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    noticing that you have difficulty concentrating during and after periods of prolonged stress exemplifies how stress can have a negative ________ impact.

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    How stress affects your health

    Stress can be brief, situational and a positive force motivating performance, but if experienced over an extended period of time it can become chronic stress, which negatively impacts health and well-being.

    How stress affects your health

    Stress can be brief, situational and a positive force motivating performance, but if experienced over an extended period of time it can become chronic stress, which negatively impacts health and well-being.

    Date created: 2013 5 min read Chronic Illness Stress

    Stress: We’ve all felt it. Sometimes stress can be a positive force, motivating you to perform well at your piano recital or job interview. But often—like when you’re stuck in traffic—it’s a negative force. If you experience stress over a prolonged period of time, it could become chronic—unless you take action.

    A natural reaction

    Have you ever found yourself with sweaty hands on a first date or felt your heart pound during a scary movie? Then you know you can feel stress in both your mind and body.

    This automatic response developed in our ancient ancestors as a way to protect them from predators and other threats. Faced with danger, the body kicks into gear, flooding the body with hormones that elevate your heart rate, increase your blood pressure, boost your energy and prepare you to deal with the problem.

    These days, you’re not likely to face the threat of being eaten. But you probably do confront multiple challenges every day, such as meeting deadlines, paying bills and juggling childcare that make your body react the same way. As a result, your body’s natural alarm system—the “fight or flight” response—may be stuck in the on position. And that can have serious consequences for your health.

    Pressure points

    Even short-lived, minor stress can have an impact. You might get a stomach-ache before you have to give a presentation, for example. More major acute stress, whether caused by a fight with your spouse or an event like an earthquake or terrorist attack, can have an even bigger impact.

    Multiple studies have shown that these sudden emotional stresses—especially anger—can trigger heart attacks, arrhythmias and even sudden death.1 Although this happens mostly in people who already have heart disease, some people don’t know they have a problem until acute stress causes a heart attack or something worse.

    Chronic stress

    When stress starts interfering with your ability to live a normal life for an extended period, it becomes even more dangerous. The longer the stress lasts, the worse it is for both your mind and body. You might feel fatigued, unable to concentrate or irritable for no good reason, for example. But chronic stress causes wear and tear on your body, too.

    Stress can make existing problems worse.2 In one study, for example, about half the participants saw improvements in chronic headaches after learning how to stop the stress-producing habit of “catastrophizing,” or constantly thinking negative thoughts about their pain.3

    Chronic stress may also cause disease, either because of changes in your body or the overeating, smoking, and other bad habits people use to cope with stress. Job strain—high demands coupled with low decision-making latitude—is associated with increased risk of coronary disease, for example.4 Other forms of chronic stress, such as depression and low levels of social support, have also been implicated in increased cardiovascular risk.

    And once you’re sick, stress can also make it harder to recover. One analysis of past studies, for instance, suggests that cardiac patients with so-called “Type D” personalities—characterized by chronic distress—face higher risks of bad outcomes.5

    What you can do

    Reducing your stress levels can not only make you feel better right now, but may also protect your health long-term.

    In one study, researchers examined the association between “positive affect”—feelings like happiness, joy, contentment and enthusiasm—and the development of coronary heart disease over a decade.6 They found that for every one-point increase in positive affect on a five-point scale, the rate of heart disease dropped by 22 percent.

    While the study doesn’t prove that increasing positive affect decreases cardiovascular risks, the researchers recommend boosting your positive affect by making a little time for enjoyable activities every day.

    Other strategies for reducing stress include:

    Identify what’s causing stress. Monitor your state of mind throughout the day. If you feel stressed, write down the cause, your thoughts, and your mood. Once you know what’s bothering you, develop a plan for addressing it. That might mean setting more reasonable expectations for yourself and others or asking for help with household responsibilities, job assignments, or other tasks. List all your commitments, assess your priorities, and then eliminate any tasks that are not absolutely essential.Build strong relationships. Relationships can be a source of stress. Research has found that negative, hostile reactions with your spouse cause immediate changes in stress-sensitive hormones, for example.7 But relationships can also serve as stress buffers. Reach out to family members or close friends and let them know you’re having a tough time. They may be able to offer practical assistance and support, useful ideas or just a fresh perspective as you begin to tackle whatever’s causing your stress.Walk away when you’re angry. Before you react, take time to regroup by counting to 10. Then reconsider. Walking or other physical activities can also help you work off steam. Plus, exercise increases the production of endorphins, your body’s natural mood-booster. Commit to a daily walk or other form of exercise—a small step that can make a big difference in reducing stress levels.

    Source : www.apa.org

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    What statements about stress and performance is true?

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    As stress levels increase from low to moderate, performance also increases.

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    ______ is stress-reduction technique whereby electronic equipment measuring a person's involuntary (neuromuscular and autonomic) activity helps him gain a level of voluntary control over these processes.

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    biofeedback

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    Textbook solutions for this set

    Psychology: Principles in Practice

    1st Edition Spencer A. Rathus 1,024 explanations

    Myers' Psychology for the AP Course

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    Terms in this set (36)

    What statements about stress and performance is true?

    As stress levels increase from low to moderate, performance also increases.

    ______ is stress-reduction technique whereby electronic equipment measuring a person's involuntary (neuromuscular and autonomic) activity helps him gain a level of voluntary control over these processes.

    biofeedback

    Doug is an emergency room nurse in a large, underfunded, public hospital. Lately, he finds himself assuming that the patients he sees are just trying to get free drugs to feed an addiction. Just yesterday a little boy was brought in with a broken arm, and Doug found that he was completely indifferent to the boy's pain. What aspect of job burnout does this exemplify?

    depersonalization

    Noomi seems to live by the "don't sweat the small stuff" concept. She is relaxed, laid-back, and never seems too concerned about meeting deadlines or finishing a to-do list. Noomi has a ________ personality.

    Type B

    What should be changed to make the following sentence true? It is well established that long (aerobic) but not short (anaerobic) duration exercise is beneficial for both physical and mental health.

    The words "but not" should be changed to the word "and"

    Holmes and Rahe are noted for their development of a scale measuring:

    life stressors

    As he began his internship in a hospital emergency room, George felt very anxious. Throughout the internship he experienced intense and prolonged stress, did not eat well, and did not get enough sleep. When he successfully completed his internship, he felt completely worn out and got very sick with the flu. George is probably experiencing the:

    "exhaustion" stage of the general adaptation syndrome.

    A ________ psychologist might investigate why people continue to smoke or eat high fat and processed food despite knowing the potential adverse health implications of such behaviors.

    health

    Minor everyday stressors such as taking an exam:

    can temporarily alter immune system functioning

    Mrs. Prouli has been taking care of her husband, who has Alzheimer's disease, for a number of years. The prolonged stress involved in caring for her husband may:

    result in reduced immune system functioning

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    Mnemonic devices are least likely to be dependent upon which of the following? a. Imagery. b. Acronyms. c. Rhymes. d. Chunking. e. Massed rehearsal.

    Verified answer QUESTION

    Which of the following is one of the stages of the sexual response cycle described by Masters and Johnson? a. Expulsion. b. Plateau. c. Attraction. d. Compensation. e. Depolarization.

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    Dylan has a BMI of 36. She would best be described as a. Introverted. b. below average on the Buoyant Mood Index. c. normal in Basal Metabolism Index score. d. extroverted. c. obese.

    Verified answer QUESTION

    Which of the following has shown effectiveness in improving sleep, reducing depression, and increasing heart and lung fitness? a. Meditation. b. Aerobic exercise. c. Religious involvement. d. Subjective well-being. e. Social support.

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    Recommended textbook explanations

    Psychology: Principles in Practice

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    20cards Psychology

    Introduction To Psychology

    Which kind of psychology seeks to identify and promote those qualities that lead to happy, fulfilled, and contented lives?

    positive psychology

    Learned Helplessness was studied by:

    Martin Seligman

    Factory worker supermarket cashier and short-order cook are all examples of occupations with high levels of ____

    job strain

    Research shows that prolonged stress is correlated with:

    health problems

    Lamont cares for his aging father, who suffers from dementia. This is an example of a(n) ________ stressor.

    chronic

    Brian has just lost his job. He is proactive in trying to resolve this source of stress: He immediately uses the Internet to look up other jobs in his field and plans to eliminate non-essentials from his budget to make his savings last longer. Which type of coping approach is Brian using?

    problem focused

    Which is the correct order?

    1.resistance, alarm, fatigue 2.resistance, alarm, exhaustion 3.alarm, fatigue, resistance 4.alarm, resistance, exhaustion

    alarm, resistance, exhaustion

    Who developed the General Adaptation Syndrome?

    Hans Selye

    Noticing that you have difficulty concentrating during and after periods of prolonged stress exemplifies how stress can have a negative ________ impact.

    cognitive

    Paolo is a writer and when he sits down in front of his computer he can write for house, forgetting to eat and ignoring his phone because he is intensely engaged in writing. While is writing . Paolo is experiencing ___

    flow

    Advice, guidance, encouragement, acceptance, emotional comfort, and financial help are all examples of ________.

    Social Support

    Oleksiy is an adjunct professor in the Department of Fine Arts. He applied for a full-time job recently, which he did not get. He tries to put this situation in a positive light, reminding himself that he will have more time to produce artwork if he is not working a full-time job. He also reminds himself that some of his friends from grad school can’t find work related to art in any way. Which type of coping approach is Oleksiy using?

    emotion focused

    Which of the following is an example of eustress?

    training for a marathon

    Dr. Frobish possesses a ________ behavior pattern because she is an intensively driven workaholic, preoccupied with deadlines, and always seems to be in a rush.

    Type A

    _____is the field that studies how psychological factors such as stress influence the immune system and immune functioning.

    psychoneuroimmunology

    Developing stomach ulcers during a prolonged period of stress exemplifies how stress can have a negative ________ impact.

    physiological

    A ___ psychologist might investigate why people continue to smoke or eat high fat and processed food despite knowing the potential adverse health implications of such behaviors

    health

    Noomi seems to live by the “don’t sweat the small stuff” concept. She is relaxed, laid-back, and never seems too concerned about meeting deadlines or finishing a to-do list. Noomi has a ________ personality.

    Type B

    Rush hour traffic, lost keys, obnoxious coworkers, and inclement weather are all examples of a(n) ________. acute stressor daily hassle immunosuppressant item on the SRRS

    Daily Hassle

    During which stage is the “fight or flight” response activated?

    Alarm

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