morgan has diabetes and must carefully monitor his food intake. he is learning the calorie count of the different macromolecules—carbohydrates, proteins, and fats—so that he can make choices to keep his blood sugar in the proper range. he notices that the word calorie is sometimes spelled with a capital c. which statements accurately describe calories and calories? select all of the answers that apply.
Guys, does anyone know the answer?
get morgan has diabetes and must carefully monitor his food intake. he is learning the calorie count of the different macromolecules—carbohydrates, proteins, and fats—so that he can make choices to keep his blood sugar in the proper range. he notices that the word calorie is sometimes spelled with a capital c. which statements accurately describe calories and calories? select all of the answers that apply. from EN Bilgi.
Diabetes management: How lifestyle, daily routine affect blood sugar
Diabetes management requires awareness. Know what makes your blood sugar level rise and fall.
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Carbohydrates and Diabetes (for Teens)
If you have diabetes, your doctor may have recommended keeping track of how many carbohydrates (carbs) you eat. But what exactly are carbs and how do they affect your blood sugar?
What Are Carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates (carbs) are one of the three big nutrients that make up food. The others are protein and fat. Carbs give your cells energy. People with diabetes need to know about carbs because all carbs raise blood sugar levels.
Sugar, Starch, and Fiber Are All Carbs
Carbohydrates come in three forms: sugar, starch, and fiber. Getting the right balance of sugars, starches, and fiber is key to keeping blood sugars in a healthy range. It helps to know that:
What Happens When You Eat Carbs?
After you eat, your body breaks down carbs into glucose (sugar). Glucose gives your cells energy. The glucose moves into the bloodstream, and your blood sugar level rises. As it does, the pancreas releases the hormone insulin. Your body needs insulin to get glucose into cells.
People with diabetes have a problem with insulin, so glucose has a hard time getting into the cells:
In both types of diabetes, when glucose can't get into the cells, the blood sugar level gets too high. High blood sugar levels can make people sick and are unhealthy.
Carbs and Your Blood Sugar
Carbohydrates are an important part of a healthy diet. Everyone needs carbs, including people with diabetes. Carbs provide the fuel you need to get through the day. Making smart choices when it comes to carbs and following your diabetes care plan can help keep blood sugars under control. Use these tips to guide you:
Understanding how carbs fit into a balanced diet makes it easier to keep your blood sugar in a healthy range. If you need help counting carbs or have questions about what to eat, talk to the dietitian on your care team.
Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar
Carbohydrates are broken-down by the body into sugar, which enters the blood stream. See why different carbs have varying effects on blood sugar.
When people eat a food containing carbohydrates, the digestive system breaks down the digestible ones into sugar, which enters the blood.
Carbohydrate metabolism is important in the development of type 2 diabetes, which occurs when the body can’t make enough insulin or can’t properly use the insulin it makes.
In the past, carbohydrates were commonly classified as being either “simple” or “complex,” and described as follows:
These carbohydrates are composed of sugars (such as fructose and glucose) which have simple chemical structures composed of only one sugar (monosaccharides) or two sugars (disaccharides). Simple carbohydrates are easily and quickly utilized for energy by the body because of their simple chemical structure, often leading to a faster rise in blood sugar and insulin secretion from the pancreas – which can have negative health effects.
These carbohydrates have more complex chemical structures, with three or more sugars linked together (known as oligosaccharides and polysaccharides). Many complex carbohydrate foods contain fiber, vitamins and minerals, and they take longer to digest – which means they have less of an immediate impact on blood sugar, causing it to rise more slowly. But other so called complex carbohydrate foods such as white bread and white potatoes contain mostly starch but little fiber or other beneficial nutrients.
Dividing carbohydrates into simple and complex, however, does not account for the effect of carbohydrates on blood sugar and chronic diseases. To explain how different kinds of carbohydrate-rich foods directly affect blood sugar, the glycemic index was developed and is considered a better way of categorizing carbohydrates, especially starchy foods.
The glycemic index ranks carbohydrates on a scale from 0 to 100 based on how quickly and how much they raise blood sugar levels after eating. Foods with a high glycemic index, like white bread, are rapidly digested and cause substantial fluctuations in blood sugar. Foods with a low glycemic index, like whole oats, are digested more slowly, prompting a more gradual rise in blood sugar.
Many factors can affect a food’s glycemic index, including the following:
Numerous epidemiologic studies have shown a positive association between higher dietary glycemic index and increased risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. However, the relationship between glycemic index and body weight is less well studied and remains controversial.
One thing that a food’s glycemic index does not tell us is how much digestible carbohydrate – the total amount of carbohydrates excluding fiber – it delivers. That’s why researchers developed a related way to classify foods that takes into account both the amount of carbohydrate in the food in relation to its impact on blood sugar levels. This measure is called the glycemic load. (11,12) A food’s glycemic load is determined by multiplying its glycemic index by the amount of carbohydrate the food contains. In general, a glycemic load of 20 or more is high, 11 to 19 is medium, and 10 or under is low.
The glycemic load has been used to study whether or not high-glycemic load diets are associated with increased risks for type 2 diabetes risk and cardiac events. In a large meta-analysis of 24 prospective cohort studies, researchers concluded that people who consumed lower-glycemic load diets were at a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those who ate a diet of higher-glycemic load foods. (13) A similar type of meta-analysis concluded that higher-glycemic load diets were also associated with an increased risk for coronary heart disease events. (14)
Here is a listing of low, medium, and high glycemic load foods. For good health, choose foods that have a low or medium glycemic load, and limit foods that have a high glycemic load.
Low glycemic load (10 or under)
Medium glycemic load (11-19)
High glycemic load (20+)
Here’s a list of the glycemic index and glycemic load for the most common foods.
2. de Munter JS, Hu FB, Spiegelman D, Franz M, van Dam RM. Whole grain, bran, and germ intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study and systematic review. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e261.
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14. Mirrahimi A, de Souza RJ, Chiavaroli L, et al. Associations of glycemic index and load with coronary heart disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohorts. J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e000752.
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17. AlEssa H, Bupathiraju S, Malik V, Wedick N, Campos H, Rosner B, Willett W, Hu FB. Carbohydrate quality measured using multiple quality metrics is negatively associated with type 2 diabetes. Circulation. 2015; 1-31:A:20.
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Guys, does anyone know the answer?