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    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Mendelian inheritance states that traits are determined when offspring receive one allele for each trait from one parent each parent., Traits can also be recessive , which means they can be masked., incomplete dominance and more.

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    Mendelian inheritance states that traits are determined when offspring receive one allele for each trait from one parent each parent.

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    Traits can be dominant , which means they can be seen and are capable of masking a different trait.

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    Traits can also be recessive , which means they can be masked.

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    Alleles are different versions of the same gene in an organism.

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    Terms in this set (12)

    Mendelian inheritance states that traits are determined when offspring receive one allele for each trait from one parent each parent.

    Traits can be dominant , which means they can be seen and are capable of masking a different trait.

    Traits can also be recessive , which means they can be masked.

    Alleles are different versions of the same gene in an organism.

    incomplete dominance

    an inheritance pattern in which neither allele is domiant an the offspring demostrates an intermediate form of the allele from the parents, showing a new form of the trait

    The principle of dominance is a Mendelian inheritance pattern. It states traits that are dominant mask the traits that are dominant.

    Incomplete dominance is a non-Mendelian inheritance pattern. It states that neither trait is dominant. The traits appear to blend together.

    Codominance is a non-Mendelian inheritance pattern. It states that both traits are dominant and both appear in the organism. Neither trait is masked.

    Blood type is determined by the antigens on the blood cells.

    How did the 1898 discovery of blood types affect society? Check all that apply.

    New ways to preserve and transport blood for blood transfusions were discovered.

    Blood transfusion safety was improved.

    Scientists discovered that elements of blood could be separated by centrifuge.

    Scientists discovered that plasma could be preserved by freezing.

    Blood type is an example of

    codominance

    Rh factor represents the presence of the rhesus protein on blood.

    ✔ Rh* blood contains the rhesus protein.

    Rh- blood does not contain the rhesus protein.

    Type ✔ O blood is the universal donor.

    Type AB blood is the universal recipient

    Rh+ blood can receive Rh+ or Rh- blood.

    Rh+✔ Rh- blood can receive Rh- blood.

    Polygenic inheritance is determined by multiple ⇒ genes located at different loci on different chromosomes.

    Genes

    Polygenic traits follow a non-Mendelian inheritance pattern.

    non-medndelian

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    Polygenic Inheritance: Definition, Examples in Plants and Humans

    Polygenic Inheritance refers to an inheritance of a single phenotypic trait controlled by multiple independent genes. Examples include hair colour, eye colour, height, etc.

    NEETNEET Study MaterialNEET BiologyPolygenic Inheritance

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    What is Polygenic Inheritance?

    Many traits and phenotypic characters present in plants and animals such as height, skin pigmentation, hair and eye colour, milk and egg production are inherited through many alleles present in different loci. This is known as polygenic inheritance.

    Table of Contents :

    Definition Characteristics

    Polygenic Inheritance in Humans

    Polygenic Inheritance in Plants

    Effect of environment

    If we take an example of height or skin pigmentation in humans, we find many different forms of the two traits. We can’t categorise people in just two categories like ‘tall’ and ‘short’ for height or ‘dark’ and ‘light’ for the skin colour. We find continuous variation for both these traits because these traits are controlled by multiple genes. There are as many as 400 genes that control the trait of height and are responsible for variation in height present in the population.

    Polygenic Inheritance Definition

    “Polygenic inheritance is defined as quantitative inheritance, where multiple independent genes have an additive or similar effect on a single quantitative trait.”

    Polygenic inheritance is also known as multiple gene inheritance or multiple factor inheritance.

    Polygenic Inheritance characteristics

    Polygene refers to a gene that exerts a slight effect on a phenotype along with other genes

    Effect of a single gene is too small, so it is difficult to detect

    Multiple genes produce an equal effect

    Each allele has a cumulative or additive effect

    Polygenic inheritance differs from multiple alleles, as in multiple alleles, three or more alleles are present in the same locus of which any two alleles are present in an organism, e.g. ABO blood group system, which is controlled by three alleles

    There is no epistasis involved, i.e. masking of the expression of an allele of the different locus

    There is no linkage or dominance, rather there exist contributing and non-contributing alleles, which are known as active or null alleles respectively

    Polygenic inheritance is characterised by the continuous variation of the phenotype of a trait

    The polygenic inheritance pattern is complex. It is difficult to predict phenotype

    The statistical analysis can give the estimate of population parameters

    Polygenic Inheritance Examples

    Polygenic Inheritance in Humans

    There are many traits in humans, which show polygenic inheritance, e.g. skin and hair colour, height, eye colour, the risk for diseases and resistance, intelligence, blood pressure, bipolar disorder, autism, longevity, etc.

    Brief description of some of the traits:

    Skin pigmentation: inheritance of skin pigmentation is polygenic inheritance. Around 60 loci contribute to the inheritance of a single trait. If we take an example of a pair of alleles of three different and unlinked loci as A and a, B and b, C and c. The capital letters represent the incompletely dominant allele for dark skin colour. The more capital letters show skin colour towards the darker range and small letters towards the lighter colour of the skin. Parents having genotype AABBCC and aabbcc will produce offspring of intermediate colour in the F1 generation, i.e. AaBbCc genotype. In the F2 generation of two triple heterozygotes (AaBbCc x AaBbCc) mate, they will give rise to varying phenotypes ranging from very dark to very light in the ratio 1:6:15:20:15:6:1.

    Punnett square showing F2 generation offsprings continuous variation From light to dark→Height: There are around 400 genes responsible for the phenotype and environment greatly influences the expression of genes.Eye colour: The colour of the eye is determined by polygenes. At least 9 colours of eye colour are recognised in humans. There are two major eye colour genes and 14 more genes that determine the expression of the phenotype. A different number of alleles contribute to each colour. These are found to be X-linked.Polygenic Inheritance in Plants

    Polygenic inheritance in plants includes the colour and shape of the stem, pollen, flower, yield, oil content, size of a seed, time to mature or flower, etc.

    Brief description of some of the traits:

    Kernel colour of the wheat: The three independent pairs of alleles are involved in the expression of kernel colour of wheat. They show independent assortment. When dark red wheat kernel (AABBCC) is crossed with the white wheat kernel (aabbcc) the F1 generation has an intermediate red colour kernel (AaBbCc). When F1 generation is crossbred, F2 generation has 63 red kernel plants having different shades of red and 1 white kernel.

    Source : byjus.com

    Polygenic inheritance and environmental effects (article)

    Traits that are controlled by multiple genes and/or influenced by the environment. Penetrance and expressivity.

    How is height inherited?

    If what you're really interested in is human genetics, learning about Mendelian genetics can sometimes be frustrating. You'll often hear a teacher use a human trait as an example in a genetics problem, but then say, "that's an oversimplification" or "it's much more complicated than that." So, what's actually going on with those interesting human traits, such as eye color, hair and skin color, height, and disease risk?

    As an example, let's consider human height. Unlike a simple Mendelian characteristic, human height displays:

    Continuous variation. Unlike Mendel's pea plants, humans don’t come in two clear-cut “tall” and “short” varieties. In fact, they don't even come in four heights, or eight, or sixteen. Instead, it’s possible to get humans of many different heights, and height can vary in increments of inches or fractions of inches

    ^1 1

    start superscript, 1, end superscript

    .

    Histogram showing height in inches of male high school seniors in a sample group. The histogram is roughly bell-shaped, with just a few individuals at the tails (60 inches and 77 inches) and many individuals in the middle, around 69 inches.

    The heights of a group of male high school seniors. Image modified from "Continuous variation: Quantitative traits," by J. W. Kimball (CC BY 3.0)

    A complex inheritance pattern. You may have noticed that tall parents can have a short child, short parents can have a tall child, and two parents of different heights may or may not have a child in the middle. Also, siblings with the same two parents may have a range of heights, ones that don't fall into distinct categories.

    Simple models involving one or two genes can't accurately predict all of these inheritance patterns. How, then, is height inherited?

    Height and other similar features are controlled not just by one gene, but rather, by multiple (often many) genes that each make a small contribution to the overall outcome. This inheritance pattern is sometimes called polygenic inheritance (poly- = many). For instance, a recent study found over 400 genes linked to variation in height

    ^2 2 squared .

    When there are large numbers of genes involved, it becomes hard to distinguish the effect of each individual gene, and even harder to see that gene variants (alleles) are inherited according to Mendelian rules. In an additional complication, height doesn’t just depend on genetics: it also depends on environmental factors, such as a child’s overall health and the type of nutrition he or she gets while growing up.

    In this article, we’ll examine how complex traits such as height are inherited. We'll also see how factors like genetic background and environment can affect the phenotype (observable features) produced by a particular genotype (set of gene variants, or alleles).

    Polygenic inheritance

    Human features like height, eye color, and hair color come in lots of slightly different forms because they are controlled by many genes, each of which contributes some amount to the overall phenotype. For example, there are two major eye color genes, but at least 14 other genes that play roles in determining a person’s exact eye color

    ^3 3 cubed .

    Looking at a real example of a human polygenic trait would get complicated, largely because we’d have to keep track of tens, or even hundreds, of different allele pairs (like the 400 involved in height!). However, we can use an example involving wheat kernels to see how several genes whose alleles "add up" to influence the same trait can produce a spectrum of phenotypes

    ^{1,4} 1,4

    start superscript, 1, comma, 4, end superscript

    .

    In this example, there are three genes that make reddish pigment in wheat kernels, which we’ll call A, B, and C. Each comes in two alleles, one of which makes pigment (the capital-letter allele) and one of which does not (the lowercase allele). These alleles have additive effects: the aa genotype would contribute no pigment, the Aa genotype would contribute some amount of pigment, and the AA genotype would contribute more pigment (twice as much as Aa). The same would hold true for the B and C genes

    ^{1,4} 1,4

    start superscript, 1, comma, 4, end superscript

    .

    64-square Punnett square illustrating the phenotypes of the offspring of an AaBbCc x AaBbCc cross (in which each uppercase allele contributes one unit of pigment, while each lowercase allele contributes zero units of pigment).

    Of the 64 squares in the chart:

    1 square produces a very very dark red phenotype (six units of pigment)

    6 squares produce a very dark red phenotype (five units of pigment)

    15 squares produce a dark red phenotype (four units of pigment).

    20 squares produce a red phenotype (three units of pigment)

    15 squares produce a light red phenotype (two units of pigment)

    6 squares produce a very light red phenotype (one unit of pigment)

    1 square produces a white phenotype (no units of pigment)

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

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