy.

    Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

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    Theodore Roosevelt, bynames Teddy Roosevelt and TR, (born October 27, 1858, New York, New York, U.S.—died January 6, 1919, Oyster Bay, New York), 26th president of the United States (1901–09) and a writer, naturalist, and soldier. He expanded the powers of the presidency and of the federal government in support of the public interest in conflicts between big business and labour and steered the nation toward an active role in world politics, particularly in Europe and Asia. He won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1906 for mediating an end to the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05), and he secured the route and began construction of the Panama Canal (1904–14).

    Key events in the life of Theodore Roosevelt.

    Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

    The early years

    Roosevelt was the second of four children born into a socially prominent family of Dutch and English ancestry; his father, Theodore Roosevelt, Sr., was a noted businessman and philanthropist, and his mother, Martha Bulloch of Georgia, came from a wealthy, slave-owning plantation family. In frail health as a boy, Roosevelt was educated by private tutors. From boyhood he displayed intense, wide-ranging intellectual curiosity. He graduated from Harvard College, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, in 1880. He then studied briefly at Columbia Law School but soon turned to writing and politics as a career. In 1880 he married Alice Hathaway Lee, by whom he had one daughter, Alice. After his first wife’s death, in 1886 he married Edith Kermit Carow (Edith Roosevelt), with whom he lived for the rest of his life at Sagamore Hill, an estate near Oyster Bay, Long Island, New York. They had five children: Theodore, Jr., Kermit, Ethel, Archibald, and Quentin.

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    As a child, Roosevelt had suffered from severe asthma, and weak eyesight plagued him throughout his life. By dint of a program of physical exertion, he developed a strong physique and a lifelong love of vigorous activity. He adopted “the strenuous life,” as he entitled his 1901 book, as his ideal, both as an outdoorsman and as a politician.

    Theodore Roosevelt as a young man.

    Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

    Elected as a Republican to the New York State Assembly at 23, Roosevelt quickly made a name for himself as a foe of corrupt machine politics. In 1884, overcome by grief by the deaths of both his mother and his wife on the same day, he left politics to spend two years on his cattle ranch in the badlands of the Dakota Territory, where he became increasingly concerned about environmental damage to the West and its wildlife. Nonetheless, he did participate as a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1884. His attempt to reenter public life in 1886 was unsuccessful; he was defeated in a bid to become mayor of New York City. Roosevelt remained active in politics and again battled corruption as a member of the U.S. Civil Service Commission (1889–95) and as president of the New York City Board of Police Commissioners. Appointed assistant secretary of the navy by President William McKinley, he vociferously championed a bigger navy and agitated for war with Spain. When war was declared in 1898, he organized the 1st Volunteer Cavalry, known as the Rough Riders, who were sent to fight in Cuba. Roosevelt was a brave and well-publicized military leader. The charge of the Rough Riders (on foot) up Kettle Hill during the Battle of Santiago made him the biggest national hero to come out of the Spanish-American War.

    Source : www.britannica.com

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