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    not all countries have adopted air quality regulations as america has. what impact on human health would these countries experience if they adopt air quality regulations similar to the americas? the amount of exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution would remain unchanged. the number of premature deaths related to ultrafine particulate exposure would increase. people would experience a decrease in negative health effects associated with air pollution. effects from impaired breathing would only decrease for those exposed to outdoor air pollution.

    James

    Guys, does anyone know the answer?

    get not all countries have adopted air quality regulations as america has. what impact on human health would these countries experience if they adopt air quality regulations similar to the americas? the amount of exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution would remain unchanged. the number of premature deaths related to ultrafine particulate exposure would increase. people would experience a decrease in negative health effects associated with air pollution. effects from impaired breathing would only decrease for those exposed to outdoor air pollution. from EN Bilgi.

    Progress Cleaning the Air and Improving People's Health

    Actions to implement the Clean Air Act have achieved dramatic reductions in air pollution, preventing hundreds of thousands of cases of serious health effects each year.

    Progress Cleaning the Air and Improving People's Health

    The Clean Air Act has a proven record of public health and environmental protection since 1970.

    Pollution reductions from EPA Partnership Programs

    EPA uses voluntary partnership programs in tandem with regulatory programs to protect public health and the environment. Clean Air Act partnership programs reduce conventional air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, improve energy efficiency, reduce oil imports, and save money.

    More information on the national progress toward clean air

    Air Quality Trends

    Progress Reports on Market-Based Air Programs for Power Plants and Industry

    Impact of Five Major Rules for Vehicles and Engines

    History of Reducing Air Pollution from Transportation in the United States

    Quick Overview

    For more than forty-five years the Clean Air Act has cut pollution as the U.S. economy has grown.

    Americans breathe less pollution and face lower risks of premature death and other serious health effects.

    Environmental damage from air pollution is reduced.

    The value of Clean Air Act health benefits far exceeds the costs of reducing pollution.

    New cars, trucks, and nonroad engines use state-of-the-art emission control technologies.

    New plants and factories install modern pollution control technology.

    Power plants have cut emissions that cause acid rain and harm public health.

    Interstate air pollution has been reduced.

    Mobile and industrial pollution sources release much less toxic pollution to the air than in 1990.

    Actions to protect the ozone layer are saving millions of people from skin cancers and cataracts.

    The scenic vistas in our national parks are clearer due to reductions in pollution-caused haze.

    EPA has taken initial steps to limit emissions that cause climate change and ocean acidification.

    The Act has prompted deployment of clean technologies, and has helped provide impetus for technology innovations that reduce emissions and control costs.

    Detailed Summary: Clean Air Act Results

    For more than forty-five years the Clean Air Act has cut pollution as the U.S. economy has grown.

    Experience with the Clean Air Act since 1970 has shown that protecting public health and building the economy can go hand in hand.

    Clean Air Act programs have lowered levels of six common pollutants -- particles, ozone, lead, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide -- as well as numerous toxic pollutants.

    Between 1970 and 2020, the combined emissions of the six common pollutants (PM2.5 and PM10, SO2, NOx, VOCs, CO and Pb) dropped by 78 percent. This progress occurred while U.S. economic indicators remain strong.

    The emissions reductions have led to dramatic improvements in the quality of the air that we breathe. Between 1990 and 2020, national concentrations of air pollutants improved 73 percent for carbon monoxide, 86 percent for lead (from 2010), 61 percent for annual nitrogen dioxide, 25 percent for ozone, 26 percent for 24-hour coarse particle concentrations, 41 percent for annual fine particles (from 2000), and 91 percent for sulfur dioxide. (For more trends information, see EPA's Air Trends site.)

    These air quality improvements have enabled many areas of the country to meet national air quality standards set to protect public health and the environment. For example, all of the 41 areas that had unhealthy levels of carbon monoxide in 1991 now have levels that meet the health-based national air quality standard. A key reason is that the motor vehicle fleet is much cleaner because of Clean Air Act emissions standards for new motor vehicles.

    Airborne lead pollution, a widespread health concern before EPA phased out lead in motor vehicle gasoline under Clean Air Act authority, now meets national air quality standards in most areas of the country.

    State emission control measures to implement the Act, as well as EPA's national emissions standards, have contributed to air quality improvements.

    Because of the Act, Americans breathe less pollution and face lower risks of premature death and other serious health effects.

    A peer-reviewed EPA study issued in March 2011 found that the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are achieving large health benefits that will grow further over time as programs take full effect.

    This chart shows the health benefits of Clean Air Act programs that reduce levels of fine particles and ozone.

    Health Effect Reductions (PM2.5 & Ozone Only) Pollutant(s) Year 2010 Year 2020

    PM2.5 Adult Mortality PM 160,000 230,000

    PM2.5 Infant Mortality PM 230 280

    Ozone Mortality Ozone 4,300 7,100

    Chronic Bronchitis PM 54,000 75,000

    Acute Bronchitis PM 130,000 180,000

    Acute Myocardial Infarction PM 130,000 200,000

    Asthma Exacerbation PM 1,700,000 2,400,000

    Hospital Admissions PM, Ozone 86,000 135,000

    Emergency Room Visits PM, Ozone 86,000 120,000

    Restricted Activity Days PM, Ozone 84,000,000 110,000,000

    School Loss Days Ozone 3,200,000 5,400,000

    Lost Work Days PM 13,000,000 17,000,000

    The 2011 report did not include the large benefits of the pre-1990 Clean Air Act. A peer-reviewed 1997 EPA Report to Congress reviewed the benefits of the Act from 1970 to 1990, and concluded that in 1990 alone, pollution reductions under the Act prevented 205,000 early deaths, 10.4 million lost I.Q. points in children due to lead exposure, and millions of other cases of health effects.

    Source : www.epa.gov

    unit test:earth resources Flashcards

    Start studying unit test:earth resources. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    unit test:earth resources

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    How does the construction of dams positively affect natural resources?

    by providing water for irrigation and restoring trees to areas where forests once existed

    by creating reservoirs, preventing flooding, and renewing destroyed ecosystems

    by preventing flooding, creating reservoirs, and providing water for irrigation

    by renewing destroyed ecosystems and restoring trees to areas where forest once existed

    Click card to see definition 👆

    by preventing flooding, creating reservoirs, and providing water for irrigation

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    Which activity uses water for both recreational and industrial purposes?

    machinery cooling waterskiing irrigation fishing

    Click card to see definition 👆

    fishing

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    1/18 Created by Missbxby28

    Terms in this set (18)

    How does the construction of dams positively affect natural resources?

    by providing water for irrigation and restoring trees to areas where forests once existed

    by creating reservoirs, preventing flooding, and renewing destroyed ecosystems

    by preventing flooding, creating reservoirs, and providing water for irrigation

    by renewing destroyed ecosystems and restoring trees to areas where forest once existed

    by preventing flooding, creating reservoirs, and providing water for irrigation

    Which activity uses water for both recreational and industrial purposes?

    machinery cooling waterskiing irrigation fishing fishing

    Which resource is sometimes unpredictable in terms of energy production?

    coal wood gasoline natural gas wood

    Which resource is a nonrenewable resource?

    fresh water maple trees solar energy precious metal precious metal

    Which mineral resource is used to make baby powder?

    talc gypsum graphite salt talc

    Why is urbanization contributing to pollution?

    People in urban areas strip the soil of nutrients and make it difficult to grow crops.

    People in urban areas consume more energy, food, and water.

    People in urban areas remove minerals and metals from the ground, which increases erosion.

    People in urban areas log forests and mine, which causes climate change.

    People in urban areas consume more energy, food, and water.

    A restaurant advertises that it is environmentally friendly. It describes the solar panels it uses to generate electricity and the locally grown produce it serves. All the meals it offers are prepared over an open wood fire. Food is served on recycled copper plates, and drinks are served in recycled aluminum cups.

    Which correctly lists three renewable resources used by the restaurant?

    aluminum, copper, produce

    copper, produce, sunlight

    produce, sunlight, wood

    sunlight, wood, aluminum

    produce, sunlight, wood

    Not all countries have adopted air quality regulations as America has.

    What impact on human health would these countries experience if they adopt air quality regulations similar to the Americas?

    The amount of exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution would remain unchanged.

    The number of premature deaths related to ultrafine particulate exposure would increase.

    People would experience a decrease in negative health effects associated with air pollution.

    Effects from impaired breathing would only decrease for those exposed to outdoor air pollution.

    People would experience a decrease in negative health effects associated with air pollution.

    Which term refers to the loss of fertile soil from drying out?

    erosion desertification depletion overuse desertification

    Which best explains the effect of reforestation on land?

    It allows crops to grow in wide steps along slopes.

    It turns land slowly into desert.

    It turns habitable land uninhabitable.It restores trees to areas where they once grew.

    It restores trees to areas where they once grew.

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    Ambient (outdoor) air pollution

    WHO fact sheet on ambient (outdoor) air quality guidelines: includes key facts, definition, health effects, guideline values and WHO response.

    Ambient (outdoor) air pollution

    22 September 2021 العربية 中文 Français Русский Español

    Key facts

    Air pollution is one of the greatest environmental risk to health. By reducing air pollution levels, countries can reduce the burden of disease from stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, and both chronic and acute respiratory diseases, including asthma.

    The lower the levels of air pollution, the better the cardiovascular and respiratory health of the population will be, both long- and short-term.

    The WHO Air Quality Guidelines: Global Update 2021 provide an assessment of health effects of air pollution and thresholds for health–harmful pollution levels.

    In 2019, 99% of the world population was living in places where the WHO air quality guidelines levels were not met.

    Ambient (outdoor air pollution) in both cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 4.2 million premature deaths worldwide in 2016.

    Some 91% of those premature deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries, and the greatest number in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions.

    Policies and investments supporting cleaner transport, energy-efficient homes, power generation, industry and better municipal waste management would reduce key sources of outdoor air pollution.

    In addition to outdoor air pollution, indoor smoke is a serious health risk for some 2.6 billion people who cook and heat their homes with biomass, kerosene fuels and coal.

    Background

    Outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problem affecting everyone in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.

    Ambient (outdoor) air pollution in both cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 4.2 million premature deaths worldwide per year in 2016; this mortality is due to exposure to fine particulate matter of 2.5 microns or less in diameter (PM2.5), which cause cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and cancers.

    People living in low- and middle-income countries disproportionately experience the burden of outdoor air pollution with 91% (of the 4.2 million premature deaths) occurring in low- and middle-income countries, and the greatest burden in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions. The latest burden estimates reflect the very significant role air pollution plays in cardiovascular illness and death. More and more, evidence demonstrating the linkages between ambient air pollution and the cardiovascular disease risk is becoming available, including studies from highly polluted areas.

    WHO estimates that in 2016, some 58% of outdoor air pollution-related premature deaths were due to ischaemic heart disease and stroke, while 18% of deaths were due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute lower respiratory infections respectively, and 6% of deaths were due to lung cancer.

    Some deaths may be attributed to more than one risk factor at the same time. For example, both smoking and ambient air pollution affect lung cancer. Some lung cancer deaths could have been averted by improving ambient air quality, or by reducing tobacco smoking.

    A 2013 assessment by WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that outdoor air pollution is carcinogenic to humans, with the particulate matter component of air pollution most closely associated with increased cancer incidence, especially lung cancer. An association also has been observed between outdoor air pollution and increase in cancer of the urinary tract/bladder.

    Addressing all risk factors for noncommunicable diseases – including air pollution – is key to protecting public health.

    Most sources of outdoor air pollution are well beyond the control of individuals and demands concerted action by local, national and regional level policy-makers working in sectors like transport, energy, waste management, urban planning, and agriculture.

    There are many examples of successful policies in transport, urban planning, power generation and industry that reduce air pollution:

    for industry: clean technologies that reduce industrial smokestack emissions; improved management of urban and agricultural waste, including capture of methane gas emitted from waste sites as an alternative to incineration (for use as biogas);for energy: ensuring access to affordable clean household energy solutions for cooking, heating and lighting;for transport: shifting to clean modes of power generation; prioritizing rapid urban transit, walking and cycling networks in cities as well as rail interurban freight and passenger travel; shifting to cleaner heavy-duty diesel vehicles and low-emissions vehicles and fuels, including fuels with reduced sulfur content;for urban planning: improving the energy efficiency of buildings and making cities more green and compact, and thus energy efficient;for power generation: increased use of low-emissions fuels and renewable combustion-free power sources (like solar, wind or hydropower); co-generation of heat and power; and distributed energy generation (e.g. mini-grids and rooftop solar power generation);for municipal and agricultural waste management: strategies for waste reduction, waste separation, recycling and reuse or waste reprocessing; as well as improved methods of biological waste management such as anaerobic waste digestion to produce biogas, are feasible, low cost alternatives to the open incineration of solid waste. Where incineration is unavoidable, then combustion technologies with strict emission controls are critical.

    Source : www.who.int

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