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    U.S. Department of Commerce

    An official website of the United States government

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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    This article reads like a press release or a news article and is largely based on routine coverage or sensationalism. Please expand this article with properly sourced content to meet Wikipedia's quality standards, event notability guideline, or encyclopedic content policy.

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Logo of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Agency overview

    Formed October 3, 1970; 51 years ago

    Preceding agency

    United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and Environmental Science Services Administration

    Jurisdiction US Federal Government

    Headquarters Silver Spring, Maryland[]

    38°59′32.1″N 77°01′50.3″W / 38.992250°N 77.030639°W

    Employees

    321 NOAA Commissioned Corps (2018)

    12,000 civilian employees (2021)

    [1]

    Annual budget US$6.9 billion (est. 2022)

    Agency executive

    Rick Spinrad, NOAA Administrator and

    Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere

    Parent agency US Department of Commerce

    show Child agencies Website NOAA.gov Footnotes [2][3][4][5]

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    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA /ˈnoʊ.ə/ ) is an American scientific and regulatory agency within the United States Department of Commerce that forecasts weather, monitors oceanic and atmospheric conditions, charts the seas, conducts deep sea exploration, and manages fishing and protection of marine mammals and endangered species in the U.S. exclusive economic zone.

    Contents

    1 Purpose and function

    2 History

    3 Organizational structure

    3.1 NOAA administrator

    3.2 NOAA services

    3.2.1 National Weather Service

    3.2.2 National Ocean Service

    3.2.3 National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service

    3.2.4 National Marine Fisheries Service

    3.2.5 Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research

    3.2.6 NOAA ships and aircraft Office of Marine and Aviation Operations

    3.2.7 National Geodetic Survey

    3.2.8 National Integrated Drought Information System

    3.2.9 NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps

    4 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    5 Hurricane Dorian controversy

    6 Flag 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

    Purpose and function[edit]

    Two NOAA WP-3D Orions

    NOAA's specific roles include:

    . NOAA supplies to its customers and partners information pertaining to the state of the oceans and the atmosphere, such as weather warnings and forecasts via the National Weather Service. NOAA's information services extend as well to climate, ecosystems, and commerce.

    . NOAA is a steward of U.S. coastal and marine environments. In coordination with federal, state, local, tribal and international authorities, NOAA manages the use of these environments, regulating fisheries and marine sanctuaries as well as protecting threatened and endangered marine species.

    . NOAA is intended to be a source of accurate and objective scientific information in the four particular areas of national and global importance identified above: ecosystems, climate, weather and water, and commerce and transportation.[6]

    NOAA's five fundamental activities are:

    Monitoring and observing Earth systems with instruments and data collection networks.

    Understanding and describing Earth systems through research and analysis of data.

    Assessing and predicting the changes in these systems over time.

    Engaging, advising, and informing the public and partner organizations with relevant information.

    Custodianship of environmental resources.[7]

    History[edit]

    NOAA traces its history back to multiple agencies,[8] some of which were among the oldest in the federal government:[9]

    United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, formed in 1807.

    Weather Bureau of the United States, formed in 1870.

    Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, formed in 1871 (research fleet-only).

    Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps, formed in 1917.

    The most direct predecessor of NOAA was the Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA), into which several existing scientific agencies such as the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Weather Bureau and the uniformed Corps were absorbed in 1965.[9]

    NOAA was established within the Department of Commerce via the Reorganization Plan No. 4[9] and formed on October 3, 1970, after U.S. President Richard Nixon proposed creating a new agency to serve a national need for "better protection of life and property from natural hazards… for a better understanding of the total environment… [and] for exploration and development leading to the intelligent use of our marine resources".[10] NOAA is a part of the Department of Commerce rather than the Department of Interior because of a feud between President Nixon and his interior secretary, Wally Hickel, over the Nixon Administration's Vietnam War policy. Nixon did not like Hickel's letter urging Nixon to listen to the Vietnam War demonstrators,[11] and thus punished Hickel by not putting NOAA in the Interior Department.[12]

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

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