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    Question

    One difference between a cancer cell and a normal cell is

    A

    cancer cells cannot function properly because they suffer from contact inhibition

    B

    cancer cells continue to divide even when they are tightly packed

    C

    cell cycle of the cancer cell is arrested at the S phase.

    D

    cancer cell is unable to synthesize DNA

    Medium Open in App Solution Verified by Toppr

    Correct option is B)

    Most definitive characteristic of cancer cells are that they keep on dividing even when they are not required to divide and even when there is no space available for them.

    The cancer cell are unable to stop cell division and they start to take up the nutrition or the material required for the functioning of the normal cells.

    They keep on dividing and forming a tumor which is group of cells formed in a restricted space where they cannot fit thus taking up space for other cells and there nutrition.

    They can also cause the neighbouring cells to undergo mutation (if the cancer is caused by mutation of the cells).

    Cancer undergo the cell cycle as any normal cell but the difference is that they cannot stop after a specific number of cell cycle they keep on dividing even when there is no space available.

    Therefore the answer option 'cancer cells continue to divide even when they are tightly packed' is correct.

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    Source : www.toppr.com

    Cancer Cells vs Normal Cells

    Cancer is a complex genetic disease that is caused by specific changes to the genes in one cell or group of cells. These changes disrupt normal cell function – specifically affecting how a cell grows and divides. This article outlines some of the key differences between cancer cells and normal cells.

    Article

    Cancer Cells vs Normal Cells

    Published: December 4, 2020

    Last Updated: December 6, 2021

    Laura Elizabeth Lansdowne

    Read time: 4 minutes

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    The body is made up of approximately 37.2 trillion human cells – so you can truly appreciate how many that is, here is the number written out in full, 37,200,000,000,000 – that’s a lot of cells.

    These "normal" cells act as the body’s basic building blocks and possess specific characteristics that enable them to maintain correct functioning of tissues, organs and organ systems. Normal cells:

    control their growth using external signals, meaning they only grow and divide when required,

    undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis) as part of normal development, to maintain tissue homeostasis, and in response to unrepairable damage,

    "stick together" by maintaining selective adhesions that they progressively adjust which ensures they remain in their intended location,

    differentiate into specialized cells with specific functions meaning they can adopt different physical characteristics despite having the same genome.

    Cancer is a complex genetic disease that is caused by specific changes to the genes in one cell or group of cells. These changes disrupt normal cell function – specifically affecting how a cell grows and divides. In contrast to normal cells, cancer cells don't stop growing and dividing, this uncontrolled cell growth results in the formation of a tumor. Cancer cells have more genetic changes compared to normal cells, however not all changes cause cancer, they may be a result of it. The genetic changes that contribute to cancer usually affect three specific types of gene; proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and DNA repair genes.

    Hallmarks of cancer

    "Hallmarks of Cancer" is a term used to describe the specific characteristics that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells.

    Normal cell vs cancer cell – the key differences

    Cell shape: Normal human cells come in many shapes and sizes – as they differentiate and adopt specialized functions their shape changes accordingly – for instance, a red blood cell looks very different to a nerve cell. types of cells do not look alike, but, if you analyze cells of the cell type they will look extremely similar, maintaining a uniform shape.

    For years researchers have been peering down microscopes, looking for distinct features that can help them determine the difference between a cancer cell and normal cell. Cancer cells are misshapen, and appear as a chaotic collection of cells, in an array of shapes and sizes. Researchers have been investigating the relationship between cancer cell shape and a patients’ outlook, and whether cell shape may also help to distinguish between the different types of cancer.

    Nucleus: In normal cells, the nucleus has a smooth appearance and maintains a uniform, spheroid shape. Several structural components are involved in the regulation of nuclear morphology. One of these structural components is the nuclear lamina. Cancer cell nuclei are frequently misshapen and bulges known as “blebs” can often be observed in cells’ nuclear membranes. Research suggests that this "blebbing" is caused by an imbalance in the proteins that constitute the nuclear lamina which leads to separation of the lamina fibers.Chromatin: The fine, evenly distributed chromatin found in normal cells transforms into coarse, chromatin in cancer cells – aggregating into irregular clumps that vary in both size and shape.Nucleolus: Tumor aggressiveness and clinical outcome can both be measured by observing the morphology of a cancer cell’s nucleolus/ nucleoli. The nucleolus becomes increasingly enlarged and more irregular in cancer cells – cells can have multiple nucleoli within the nucleus.Blood supply: Angiogenesis is defined as the development of new blood vessels that form from pre-existing vasculature. Angiogenesis is a vital process in normal cells that occurs during development, growth, and wound healing. However, it is also implicated in the growth of cancer, through the tumor’s ability to secrete chemical signals that stimulate angiogenesis.

    Below we outline some of the key differences between cancer cells and normal cells.

    Normal Cell Cancer Cell

    Cell shape Uniform

    Irregular

    Nucleus Spheroid shape, single nucleus

    Irregular shape, multi-nucleation common

    Chromatin Fine, evenly distributed

    Coarse, aggregated

    Nucleolus Single, inconspicuous nucleolus

    Source : www.technologynetworks.com

    Cancer Cells vs. Normal Cells: How Are They Different?

    What are the differences between cancer cells and normal cells? From appearance to growth, and behavior to seeming immortality, there's a contrast.

    CANCER

    Cancer Cells vs. Normal Cells: How Are They Different?

    By Lynne Eldridge, MD Updated on December 07, 2019

    Medically reviewed by Doru Paul, MD

    Table of Contents

    Cancer Cells vs. Normal Cells

    More Differences

    How a Cell Becomes Cancerous

    Cancer Stem Cells

    There are many differences between cancer cells and normal cells. Some of the differences are well known, whereas others have only been recently discovered and are less well understood. You may be interested in how cancer cells are different as you are coping with your own cancer or that of a loved one.

    For researchers, understanding how cancer cells function differently from normal cells lays the foundation for developing treatments designed to rid the body of cancer cells without damaging normal cells.

    The first portion of this list discusses the basic differences between cancer cells and healthy cells. For those who are interested in some of the more difficult-to-understand differences, the second portion of this list is more technical.

    Regulation of Cell Growth

    A brief explanation of the proteins in the body that regulate cell growth is also helpful in understanding cancer cells. Our DNA carries genes that in turn are the blueprint for proteins produced in the body.

    Some of these proteins are growth factors, chemicals that tell cells to divide and grow. Other proteins work to suppress growth.

    Mutations in particular genes (for example, those caused by tobacco smoke, radiation, ultraviolet radiation, and other carcinogens) can result in the abnormal production of proteins.1 Too many may be produced, or not enough, or it could be that the proteins are abnormal and function differently.

    Cancer is a complex disease, and it is usually a combination of these abnormalities that lead to a cancerous cell, rather than a single mutation or protein abnormality.

    © Verywell, 2017.

    Cancer Cells vs. Normal Cells

    Below are some of the major differences between normal cells and cancer cells, which in turn account for how malignant tumors grow and respond differently to their surroundings than benign tumors.

    Growth

    Normal cells stop growing (reproducing) when enough cells are present. For example, if cells are being produced to repair a cut in the skin, new cells are no longer produced when there are enough cells present to fill the hole (when the repair work is done).

    In contrast, cancer cells don’t stop growing when there are enough cells present. This continued growth often results in a tumor (a cluster of cancer cells) being formed.

    Each gene in the body carries a blueprint that codes for a different protein. Some of these proteins are growth factors—chemicals that tell cells to grow and divide. If the gene that codes for one of these proteins is stuck in the “on” position by a mutation (an oncogene) the growth factor proteins continue to be produced. In response, the cells continue to grow.

    Communication

    Cancer cells don’t interact with other cells as normal cells do. Normal cells respond to signals sent from other nearby cells that say, essentially, “you’ve reached your boundary.” When normal cells “hear” these signals they stop growing. Cancer cells do not respond to these signals.

    Cell Repair and Cell Death

    Normal cells are either repaired or die (undergo apoptosis) when they are damaged or get old. Cancer cells are either not repaired or do not undergo apoptosis.

    For example, one protein called p53 has the job of checking to see if a cell is too damaged to repair, and if so, advise the cell to kill itself. If this protein p53 is abnormal or inactive (for example, from a mutation in the p53 gene), then old or damaged cells are allowed to reproduce.

    The p53 gene is one type of tumor suppressor gene that code for proteins that suppress the growth of cells.

    Stickiness

    Normal cells secrete substances that make them stick together in a group. Cancer cells fail to make these substances, and can “float away” to locations nearby, or through the bloodstream or system of lymph channels to distant regions in the body.

    Ability to Metastasize (Spread)

    Normal cells stay in the area of the body where they belong. For example, lung cells remain in the lungs. Some cancer cells may lack the adhesion molecules that cause stickiness, and are able to detach and travel via the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other regions of the body—they have the ability to metastasize.

    Once they arrive in a new region (such as lymph nodes, the lungs, the liver, or the bones) they begin to grow, often forming tumors far removed from the original tumor.

    How Cancer Metastasizes

    Appearance

    Under a microscope, normal cells and cancer cells may look quite different. In contrast to normal cells, cancer cells often exhibit much more variability in cell size—some are larger than normal and some are smaller than normal.

    In addition, cancer cells often have an abnormal shape, both of the cell, and of the nucleus (the “brain” of the cell.) The nucleus appears both larger and darker than normal cells.

    Source : www.verywellhealth.com

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