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    mutations are best described as changes in dna or rna.

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    mutation

    Any change in a genetic sequence, large or small.

    mutation

    A mutation is a change in a genetic sequence. Mutations include changes as small as the substitution of a single DNA building block, or nucleotide base, with another nucleotide base. Meanwhile, larger mutations can affect many genes on a chromosome. Along with substitutions, mutations can also be caused by insertions, deletions, or duplications of DNA sequences.

    Some mutations are hereditary because they are passed down to an offspring from a parent carrying a mutation through the germ line, meaning through an egg or sperm cell carrying the mutation. There are also nonhereditary mutations that occur in cells outside of the germ line, which are called somatic mutations. Mutations can be introduced due to mistakes made during DNA replication or due to exposure to mutagens, which are chemical and environmental agents that can introduce mutations in the DNA sequence, such as ultraviolet light. Some mutations do not result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein and can be described as silent mutations. Other mutations result in abnormal protein products. Mutations can introduce new alleles into a population of organisms and increase the population's genetic variation.

    Source : www.nature.com

    What is a mutation?

    A mutation is a change that occurs in our DNA sequence, either due to mistakes when the DNA is copied or as the result of environmental factors such as UV light and cigarette smoke. 

    In: FACTS In the Cell

    What is a mutation?

    A mutation is a change that occurs in our DNA sequence, either due to mistakes when the DNA is copied or as the result of environmental factors such as UV light and cigarette smoke.

    Over a lifetime our DNA? can undergo changes or ‘mutations?’ in the sequence of bases?, A, C, G and T.

    This results in changes in the proteins? that are made. This can be a bad or a good thing.

    Mutations can occur during DNA replication? if errors are made and not corrected in time.

    Mutations can also occur as the result of exposure to environmental factors such as smoking, sunlight and radiation.

    Often cells can recognise any potentially mutation-causing damage and repair it before it becomes a fixed mutation.

    Mutations contribute to genetic variation? within species?.

    Mutations can also be inherited, particularly if they have a positive effect.

    For example, the disorder sickle cell anaemia? is caused by a mutation in the gene? that instructs the building of a protein called haemoglobin?. This causes the red blood cells? to become an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape. However, in African populations, having this mutation also protects against malaria?.

    However, mutation can also disrupt normal gene activity and cause diseases, like cancer?

    Cancer is the most common human genetic disease; it is caused by mutations occurring in a number of growth-controlling genes. Sometimes faulty, cancer-causing genes can exist from birth, increasing a person’s chance of getting cancer.

    An illustration to show an example of a DNA mutation.

    Image credit: Genome Research Limited

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    This page was last updated on 2021-07-21

    Í What is DNA? FACTS

    DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a long molecule that contains our unique genetic code. Like a recipe book it holds the instructions for making all the proteins in our bodies.

    What is DNA replication?

    FACTS

    DNA replication is the process by which DNA makes a copy of itself during cell division.

    What is genetic variation?

    FACTS

    Genetic variation is a term used to describe the variation in the DNA sequence in each of our genomes. Genetic variation is what makes us all unique, whether in terms of hair colour, skin colour or even the shape of our faces.

    What types of mutation are there?

    FACTS

    There are lots of different mutations that can occur in our DNA.

    Is cancer a genetic disease?

    FACTS

    Cancer is the most common human genetic disease. The transition from a normal cell to a malignant cancer is driven by changes to a cell’s DNA, also known as mutations.

    Source : www.yourgenome.org

    Bio Unit 5 Flashcards

    Start studying Bio Unit 5. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Bio Unit 5

    5.0 1 Review True or false

    Mutations are best described as changes in DNA or RNA

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    True

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    Which of the following statements are correct concerning mutation?

    -Mutations are essential for evolution to occur

    -A mutation is change in the sequence of bases in DNA or RNA

    -Most mutations have no effect on the organism in which they occur

    -All of the above

    Click card to see definition 👆

    all of the above

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/36 Created by Kiersten_Pickens

    Terms in this set (36)

    True or false

    Mutations are best described as changes in DNA or RNA

    True

    Which of the following statements are correct concerning mutation?

    -Mutations are essential for evolution to occur

    -A mutation is change in the sequence of bases in DNA or RNA

    -Most mutations have no effect on the organism in which they occur

    -All of the above all of the above

    Examine the following mutation: ACGGGCAAACGATTG to ACGGGCAACGATTG. The mutation is

    -A frameshift mutation

    -An insertion of a single nucleotide

    -A nonsense mutation

    -A duplication mutation

    A frameshift mutation

    Which of the following types of mutations would most likely result in a genetic disorder

    -Somatic mutation -Silent mutation

    -Frameshift mutation

    -All of the above Frameshirt mutation

    Types of chromosomal alterations include

    -Translocation

    -Frameshift mutations

    -Point mutations -All of the above Translocations True or false

    Single base substitutions are not considered to be mutations

    False True or false

    The two major categories of mutations are germline mutations and somatic mutations

    True True or false

    Somatic mutations occur in gametes

    False

    Types of point mutations include

    -Missense mutations -Nonsense mutation -Silent mutations -All of the above All of the above

    A ______ mutation codes for the same amino acid.

    Silent

    A ______ mutation changes the reading frame of the mRNA

    Frameshift

    Mutations increase genetic ______ and the potential for individuals to differ.

    Variation

    Distinguish between silent, missense, and nonsense mutations

    Silent, missense, and nonsense mutations are all point mutations. Silent mutations code for the same amino acid and have no effect on the resulting protein.

    Assume that a point mutation changes the codon AUU to AUC. Explain why is this a neutral mutation.

    This point mutation is a neutral mutation because the codon AUU and AUC both code for the same amino acid, isoleucine. This mutation has no effect on the final polypeptide chain.

    Examine the following mutations: AUG-GUC-CCU-AAA to AUG-AGU-CCC-UAA-A. Describe how this mutation affects the encodon amino acid sequence.

    The base A was inserted into the mRNA sequence after the first G. This causes a frameshift mutation, where the reading frame is moved over one base. When the reading frame is changed, the following codon sequence shifts and now codes for different amino acids, resulting in a protein that does not function properly or at all.

    Spontaneous mutations occur due to errors in ______.

    -telemerase -DNA replication -RNA replication -All of these DNA replication

    Ultraviolet radiation, X-ray radiation, and other chemicals are all:

    -causes of mutations

    -used in barbecuing -used in labs -none of these causes of mutations What is a mutagen?

    -cancer-causing agent

    -factor that immediately kills the organism

    -inherited mutations

    -environmental factors that cause mutations

    environmental factors that cause mutations

    Many mutations cause ______.

    -cancer -mutagens -chemotherapy -all of the above cancer True or false

    A purine to purine, or a pyrimidine to pyrimidine change is called Transition

    True

    Examples of potentially dangerous mutagens include which of the following? (1) cigarette smoke (2) chemicals in processed meats (3) overexposure to sunlight (4) certain viruses

    -1 only -1 and 3 -2 and 4 -1, 2, 3, and 4 1, 2, 3, and 4

    Anything in the ______ that can cause a mutation is known as a mutagen.

    environment

    Induced mutations are caused by ______.

    Mutagens

    Compare and contrast spontaneous mutations and induced mutations.

    Spontaneous mutations occur under natural conditions and are random changes in teh DNA. Induced mutations are changes in DNA caused by mutagens. Mutagens are environmental factors that induced a mutation to occur.

    Distinguish between mutation and mutagen.

    A mutation is the base or chromosomal change in the DNA sequence, either spontaneous or induced. A mutagen is the environmental factor that induces a mutation to occur. A mutagen causes mutation.

    Mutations are essential for evolution to occur because they increase ______.

    -genetic variation

    -potential for individuals to differ

    -survivability of the species

    - all of the above all of the above

    A ______ is a disease caused by a mutation in one or a few genes.

    Source : quizlet.com

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