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    new nations were forming from former european colonies in africa and asia at precisely the moment when the united states and soviet union were competing for influence and strategic advantage around the world. place these key events in the history of decolonization and the cold war in chronological order.

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    20th

    20th-century international relations, history of the relations between states, especially the great powers, from approximately 1900 to 2000. The history of the 20th century was shaped by the changing relations of the world’s great powers. The first half of the century, the age of the World Wars and the start of the Cold War, was dominated by the rivalries of those powers. The second half saw the replacement, largely through the agency of those wars, of the European state system by a world system with many centres of both power and discord. This article provides a single integrated narrative of

    20th-century international relations

    By Walter A. McDougall • Last Updated: Feb 28, 2022 • Edit History

    20th-century international relations, history of the relations between states, especially the great powers, from approximately 1900 to 2000.

    The history of the 20th century was shaped by the changing relations of the world’s great powers. The first half of the century, the age of the World Wars and the start of the Cold War, was dominated by the rivalries of those powers. The second half saw the replacement, largely through the agency of those wars, of the European state system by a world system with many centres of both power and discord. This article provides a single integrated narrative of the changing context of world politics, from the outbreak of World War I to the 1990s. Because domestic affairs figure heavily in the analysis of each state’s foreign policies, the reader should consult the histories of the individual countries for more detail.

    For discussion of the military strategy, tactics, and conduct of the World Wars, see World War I and World War II.

    The roots of World War I, 1871–1914

    Forty-three years of peace among the great powers of Europe came to an end in 1914, when an act of political terrorism provoked two great alliance systems into mortal combat. The South Slav campaign against Austrian rule in Bosnia, culminating in the assassination of the Habsburg heir apparent at Sarajevo, was the spark. This local crisis rapidly engulfed all the powers of Europe through the mechanisms of the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente, diplomatic arrangements meant precisely to enhance the security of their members and to deter potential aggressors. The long-term causes of the war can therefore be traced to the forces that impelled the formation of those alliances, increased tensions among the great powers, and made at least some European leaders desperate enough to seek their objectives even at the risk of a general war. These forces included militarism and mass mobilization, instability in domestic and international politics occasioned by rapid industrial growth, global imperialism, popular nationalism, and the rise of a social Darwinist worldview. But the question of why World War I broke out should be considered together with the questions of why peace ended and why in 1914 rather than before or after.

    The Bismarckian system, 1871–90

    The Bismarckian system, 1871–90 The era of the great powers

    The European map and world politics were less confused in the decades after 1871 than at any time before or since. The unifications of Italy and Germany removed the congeries of central European principalities that dated back to the Holy Roman Empire, while the breakup of eastern and southeastern Europe into small and quarreling states (a process that would yield the term balkanization) was not far advanced. There the old empires, Russian, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman (Turkish), still prevailed. The lesser powers of Europe, including some that once had been great, like the Netherlands, Sweden, and Spain, played little or no role in the affairs of the great powers unless their own interests were directly involved. Both physical size and the economies of scale important in an industrial age rendered smaller and less developed countries impotent, while the residual habits of diplomacy dating from the Congress of Vienna of 1815 made the great powers the sole arbiters of European politics.

    In the wider world, a diplomatic system of the European variety existed nowhere else. The outcome of the U.S. Civil War and Anglo-American settlement of the Canadian border ensured that North America would not develop a multilateral balance-of-power system. South and Central America had splintered into 17 independent republics following the final retreat of Spanish rule in 1820, but the new Latin American states were inward-looking, their centres of population and resources isolated by mountains, jungle, and sheer distance, and disputes among them were of mostly local interest. The Monroe Doctrine, promulgated by the United States and enforced by the British navy, sufficed to spare Latin America new European adventures, the only major exception—Napoleon III’s gambit in Mexico—occurring while the United States was preoccupied with civil war. When the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian tsar and Canada acquired dominion status, both in 1867, European possessions on the American mainland were reduced to three small Guianan colonies in South America and British Honduras (Belize). North Africa east of Algeria was still nominally under the aegis of the Ottoman sultan, while sub-Saharan Africa, apart from a few European ports on the coast, was terra incognita. The British had regularized their hold on the Indian subcontinent after putting down the Indian Mutiny of 1857–58, while the Chinese and Japanese empires remained xenophobic and isolationist. Thus, the cabinets of the European great powers were at the zenith of their influence.

    Europe itself, by 1871, seemed to be entering an age of political and social progress. Britain’s Second Reform Act (1867), the French Third Republic (1875), the triumph of nationalism in Italy and Germany (1871), the establishment of universal manhood suffrage in Germany (1867), equality for the Hungarians in the Habsburg monarchy (1867), emancipation of the serfs in Russia (1861), and the adoption of free trade by the major European states all seemed to justify faith in the peaceful evolution of Europe toward liberal institutions and prosperity.

    Source : www.britannica.com

    READ: Connecting Decolonization and the Cold War (article)

    The Cold War and decolonization were two trends that happened in parallel. Was it just by chance that two enormous global episodes began as the Second World War ended? Or did these two trends contribute to each other?

    The article below uses “Three Close Reads”. If you want to learn more about this strategy, click here.

    First read: preview and skimming for gist

    Before you read the article, you should skim it first. The skim should be very quick and give you the gist (general idea) of what the article is about. You should be looking at the title, author, headings, pictures, and opening sentences of paragraphs for the gist.

    Second read: key ideas and understanding content

    Now that you’ve skimmed the article, you should preview the questions you will be answering. These questions will help you get a better understanding of the concepts and arguments that are presented in the article. Keep in mind that when you read the article, it is a good idea to write down any vocab you see in the article that is unfamiliar to you.

    By the end of the second close read, you should be able to answer the following questions:

    How, according to the authors, did the Cold War begin even before the Second World War ended?

    What were some regional confrontations that were also Cold War battles between 1945 and 1990?

    What were some colonies that gained independence before 1960?

    Why was 1960 called “the year of Africa”?

    What are two ways in which the Cold War and decolonization were entangled?

    On what basis do some historians argue that both superpowers were building empires of their own?

    Third read: evaluating and corroborating

    Finally, here are some questions that will help you focus on why this article matters and how it connects to other content you’ve studied.

    At the end of the third read, you should be able to respond to these questions:

    The author argues that we see different things when we look at this era from different perspectives. Focusing on individual struggles for independence tells a very different story than does highlighting how all these individual struggles are part of a global Cold War confrontation. What are the advantages of looking at each struggle independently? What are some advantages of looking at the bigger pattern?

    Now that you know what to look for, it’s time to read! Remember to return to these questions once you’ve finished reading.

    Connecting Decolonization and the Cold War

    By Trevor Getz

    The Cold War and decolonization were two trends that happened in parallel. Was it just by chance that two enormous global episodes began as the Second World War ended? Or did these two trends contribute to each other?

    Timelines of the Cold War and the end of empire

    The Cold War and decolonization happened in roughly the same period of time and were, to many people, one experience rather than two. Because the Cold War and decolonization occurred around the same time, and were equally global in their impact, each influenced the way that the other developed. For these reasons, we tend to study these two trends together.

    In many ways, the Cold War began before the Second World War even ended. The leaders of the big victorious powers, especially the United States and the Soviet Union, but also Great Britain, met several times during the last years of the Second World War to try to figure out what the post-war world would look like. The last meeting between the Allied powers during the war was held in Yalta, Russia in February 1945. The US, the USSR, and Great Britain attended. It became clear to many people that this meeting was really about dividing much of the world into two separate spheres, one communist and Soviet-dominated, the other capitalist and US-dominated.

    British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, US President Franklin Roosevelt, and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin meeting at the Yalta Conference in Russia. Public domain.

    Some leaders, like US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, believed that a hard division could be avoided, at first anyway. But British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was less optimistic. After WWII was over, Churchill declared in a 1946 speech that he saw an "Iron Curtain" descending across Europe as Soviet Premiere Joseph Stalin began to establish governments he wanted to control throughout Eastern Europe.

    The Cold War timeline

    In 1947, US President Harry Truman said he would support anti-communist governments anywhere in the world. What followed were a series of confrontations, beginning with a Soviet blockade in Berlin, Germany in 1949. The victory of communist forces in China in 1949 helped spread this conflict to Asia, resulting in the Korean War of 1950-1953. Also in 1953, US-supported military leaders overthrew the Prime Minister of Iran, whom they suspected of supporting the Soviet Union. In early 1959, communist rebels in Cuba overthrew a US-aligned government, and the conflict quickly expanded in Central America and the Caribbean.

    Throughout the 1960s, US-supported forces and Soviet forces faced each other across the border between eastern and western Europe. Meanwhile, conflict spread to Southeast Asia with US forces supporting southern Vietnam as communist China and the Soviets supported northern Vietnam. In the late 1970s, Cold War confrontations really flared in southern Africa, but also picked up steam in the Americas. Both of these regional conflicts continued into the 1980s. The communist governments of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union collapsed between 1989 and 1991.

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

    Chapter 24: An Affluent Society, 1953—1960 Flashcards

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    Chapter 24: An Affluent Society, 1953—1960

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    New nations were forming from former European colonies in Africa and Asia at precisely the moment when the United States and Soviet Union were competing for influence and strategic advantage around the world. Place these key events in the history of decolonization and the Cold War in chronological order.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    Vietnamese proclamation of nationhood

    Creation of independent India and Pakistan

    Ouster of Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran and Jacob Arbenz Guzman in Guatemala

    The Bandung Conference

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    On the evening of Rosa Parks's arrest for refusing to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus to a white passenger, a young Martin Luther King Jr. spoke to a rally of local African-Americans. In the following excerpt from his December 5, 1955, speech, identify the passage(s) that illustrate the religious foundations of King's definition of freedom and justice.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    I want to say, that we are not here advocating violence. We have never done that. . . . We believe in the teachings of Jesus. The only weapon that we have in our hands this evening is the weapon of protest. . . .

    If we are wrong, the Constitution of the United States is wrong. If we are wrong, God Almighty is wrong. . . . If we are wrong, justice is a lie. . . .

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    New nations were forming from former European colonies in Africa and Asia at precisely the moment when the United States and Soviet Union were competing for influence and strategic advantage around the world. Place these key events in the history of decolonization and the Cold War in chronological order.

    Vietnamese proclamation of nationhood

    Creation of independent India and Pakistan

    Ouster of Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran and Jacob Arbenz Guzman in Guatemala

    The Bandung Conference

    On the evening of Rosa Parks's arrest for refusing to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus to a white passenger, a young Martin Luther King Jr. spoke to a rally of local African-Americans. In the following excerpt from his December 5, 1955, speech, identify the passage(s) that illustrate the religious foundations of King's definition of freedom and justice.

    I want to say, that we are not here advocating violence. We have never done that. . . . We believe in the teachings of Jesus. The only weapon that we have in our hands this evening is the weapon of protest. . . .

    If we are wrong, the Constitution of the United States is wrong. If we are wrong, God Almighty is wrong. . . . If we are wrong, justice is a lie. . . .

    Eisenhower, until elected president, was a professional soldier, thus, he understood the realities of war. He also wanted to balance the government budget. Eisenhower's ___________ , John Foster Dulles, was described as a "grim Cold Warrior." To meld the two goals of winning wars and being thrifty with money, Dulles altered the doctrine of containment with his _________ foreign policy. He felt he could contain Russian expansion if the U.S. military built up its ________ while cutting back on conventional soldiers. Because machines don't eat or need uniforms, they would be cheaper than troops on the ground and still act as a deterrent to communist aggression.

    secretary of state

    "massive retaliation"

    nuclear warhead arsenal

    In the 1950s, the automobile was the pivot on which suburban life turned. Identify examples of how automobiles altered the American landscape.

    Automobile travel in the 1950s led to people taking jobs farther away from home and commuting.

    The first McDonald's opened.

    Drive-in movie theaters became new businesses.

    Identify the statements that describe the Beats.

    They were a group of poets and writers who challenged the mainstream culture through their work.

    They argued that political repression, not freedom, was the hallmark of American society in the 1950s.

    They rejected the 1950s emphasis on "materialism."

    Identify the events that led to the civil rights revolution of the 1950s.

    the rise of independent states in the Third World with nonwhite leaders

    the destabilization of the racial system during World War II

    the mass migration of blacks out of the segregated South

    In the 1950s, television changed several aspects of the American lifestyle. Identify the key changes that resulted from the growing influence of television.

    Television became the first choice for information about public events.

    American eating habits changed.

    Books focused on raising children and the roles of women gained prominence in the 1950s. Modern Woman: The Lost Sex (1947), for example, spoke to the roles women should have in society. Identify the statements that most agree with the book's perspective.

    Women who were unhappy homemakers had a mental disorder.

    Women who had a desire to work for wages were contradicting their natural, maternal instinct to serve as wives and mothers.

    Identify the causes of the population increase that followed World War II.

    Couples had more children than generations of the 1930s and 1940s.

    Couples married younger than previous generations.

    In 1957, in Little Rock, Arkansas, nine African-American students attempted to integrate the city's high school. Governor Orval Faubus responded to the attempt by utilizing the state National Guard to ____________. President __________ by sending in U.S. troops to ____________.

    Source : quizlet.com

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