most people are likely to be surprised by the results of milgram’s initial obedience experiment because ________.
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TermMost people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram's initial obedience experiment because:
Definitionthe "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted.
TermPoverty and unemployment are likely to be explained in terms of personal dispositions by ________ and in terms of situational influences by ________.
Definitionpolitical conservatives; political liberals
TermThe enduring traditions, ideas, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a large group of people define their:
Term[image]The bystander effect refers to the tendency for an observer of an emergency to withhold aid if the:
Definitionemergency is being observed by a number of other people.
TermIn Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" were most likely to deliver high levels of shock when:
Definitionthe experiment was conducted at a prestigious institution such as Yale University.
TermWhich of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink?
DefinitionWe all seem to be in basic agreement, so there's no sense in continuing our discussion of this issue."
TermWe have a tendency to explain the behavior of others in terms of ________ and to explain our own behavior in terms of ________.
Definitionpersonality traits; situational constraints
TermDeindividuation refers to
Definitiona loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
TermThe discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called:
[image]Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group's judgment of the lengths of lines:
Definitioneven when the group judgment was clearly incorrect
TermThe best explanation for the inaction of bystanders during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to
Definitionassume personal responsibility for helping the victim.
TermMost children believe their school is better than the other schools in their town. This best illustrates:
TermA social trap is a situation in which
Definitionthe pursuit of self-interest leads to collective harm
TermNormative social influence results from peoples' desire to
Definitiongain social approval
TermSara, a 20-year-old college sophomore, is very beautiful. Research suggests that she is likely to ________ than less attractive college women.
Definitionbe perceived as more socially skilled
TermExpert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots while alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates:
[image]Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrates the impact of:
Definitionrole playing on attitudes
TermAttribution theory was designed to account for:
Definitionhow people explain others' behavior.
TermAccording to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that:
Definitioneven ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction
Term[image]In order to distinguish sense from nonsense, Myers and Jeeves suggest that Christian psychologists ought to
Definitionadopt a scientific empirical approach
TermPolitical pollsters find that people's attitudes toward the presidential candidates are very accurate predictors of the election outcome. This best illustrates that attitudes guide our actions when the attitude:
Definitionis specifically relevant to the behavior.
TermCarol is restless during class because her professor's distressed facial expressions lead her to believe that he dislikes teaching. The professor, on the other hand, is distressed because he sees Carol's restlessness as an indication that she lacks any motivation to learn. At this point, both student and professor should be informed of the dangers of:
Definitionthe fundamental attribution error.
TermAttitudes are ________ that guide behavior
Definitionbeliefs and feelings
TermAfter they had first agreed to display a 3-inch "Be a Safe Driver" sign, California home owners were highly likely to permit the installation of a very large and unattractive "Drive Carefully" sign in their front yards. This best illustrates:
Definitionthe foot-in-the-door phenomenon
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Solved QUESTION 31 Most people are likely to be surprised by
Answer to Solved QUESTION 31 Most people are likely to be surprised by
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Question: QUESTION 31 Most People Are Likely To Be Surprised By The Results Of Milgram's Initial Obedience Experiment Because O A The "Learmers" Obediently Accepted Painful Shocks Without Any Protest O B. The "Teachers Actually Enjoyed Shocking Another Person C The "Teachers" Were More Obedient Than Most People Would Have Predicted D The "Learmers Made So Few Learning
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31. The correct answer is Option C. Milgram’s study revealed that the teachers were more obedient than what…
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Transcribed image text: QUESTION 31 Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram's initial obedience experiment because O A the "learmers" obediently accepted painful shocks without any protest O B. the "teachers actually enjoyed shocking another person C the "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted D the "learmers made so few learning errors under stressful circumstances. QUESTION 32 People sometimes feel less personally accountable and less concemed about what others think of them when acting as part of a group This most clearly contrbutes to O A social loafing OB social facilitation C group polarization. D cognitive dissonance. QUESTION 33 A group of homophobic high school students discussed prejudice against gays O A deindividuation ( B the chameleon effect u ng the conversation their attitudes beca ne even more pre diced This best ifustrates C. social facilitation OD group polarization. QUESTION 34 Which of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink? A "To proceed democratically, we need to know the honest opmons of all group memben B-Do any of you see any potential problem with our group's position?" o C. We all seem to be in basic agreement, so there's no sense in continuing our discussion of this issue OD "As a group, we have to think carefully about all the pros and cons surrounding this issue QUESTION 35 Observing yourself on a video replay is most likely to increase your tendency to atthibute your behavior to A cognitive dissonance B. atitudes OC personality traits D role playing
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The Milgram Shock Experiment
By Saul McLeod, updated 2017
One of the most famous studies of obedience in psychology was carried out by Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University. He conducted an experiment focusing on the conflict between obedience to authority and personal conscience.
Milgram (1963) examined justifications for acts of genocide offered by those accused at the World War II, Nuremberg War Criminal trials. Their defense often was based on "obedience" - that they were just following orders from their superiours.
The experiments began in July 1961, a year after the trial of Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem. Milgram devised the experiment to answer the question:
Could it be that Eichmann and his million accomplices in the Holocaust were just following orders? Could we call them all accomplices?" (Milgram, 1974).Article Content
Milgram's Agency Theory
Milgram Experiment Variations
Critical Evaluation Ethical Issues References
The Milgram Shock Experiment
Milgram (1963) wanted to investigate whether Germans were particularly obedient to authority figures as this was a common explanation for the Nazi killings in World War II.
Milgram selected participants for his experiment by newspaper advertising for male participants to take part in a study of learning at Yale University.
The procedure was that the participant was paired with another person and they drew lots to find out who would be the ‘learner’ and who would be the ‘teacher.’ The draw was fixed so that the participant was always the teacher, and the learner was one of Milgram’s confederates (pretending to be a real participant).
The learner (a confederate called Mr. Wallace) was taken into a room and had electrodes attached to his arms, and the teacher and researcher went into a room next door that contained an electric shock generator and a row of switches marked from 15 volts (Slight Shock) to 375 volts (Danger: Severe Shock) to 450 volts (XXX).
Milgram (1963) was interested in researching how far people would go in obeying an instruction if it involved harming another person.
Stanley Milgram was interested in how easily ordinary people could be influenced into committing atrocities, for example, Germans in WWII.
Volunteers were recruited for a controlled experiment investigating “learning” (re: ethics: deception). Participants were 40 males, aged between 20 and 50, whose jobs ranged from unskilled to professional, from the New Haven area. They were paid $4.50 for just turning up.
At the beginning of the experiment, they were introduced to another participant, who was a confederate of the experimenter (Milgram).
They drew straws to determine their roles – learner or teacher – although this was fixed and the confederate was always the learner. There was also an “experimenter” dressed in a gray lab coat, played by an actor (not Milgram).
Two rooms in the Yale Interaction Laboratory were used - one for the learner (with an electric chair) and another for the teacher and experimenter with an electric shock generator.
The “learner” (Mr. Wallace) was strapped to a chair with electrodes. After he has learned a list of word pairs given him to learn, the "teacher" tests him by naming a word and asking the learner to recall its partner/pair from a list of four possible choices.
The teacher is told to administer an electric shock every time the learner makes a mistake, increasing the level of shock each time. There were 30 switches on the shock generator marked from 15 volts (slight shock) to 450 (danger – severe shock).
The learner gave mainly wrong answers (on purpose), and for each of these, the teacher gave him an electric shock. When the teacher refused to administer a shock, the experimenter was to give a series of orders/prods to ensure they continued.
There were four prods and if one was not obeyed, then the experimenter (Mr. Williams) read out the next prod, and so on.Prod 1: Please continue.Prod 2: The experiment requires you to continue.Prod 3: It is absolutely essential that you continue.Prod 4: You have no other choice but to continue.
65% (two-thirds) of participants (i.e., teachers) continued to the highest level of 450 volts. All the participants continued to 300 volts.
Milgram did more than one experiment – he carried out 18 variations of his study. All he did was alter the situation (IV) to see how this affected obedience (DV).
The individual explanation for the behaviour of the participants would be that it was something about them as people that caused them to obey, but a more realistic explanation is that the situation they were in influenced them and caused them to behave in the way that they did.
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