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    Is multiple sclerosis a risk factor for atherosclerosis?

    CIMT seems to be affected in patients with MS by means of the disease itself and age. Thus, CIMT might reflect the predisposition to subclinical atherosclerosis more than Hs-CRP. Further investigation in a large MS population is still needed.

    . 2021 Mar;48(2):99-103.

    doi: 10.1016/j.neurad.2019.10.002. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

    Is multiple sclerosis a risk factor for atherosclerosis?

    Burcu Yuksel  1 , Pinar Koc  2 , Eylem Ozaydin Goksu  3 , Ertan Karacay  4 , Fatma Kurtulus  5 , Yesim Cekin  6 , Yasemin Bicer Gomceli  7

    Affiliations

    Affiliations

    1 Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Neurology Department, Muratpasa, 07050 Antalya, Turkey. Electronic address: [email protected]

    2 Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Radiology Department, Muratpasa, 07050 Antalya, Turkey.

    3 Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Neurology Department, Muratpasa, 07050 Antalya, Turkey. Electronic address: [email protected]

    4 Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Neurology Department, Muratpasa, 07050 Antalya, Turkey. Electronic address: [email protected]

    5 Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Neurology Department, Muratpasa, 07050 Antalya, Turkey. Electronic address: [email protected]

    6 Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Microbiology Department, Muratpasa, 07050 Antalya, Turkey. Electronic address: [email protected]

    7 Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Neurology Department, Muratpasa, 07050 Antalya, Turkey. Electronic address: [email protected]

    PMID: 31707002

    DOI: 10.1016/j.neurad.2019.10.002

    Is multiple sclerosis a risk factor for atherosclerosis?

    Burcu Yuksel et al. J Neuroradiol. 2021 Mar.

    . 2021 Mar;48(2):99-103.

    doi: 10.1016/j.neurad.2019.10.002. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

    Authors

    Burcu Yuksel  1 , Pinar Koc  2 , Eylem Ozaydin Goksu  3 , Ertan Karacay  4 , Fatma Kurtulus  5 , Yesim Cekin  6 , Yasemin Bicer Gomceli  7

    Affiliations

    1 Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Neurology Department, Muratpasa, 07050 Antalya, Turkey. Electronic address: [email protected]

    2 Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Radiology Department, Muratpasa, 07050 Antalya, Turkey.

    3 Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Neurology Department, Muratpasa, 07050 Antalya, Turkey. Electronic address: [email protected]

    4 Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Neurology Department, Muratpasa, 07050 Antalya, Turkey. Electronic address: [email protected]

    5 Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Neurology Department, Muratpasa, 07050 Antalya, Turkey. Electronic address: [email protected]

    6 Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Microbiology Department, Muratpasa, 07050 Antalya, Turkey. Electronic address: [email protected]

    7 Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Neurology Department, Muratpasa, 07050 Antalya, Turkey. Electronic address: [email protected]

    PMID: 31707002

    DOI: 10.1016/j.neurad.2019.10.002

    Abstract

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. We aimed to discuss possible predisposing factors to atherosclerosis such as carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) levels in MS. Methods: Thirty-five ambulatory patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) (22 females and 13 males) and 34 healthy controls (21 females and 13 males) with similar demographic variables were included. Blood cell counts, cholesterol levels, vitamin D and B12, Hs-CRP levels, body mass index (BMI), history of smoking, and CIMT of both groups, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, and disease duration of patients were recorded. Patients with a history of other vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, peripheral artery disease, and acute relapses were excluded. Results: Sixty-nine participants were included. The mean age of the study population was 35.8±7.1 years. Right CIMT was significantly greater in the patient population (P<0.001). Spearman's correlation coefficient between age and right CIMT was r=0.41, P=0.01. When we compared the Hs-CRP with a cut-off value of ≤3, the right, left, and mean CIMT levels were not statistically significant (P=0.17; P=0.22; P=0.15). The mean serum vitamin D levels were higher in the patient group and this was statistically significant (P<0.001). The statistically significant factors identified with univariate analysis with P<0.2 were further entered into multivariate modelling. Conclusion: CIMT seems to be affected in patients with MS by means of the disease itself and age. Thus, CIMT might reflect the predisposition to subclinical atherosclerosis more than Hs-CRP. Further investigation in a large MS population is still needed. Keywords: Atherosclerosis; High-sensitivity C-reactive protein; Inflammation; Intima-media thickness; Multiple sclerosis.

    Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

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    What Is the Difference Between Atherosclerosis and Arteriosclerosis?

    Arteriosclerosis is a broader term for the condition in which the arteries narrow and harden, leading to poor circulation of blood throughout the body. Atherosclerosis is a specific kind of arteriosclerosis, but these terms are often used interchangeably. Both conditions lead to decreased blood flow to other parts of the body.

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    What is atherosclerosis?

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of blood vessels. In this condition, the innermost layer of the blood vessels (endothelium) is constricted by the deposition of fat, calcium and cellular debris. Atherosclerosis leads to the narrowing of the artery, which in turn reduces the flow of blood passing through it. The reduced blood flow results in a depletion of the amount of oxygen and nutrients reaching the affected part of the body.

    Atherosclerosis can lead to further complications such as:

    Coronary heart disease: Build-up of the fatty substance (plaque) in the arteries supplying blood to the heart.Angina: Chest pain due to reduced blood flow to the heart muscles.Carotid artery disease: Plaque in the arteries that supply blood to the brain. These are situated in the neck.Peripheral artery disease: Plaque in the arteries that supply blood to the legs.Chronic kidney disease

    What is the difference between atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis?

    Arteriosclerosis is a broader term for the condition in which the arteries narrow and harden, leading to poor circulation of blood throughout the body.

    Atherosclerosis is a specific kind of arteriosclerosis, but these terms are often used interchangeably. Both conditions lead to decreased blood flow to other parts of the body.

    What are the main causes of atherosclerosis?

    Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease, which may either start in childhood or late adulthood. The exact cause of atherosclerosis is still unknown; however, plaque formation begins when there is damage to the endothelium of the artery. Some of the most common factors which are more likely to cause this damage are:

    Elevated cholesterol or triglyceride levels in the body

    High blood pressure Cigarette smoking

    Other risk factors include:

    Diabetes mellitus Obesity Lack of exercise

    Sex (men are more prone)

    Family history of increased cholesterol

    What are the signs and symptoms of atherosclerosis?

    Early atherosclerosis does not present any symptoms. Symptoms may appear once the artery starts to become narrower. Symptoms may occur depending on the arteries that are affected. The various symptoms are:

    Chest pain Weakness Vision problems Speech problems Headache

    Pain in legs or feet

    Difficulty walking

    How is atherosclerosis diagnosed?

    Early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is important to prevent further complications. The physician evaluates the medical history and looks for the symptoms to diagnose atherosclerosis. Tests depend on the arteries that are affected. The various tests which help in diagnosing atherosclerosis are:

    Electrocardiogram Angiography

    Cardiac catheterization

    Ultrasonography examination

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Scintigraphy

    Doppler (especially lower limbs)

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    How is atherosclerosis treated?

    The treatment approach of atherosclerosis involves:

    Controlling risk factors

    Controlling blood pressure, blood sugar levels and cholesterol levels

    Smoking cessation

    Medications which are effective in lowering cholesterol levels include:

    Statins Fibrates

    Bile acid sequestrants

    Antiplatelet medications can be used to prevent blood from clotting or clogging arteries.

    Antihypertensive medications such as diuretics or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) may be used to control blood pressure.

    Which lifestyle changes help treat and prevent atherosclerosis?

    Lifestyle changes help treat as well as prevent atherosclerosis. The lifestyle changes that can be helpful include:

    Eating a healthy diet that is free of saturated fats and cholesterol

    Avoiding fried and fatty foods

    Consuming fish twice a week

    Exercising daily for at least three to four hours

    Quitting tobacco use

    Stress management Weight loss

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    Is multiple sclerosis a risk factor for atherosclerosis?

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. We aimed to discuss possible predisposing factors to a…

    Journal of Neuroradiology

    Volume 48, Issue 2, March 2021, Pages 99-103

    Original article

    Is multiple sclerosis a risk factor for atherosclerosis?

    Author links open overlay panel

    BurcuYukselaYaseminBicer Gomcelia

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurad.2019.10.002

    Get rights and content

    Highlights

    CIMT seemed to be affected in patients with MS when comparing with healthy controls.who had similar demographic variables (age, sex, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, and cholesterol levels).

    During remission Hs-CRP has been found at normal levels.

    Different disease-modifying therapies may have altered the inflammation process.

    Abstract

    Background

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. We aimed to discuss possible predisposing factors to atherosclerosis such as carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) levels in MS.

    Methods

    Thirty-five ambulatory patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) (22 females and 13 males) and 34 healthy controls (21 females and 13 males) with similar demographic variables were included. Blood cell counts, cholesterol levels, vitamin D and B12, Hs-CRP levels, body mass index (BMI), history of smoking, and CIMT of both groups, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, and disease duration of patients were recorded. Patients with a history of other vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, peripheral artery disease, and acute relapses were excluded.

    Results

    Sixty-nine participants were included. The mean age of the study population was 35.8 ± 7.1 years. Right CIMT was significantly greater in the patient population (P < 0.001). Spearman's correlation coefficient between age and right CIMT was r = 0.41, P = 0.01. When we compared the Hs-CRP with a cut-off value of ≤ 3, the right, left, and mean CIMT levels were not statistically significant (P = 0.17; P = 0.22; P = 0.15). The mean serum vitamin D levels were higher in the patient group and this was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The statistically significant factors identified with univariate analysis with P < 0.2 were further entered into multivariate modelling.

    Conclusion

    CIMT seems to be affected in patients with MS by means of the disease itself and age. Thus, CIMT might reflect the predisposition to subclinical atherosclerosis more than Hs-CRP. Further investigation in a large MS population is still needed.

    Graphical abstract

    Box-plot representing right and mean CIMT in patient and control groups. CIMT: carotid intima-media thickness.

    Previous articleNext article

    Keywords

    AtherosclerosisMultiple sclerosisIntima-media thicknessHigh-sensitivity C-reactive proteinInflammation

    Cited by (3)

    Carotid intima-media thickness measurements in patients with multiple sclerosis

    2022, Annals of Medicine and Surgery

    Hypoxia in multiple sclerosis; Is it the chicken or the egg?

    2021, Brain

    Subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    2021, Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift

    View full text

    © 2019 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

    Source : www.sciencedirect.com

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