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    mendel’s pea plants had either purple or white flowers. this means that the plants can self-pollinate. have two recessive traits. have two alleles for the gene. have two copies of a gene from one parent.

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    Mendel's law of segregation

    Mendel's law of segregation. Genotype, phenotype, and alleles. Heterozygous/homozygous. 2 x 2 Punnett squares.

    Mendelian genetics

    The law of segregation

    Mendel's law of segregation. Genotype, phenotype, and alleles. Heterozygous/homozygous. 2 x 2 Punnett squares.

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    Key points:

    Gregor Mendel studied inheritance of traits in pea plants. He proposed a model where pairs of "heritable elements," or genes, specified traits.

    Genes come in different versions, or alleles. A dominant allele hides a recessive allele and determines the organism's appearance.

    When an organism makes gametes, each gamete receives just one gene copy, which is selected randomly. This is known as the law of segregation.

    A Punnett square can be used to predict genotypes (allele combinations) and phenotypes (observable traits) of offspring from genetic crosses.

    A test cross can be used to determine whether an organism with a dominant phenotype is homozygous or heterozygous.

    Introduction

    Today, we know that many of people's characteristics, from hair color to height to risk of diabetes, are influenced by genes. We also know that genes are the way parents pass characteristics on to their children (including things like dimples, or—in the case of me and my father—a terrible singing voice). In the last hundred years, we've come to understand that genes are actually pieces of DNA that are found on chromosomes and specify proteins.

    But did we always know those things? Not by a long shot! About

    150 150 150

    years ago, a monk named Gregor Mendel published a paper that first proposed the existence of genes and presented a model for how they were inherited. Mendel's work was the first step on a long road, involving many hard-working scientists, that's led to our present understanding of genes and what they do.

    In this article, we’ll trace the experiments and reasoning that led Mendel to formulate his model for the inheritance of single genes.

    Mendel's model: It started with a

    3:1 3:1 3, colon, 1 ratio

    Mendel studied the genetics of pea plants, and he traced the inheritance of a variety of characteristics, including flower color, flower position, seed color, and seed shape. To do so, he started by crossing pure-breeding parent plants with different forms of a characteristic, such as violet and white flowers. Pure-breeding just means that the plant will always make more offspring like itself, when self-fertilized over many generations. [What is self-fertilization?]

    What results did Mendel find in his crosses for flower color? In the parental, or

    \text P P

    start text, P, end text

    generation, Mendel crossed a pure-breeding violet-flowered plant to a pure-breeding white-flowered plant. When he gathered and planted the seeds produced in this cross, Mendel found that

    100 100 100

    percent of the plants in the next generation, or

    \text F_1 F 1 ​

    start text, F, end text, start subscript, 1, end subscript

    generation, had violet flowers.

    Conventional wisdom at that time would have predicted that the hybrid flowers should be pale violet—that is, that the parents' traits should blend in the offspring. Instead, Mendel’s results showed that the white flower trait had completely disappeared. He called the trait that was visible in the

    \text F_1 F 1 ​

    start text, F, end text, start subscript, 1, end subscript

    generation (violet flowers) the dominant trait, and the trait that was hidden or lost (white flowers) the recessive trait.

    The diagram shows a cross between pea plants that are true-breeding for purple flower color and plants that are true-breeding for white flower color. This cross-fertilization of the P generation resulted in an F{1} generation with all violet flowers. Self-fertilization of the F{1} generation resulted in an F_{2} generation that consisted of 705 plants with violet flowers, and 224 plants with white flowers.

    Image credit: "Mendel's experiments: Figure 2," by Robert Bear et al., OpenStax, CC BY 4.0

    Importantly, Mendel did not stop his experimentation there. Instead, he let the

    \text F_1 F 1 ​

    start text, F, end text, start subscript, 1, end subscript

    plants self-fertilize. Among their offspring, called the

    \text F_2 F 2 ​

    start text, F, end text, start subscript, 2, end subscript

    generation, he found that

    705 705 705

    plants had violet flowers and

    224 224 224

    had white flowers. This was a ratio of

    3.15 3.15 3, point, 15

    violet flowers to one white flower, or approximately

    3:1 3:1 3, colon, 1 . This 3:1 3:1 3, colon, 1

    ratio was no fluke. For the other six characteristics that Mendel examined, both the

    \text F_1 F 1 ​

    start text, F, end text, start subscript, 1, end subscript

    and \text F_2 F 2 ​

    start text, F, end text, start subscript, 2, end subscript

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

    Introduction to Genetics Flashcards

    Start studying Introduction to Genetics. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Introduction to Genetics

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    Tall pea plants are dominant over short pea plants. If there are 200 short plants in the F2 generation from a cross that followed Mendel's methods, about how many plants will be tall in that generation?

    Click card to see definition 👆

    600

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    If Mendel had crossed a true breeding dominant plant with a true breeding recessive plant, in which of the three generations is the recessive trait visible?

    Click card to see definition 👆

    P generation and F2 generation

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    1/16 Created by MaeganKHughes

    Terms in this set (16)

    Tall pea plants are dominant over short pea plants. If there are 200 short plants in the F2 generation from a cross that followed Mendel's methods, about how many plants will be tall in that generation?

    600

    If Mendel had crossed a true breeding dominant plant with a true breeding recessive plant, in which of the three generations is the recessive trait visible?

    P generation and F2 generation

    If a scientist wanted to follow Mendel's experiment with a different kind of plant, which type of plant would she examine?

    A plant that has only two alleles for a trait.

    The table below summarizes Mendel's results for the F2 generation.

    What number should replace the letter x in the "Seed colour" row?

    2,001

    Mendel was able to study seven traits in all the pea plants in each generation. Which of his hypotheses allowed him to analyze each trait separably?

    When gametes are formed, each gamete carries only one allele for the gene.

    During an experiment, a scientist crosses a pea plant that has purple flowers with a pea plant that white flowers. The plants that result from this cross in the F1 generation have both purple and white flowers. What can the scientist conclude?

    The plants in the P generation were not true-breeding.

    Which statement describes the offspring of the F1 generation when crossing a pea plant that is true breeding for green seeds with a pea plant that is a true breeding for yellow seeds?

    The offspring will inherit one gene from each parent.

    Which is the best example of a hypothesis leading to new experimental methods?

    Thomas Hunt Morgan continued the genetic research of Gregor Mendel, but Morgan used fruit flies.

    Some people have freckles, and some people do not have freckles. If a child has freckles, at least one parent has freckles. However, the child may have a sibling that does not have freckles. Which statement best describes the presence of freckles?

    There are two alleles for freckles.

    What is a gene?

    a section of DNA that codes for a specific trait

    What controls traits and inheritance?

    nucleic acids

    Which of Mendel's generations was allowed to self-pollinate?

    F1 generation

    Why did Gregor Mendel use pea plants in his experiments?

    Peas have characteristics that have two forms.

    Mendel's pea plants had either purple or white flowers. This means that the plants

    have two alleles for the gene.

    The table below summarizes the traits that Mendel examined during his experiments.

    What do these characteristics all have in common?

    They can all be easily observed.

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder. It is a recessive trait that is determined by two alleles. Suppose two parents each carry at least one recessive allele, but neither of them has cystic fibrosis. Which statement reflects the likelihood of a child of those parents having cystic fibrosis?

    The child may or may not have the disease because a recessive gene from each parent may be passed on.

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    8.1 Mendel’s Experiments – Concepts of Biology – 1st Canadian Edition

    8.1 MENDEL’S EXPERIMENTS

    Learning Objectives

    By the end of this section, you will be able to:

    Explain the scientific reasons for the success of Mendel’s experimental work

    Describe the expected outcomes of monohybrid crosses involving dominant and recessive alleles.

    Figure 8.2 Johann Gregor Mendel set the framework for the study of genetics.

    Watch the interactive video

    Johann Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) was a lifelong learner, teacher, scientist, and man of faith. As a young adult, he joined the Augustinian Abbey of St. Thomas in Brno in what is now the Czech Republic. Supported by the monastery, he taught physics, botany, and natural science courses at the secondary and university levels. In 1856, he began a decade-long research pursuit involving inheritance patterns in honeybees and plants, ultimately settling on pea plants as his primary model system (a system with convenient characteristics that is used to study a specific biological phenomenon to gain understanding to be applied to other systems). In 1865, Mendel presented the results of his experiments with nearly 30,000 pea plants to the local natural history society. He demonstrated that traits are transmitted faithfully from parents to offspring in specific patterns. In 1866, he published his work, Experiments in Plant Hybridization,1 in the proceedings of the Natural History Society of Brünn.

    Mendel’s work went virtually unnoticed by the scientific community, which incorrectly believed that the process of inheritance involved a blending of parental traits that produced an intermediate physical appearance in offspring. This hypothetical process appeared to be correct because of what we know now as continuous variation. Continuous variation is the range of small differences we see among individuals in a characteristic like human height. It does appear that offspring are a “blend” of their parents’ traits when we look at characteristics that exhibit continuous variation. Mendel worked instead with traits that show discontinuous variation. Discontinuous variation is the variation seen among individuals when each individual shows one of two—or a very few—easily distinguishable traits, such as violet or white flowers. Mendel’s choice of these kinds of traits allowed him to see experimentally that the traits were not blended in the offspring as would have been expected at the time, but that they were inherited as distinct traits. In 1868, Mendel became abbot of the monastery and exchanged his scientific pursuits for his pastoral duties. He was not recognized for his extraordinary scientific contributions during his lifetime; in fact, it was not until 1900 that his work was rediscovered, reproduced, and revitalized by scientists on the brink of discovering the chromosomal basis of heredity.

    MENDEL’S CROSSES

    Mendel’s seminal work was accomplished using the garden pea, Pisum sativum, to study inheritance. This species naturally self-fertilizes, meaning that pollen encounters ova within the same flower. The flower petals remain sealed tightly until pollination is completed to prevent the pollination of other plants. The result is highly inbred, or “true-breeding,” pea plants. These are plants that always produce offspring that look like the parent. By experimenting with true-breeding pea plants, Mendel avoided the appearance of unexpected traits in offspring that might occur if the plants were not true breeding. The garden pea also grows to maturity within one season, meaning that several generations could be evaluated over a relatively short time. Finally, large quantities of garden peas could be cultivated simultaneously, allowing Mendel to conclude that his results did not come about simply by chance.

    Mendel performed hybridizations, which involve mating two true-breeding individuals that have different traits. In the pea, which is naturally self-pollinating, this is done by manually transferring pollen from the anther of a mature pea plant of one variety to the stigma of a separate mature pea plant of the second variety.

    Plants used in first-generation crosses were called P, or parental generation, plants (Figure 8.3). Mendel collected the seeds produced by the P plants that resulted from each cross and grew them the following season. These offspring were called the F1, or the first filial (filial = daughter or son), generation. Once Mendel examined the characteristics in the F1 generation of plants, he allowed them to self-fertilize naturally. He then collected and grew the seeds from the F1 plants to produce the F2, or second filial, generation. Mendel’s experiments extended beyond the F2 generation to the F3 generation, F4 generation, and so on, but it was the ratio of characteristics in the P, F1, and F2 generations that were the most intriguing and became the basis of Mendel’s postulates.

    Figure 8.3 Mendel’s process for performing crosses included examining flower color.

    GARDEN PEA CHARACTERISTICS REVEALED THE BASICS OF HEREDITY

    Source : opentextbc.ca

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