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    The Nervous System

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    QUIZ

    The Nervous System

    The Nervous System 64%

    132 9th 9th Biology Susan Scoparino 2 years

    20 Qs

    1. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Molecules in a certain medication attach to receptors on nerve cells. This prevents the normal

    chemical signal from binding to the receptor. One immediate result of taking this medication might be a disruption in the ability of

    answer choices

    the body to produce reproductive cells

    cells to communicate with each other

    cells to synthesize proteins

    the body to convert inorganic material into organic nutrients

    2. Multiple-choice 30 seconds

    Q.

    A process that occurs in the human body is represented in the diagram below. Which statement is most closely associated with the diagram?

    answer choices

    Small molecules are obtained from large molecules during digestion

    Certain molecules are replicated by means of a template

    Receptor molecules play an important role in communication between cells.

    Energy from nutrients is utilized for waste disposal

    3. Multiple-choice 30 seconds

    Q.

    Two types of human cells are shown in the diagram below. Cell A causes the cells at B to contract. This activity would be most useful for

    answer choices

    lifting a book from a bookshelf

    coordinating the functions of organelles

    digesting food in the small intestine

    carrying out the process of protein synthesis

    4. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which statement accurately compares cells in the human circulatory system to cells in the human nervous system?

    answer choices

    Cells in the circulatory system carry out the same life function for the organism as cells in the nervous system.

    Cells in the circulatory system are identical in structure to cells in the nervous system

    Cells in the nervous system are different in structure from cells in the circulatory system, and they carry out different specialized functions

    Cells in the nervous system act independently, but cells in the circulatory system function together.

    5. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    In humans, one function of an interneuron is to relay impulses directly from

    answer choices

    receptors to the brain

    receptors to other receptors

    motor neurons to receptors

    a sensory neuron to a motor neuron

    6. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which structures in a human transmit electrochemical messages?

    answer choices veins lymphocytes neurons nephrons 7. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    In a simple spinal reflex, the pathway for an impulse is along a sensory neuron directly to a motor neuron through

    answer choices an effector a receptor an interneuron the brain 8. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    In order to stimulate an effector in a toe, which pathway does a nerve impulse follow after it is initiated at a receptor?

    answer choices

    interneuron →sensory neuron →motor neuron

    interneuron →motor neuron →sensory neuron

    sensory neuron →motor neuron →interneuron

    sensory neuron →interneuron →motor neuron

    9. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    A blind student runs his fingers along a page of braille. Another student reads a page printed in a textbook. Both students are able to obtain and process the information most directly as a result of the activities of the

    answer choices

    sensory neurons and cerebrum

    involuntary muscles and cerebellum

    interneurons and spinal cord

    smooth muscles and medulla

    10. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    In the human central nervous system, the medulla directly controls

    answer choices voluntary activity memory

    involuntary activity

    balance 11. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which portion of the central nervous system coordinates motor activities and aids in maintaining balance?

    answer choices cerebrum cerebellum medulla spinal cord 12. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which are the correct structure and function for the part indicated by letter B?

    answer choices cerebrum → balance

    cerebellum → muscle coordination

    medulla → problem solving

    spinal cord → reflex actions

    13. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which processes would most likely be affected if the part of the brain indicated by letter A was damaged?

    answer choices

    ability to contract muscles in the walls of arteries

    reflex actions and involuntary behavior patterns

    involuntary activities such as breathing and peristalsis

    reasoning and speech

    14. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Opiate drugs, such as heroin, imitate endorphins, which are a type of neurotransmitter that is naturally produced in the brain. How does heroin affect cellular communication in the brain?

    Source : quizizz.com

    Nervous System Questions Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Molecules in a certain medication attach to receptors on nerve cells. This prevents the normal chemical signal from binding to the receptor. One immediate result of taking this medication might be a disruption in the ability of..., Which structures in a human transmit electrochemical messages?, In the human central nervous system, the medulla directly controls... and more.

    Nervous System Questions

    14 studiers in the last day

    Molecules in a certain medication attach to receptors on nerve cells. This prevents the normal chemical signal from binding to the receptor. One immediate result of taking this medication might be a disruption in the ability of...

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    Cells to communicate with each other

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    Which structures in a human transmit electrochemical messages?

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    Neurons

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    1/12 Created by

    Kiersten_SweeneyPLUS

    Terms in this set (12)

    Molecules in a certain medication attach to receptors on nerve cells. This prevents the normal chemical signal from binding to the receptor. One immediate result of taking this medication might be a disruption in the ability of...

    Cells to communicate with each other

    Which structures in a human transmit electrochemical messages?

    Neurons

    In the human central nervous system, the medulla directly controls...

    Involuntary activity

    Which portion of the central nervous system coordinates motor activities and aids in maintaining balance?

    Cerebellum

    Which are the correct structure and function for the part indicated by letter B?

    Spinal cord -> reflex actions

    Which processes would most likely be affected if the part of the brain indicated by letter A was damaged?

    Reasoning and speech

    A man suffers a head injury in a car accident. For several days afterward, he has difficulty remembering phone numbers. This loss of

    memory results from damage to the man's...

    Cerebrum

    An increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood stimulates the respiratory center of the brain. As a result, impulses are sent from the...

    medulla to the diaphragm, increasing the rate of breathing

    Impulses originating in the part of the brain called the medulla would most directly affect which body structure?

    The heart

    Memory and thinking are most closely associated with which part of the central nervous system?

    Cerebrum

    The structure labeled X is most directly involved in the...

    maintenance of coordination and balance

    Rapid messages are sent from the brain to muscles and glands of the human body by way of the...

    spinal cord and peripheral nervous system

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    Adenosine receptors as drug targets — what are the challenges?

    Adenosine signalling has long been a target for drug development, with adenosine itself or its derivatives being used clinically since the 1940s. In addition, methylxanthines such as caffeine have profound biological effects as antagonists at adenosine ...

    Nat Rev Drug Discov. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2014 Apr 1.

    Published in final edited form as:

    Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2013 Apr; 12(4): 265–286.

    doi: 10.1038/nrd3955

    PMCID: PMC3930074

    NIHMSID: NIHMS544219

    PMID: 23535933

    Adenosine receptors as drug targets — what are the challenges?

    Jiang-Fan Chen,1 Holger K. Eltzschig,2 and Bertil B. Fredholm3

    Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer

    The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Nat Rev Drug Discov

    See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.

    Associated Data

    Supplementary Materials

    Go to:

    Abstract

    Adenosine signalling has long been a target for drug development, with adenosine itself or its derivatives being used clinically since the 1940s. In addition, methylxanthines such as caffeine have profound biological effects as antagonists at adenosine receptors. Moreover, drugs such as dipyridamole and methotrexate act by enhancing the activation of adenosine receptors. There is strong evidence that adenosine has a functional role in many diseases, and several pharmacological compounds specifically targeting individual adenosine receptors — either directly or indirectly — have now entered the clinic. However, only one adenosine receptor-specific agent — the adenosine A2A receptor agonist regadenoson (Lexiscan; Astellas Pharma) — has so far gained approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Here, we focus on the biology of adenosine signalling to identify hurdles in the development of additional pharmacological compounds targeting adenosine receptors and discuss strategies to overcome these challenges.

    It is well known that adenosine is an important intermediary metabolite, acting as a building block for nucleic acids and a component of the biological energy currency ATP. In addition, adenosine functions as a signalling molecule through the activation of four distinct adenosine receptors — denoted A1, A2A, A2B and A3. These receptors are widely expressed and have been implicated in several biological functions, both physiological and pathological1,2. These include cardiac rhythm and circulation3,4, lipolysis5, renal blood flow6,7, immune function8, sleep regulation9,10 and angiogenesis11, as well as inflammatory diseases12,13, ischaemia-reperfusion14 and neurodegenerative disorders15 (TABLE 1,​

    ,2 2).

    Table 1

    Examples of ongoing or recently completed Phase lib–III clinical trials targeting adenosine receptors

    Type of compound Pharmacology*

    Ki Purpose or name of study Status ClinicalTrials.

    gov identifer Refs A1: 77 nM A2A: 0.5 nM A222B: not determined

    A3: 45 nM Protection from liver ischaemia

    following liver surgery Ongoing NCT00760708 2,18

    Postconditioning after STEMI Ongoing NCT00284323

    Pretreatment before stenting Ongoing NCT00612521

    Does intradermal adenosine

    release VEGF and cytokines? Suspended

    for

    re-evaluation NCT00580905

    A1: >10,000 nM A2A: 290 nM A2B: >10,000 nM

    A3: >10,000 nM Is regadenoson superior to

    adenosine for myocardial

    perfusion imaging? Completed NCT00208312 18,146,

    191

    Myocardial perfusion magnetic

    resonance imaging using

    regadenoson Completed NCT00881218

    ASPECT study: effectiveness of

    apadenoson in SPECT imaging

    compared to adenosine Completed NCT01085201

    Regadenoson approved for

    treatment of sickle cell anaemia Recruiting NCT01566890

    Regadenoson blood flow in

    type 1 diabetes (RABIT1D) Completed NCT01019486

    No data available Analgesic effect of GW493838

    in postherpetic neuralgia or

    peripheral nerve injury Discontinued NCT00376454 2,18,275

    Tolerability and safety of

    INO 8875 in glaucoma and

    ocular hypertension Discontinued NCT01123785

    CF101: A1: 51 nM A2A: 2,900 nM A2B: 11,000 nM A3:1.8 nM C3F102: A1: 220 nM A2A: 5,360 nM A2B: >10,000 nM

    A3: 1.4 nM Safety and efficacy of CF101

    in psoriasis Completed NCT00428974 2,18,37,

    146,147

    Safety and efficacy of CF101

    in rheumatoid arthritis Completed NCT00556894

    Safety and efficacy of CF102

    in liver cancer Ongoing NCT00790218

    A1: 10,700 nM A2A: 23,400 nM A2B: 33,800 nM

    A3:13,300 nM Treatment of apnoea of

    prematurity and dose study Currently

    recruiting

    participants NCT01408173   2,18,

    223,224

    Treatment of apnoea of

    prematurity and dose study Currently

    recruiting

    participants NCT01349205

    Cognitive long-term effects of

    caffeine in premature infants Currently

    recruiting

    participants NCT00809055

    Caffeine for motor manifestations

    of Parkinson’s disease Completed NCT01190735

    Caffeine for excessive daytime

    somnolence in Parkinson’s disease Completed NCT00459420

    Tonapofylline: A1: 7.4 nM A2A: 6,410 nM A2B: 90 nM A3: >10,000 nM Rolofylline: A1: 0.72 nM A2A: 108 nM A2B: 296 nM

    A3:4390 nM Safety and tolerability of

    intravenously administered

    tonapofylline in individuals with

    acute decompensated heart

    failure and renal insufficiency

    (TRIDENT-1) Discontinued NCT00709865 2,18,

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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