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    mendel was able to study seven traits in all the pea plants in each generation. which of his hypotheses allowed him to analyze each trait separately? if two different alleles for a gene occur together, one of the alleles may be expressed while the other is hidden. when gametes are formed, each gamete carries only one allele for the gene. there are alternate versions of a alleles called genes. for each inherited trait, there is only one copy of the gene that codes for that trait.

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    get mendel was able to study seven traits in all the pea plants in each generation. which of his hypotheses allowed him to analyze each trait separately? if two different alleles for a gene occur together, one of the alleles may be expressed while the other is hidden. when gametes are formed, each gamete carries only one allele for the gene. there are alternate versions of a alleles called genes. for each inherited trait, there is only one copy of the gene that codes for that trait. from EN Bilgi.

    Mendel and his peas (article)

    How Austrian monk Gregor Mendel laid the foundations of genetics. Mendel's life, experiments, and pea plants.

    Mendelian genetics

    Mendel and his peas

    How Austrian monk Gregor Mendel laid the foundations of genetics. Mendel's life, experiments, and pea plants.

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    How can we study inheritance?

    When spending time with your own family, friends, and neighbors, you may have noticed that many traits run in families. For instance, members of a family may share similar facial features, hair color (like the brother and sister below), or a predisposition to health problems such as diabetes. Characteristics that run in families often have a genetic basis, meaning that they depend on genetic information a person inherits from his or her parents.

    Image of a brother and sister who both have distinctive reddish hair.

    Image credit "Brother, sister, portrait, russet," by Adina Voicu (CC0, public domain).

    What if you wanted to figure out how genetic information is transmitted between generations? For instance, you might be curious how traits can "skip" a generation, or why one child in a family may suffer from a genetic disease while another does not. How could you go about asking these kinds of questions scientifically?

    An obvious first idea would be to study human inheritance patterns directly, but that turns out to be a tricky proposition (see the pop-up below for details). In this article, we'll see how a nineteenth-century monk named Gregor Mendel instead uncovered the key principles of inheritance using a simple, familiar system: the pea plant. [Why didn't Mendel study humans?]

    The monk in the garden: Gregor Mendel

    Johann Gregor Mendel (1822–1884), often called the “father of genetics,” was a teacher, lifelong learner, scientist, and man of faith. It would be fair to say that Mendel had a lot of grit: he persevered through difficult circumstances to make some of the most important discoveries in biology.

    Portrait of Gregor Mendel.

    Image credit: "Mendel's experiments and the laws of probability: Figure 1," by OpenStax College, Biology (CC BY 3.0).

    As a young man, Mendel had difficulty paying for his education due to his family's limited means, and he also suffered bouts of physical illness and depression; still, he persevered to graduate from high school and, later, university

    ^1 1

    start superscript, 1, end superscript

    . After finishing university, he joined the Augustinian Abbey of St. Thomas in Brno, in what is now the Czech Republic. At the time, the monastery was the cultural and intellectual hub of the region, and Mendel was immediately exposed to new teachings and ideas

    ^1 1

    start superscript, 1, end superscript

    .

    His decision to join the order (against the wishes of his father, who expected him to carry on the family farm) appears to have been motivated in part by a desire to continue his education and pursue his scientific interests

    ^2 2 squared

    . Supported by the monastery, he taught physics, botany, and natural science courses at the secondary and university levels.

    Research on heredity

    In 1856, Mendel began a decade-long research project to investigate patterns of inheritance. Although he began his research using mice, he later switched to honeybees and plants, ultimately settling on garden peas as his primary model system

    ^2 2 squared

    . A model system is an organism that makes it easy for a researcher to investigate a particular scientific question, such as how traits are inherited. By studying a model system, researchers can learn general principles that apply to other, harder-to-study organisms or biological systems, such as humans.

    Mendel studied the inheritance of seven different features in peas, including height, flower color, seed color, and seed shape. To do so, he first established pea lines with two different forms of a feature, such as tall vs. short height. He grew these lines for generations until they were pure-breeding (always produced offspring identical to the parent), then bred them to each other and observed how the traits were inherited.

    In addition to recording how the plants in each generation looked, Mendel counted the exact number of plants that showed each trait. Strikingly, he found very similar patterns of inheritance for all seven features he studied:

    One form of a feature, such as tall, always concealed the other form, such as short, in the first generation after the cross. Mendel called the visible form the dominant trait and the hidden form the recessive trait.

    In the second generation, after plants were allowed to self-fertilize (pollinate themselves), the hidden form of the trait reappeared in a minority of the plants. Specifically, there were always about

    3 3 3

    plants that showed the dominant trait (e.g., tall) for every

    1 1 1

    plant that showed the recessive trait (e.g., short), making a

    3:1 3:1 3, colon, 1 ratio.

    Mendel also found that the features were inherited independently: one feature, such as plant height, did not influence inheritance of other features, such as flower color or seed shape.

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

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    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Mendel was able to study seven traits in all the pea plants in each generation. Which of his hypotheses allowed him to analyze each trait separately?, Jenna heard a family story about Great Grandfather Frederick who died of lung disease, but no one knows what it was. How could a genetic counselor help Jenna?, The Punnett square predicts the ratio of genotypes in the offspring based on the genotypes of the parents. Which Punnett square represents a cross between a mom who is heterozygous for dimples and a dad who is homozygous for no dimples? and more.

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    Mendel was able to study seven traits in all the pea plants in each generation. Which of his hypotheses allowed him to analyze each trait separately?

    Click card to see definition 👆

    When gametes are formed, each gamete carries only one allele for the gene.

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    Jenna heard a family story about Great Grandfather Frederick who died of lung disease, but no one knows what it was. How could a genetic counselor help Jenna?

    Click card to see definition 👆

    take a family history and suggest genetic testing

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    Terms in this set (15)

    Mendel was able to study seven traits in all the pea plants in each generation. Which of his hypotheses allowed him to analyze each trait separately?

    When gametes are formed, each gamete carries only one allele for the gene.

    Jenna heard a family story about Great Grandfather Frederick who died of lung disease, but no one knows what it was. How could a genetic counselor help Jenna?

    take a family history and suggest genetic testing

    The Punnett square predicts the ratio of genotypes in the offspring based on the genotypes of the parents. Which Punnett square represents a cross between a mom who is heterozygous for dimples and a dad who is homozygous for no dimples?

    square - top: left: D right : d side: d and d

    all together its Dd,dd,Dd,dd

    The pedigree below shows the inheritance of hemophilia, a recessive X-linked disorder, in a family. Based on this pedigree, which female is least likely to have sons who have hemophilia?

    female 8

    In which of these areas of biology should a genetic counselor be an expert?

    Mendelian genetics

    Global consumption of large fish has lead to an exploitation of fish populations. Overfishing has lead to a decline in the populations of many species of large fish including North East Arctic Cod. The graph below shows the decline in the cod population.

    Question: What is most likely happening to the genetic variation of the population of North East Arctic Cod?

    The genetic variation in the population is decreasing due to selective pressure.

    Mendel's pea plants had either purple or white flowers. This means that the plants

    have two alleles for the gene.

    The diagram represents a dihybrid cross between two pea plants heterozygous for both seed color and seed shape.

    Q: What is the phenotypic ratio of the offspring?

    1:3:3:9

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is an X-linked dominant disorder that causes a person to produce large amounts of urine. The pedigree below shows the inheritance of NDI in a family.

    Q:Which offspring of couple 1-2 confirms that an X-linked dominant allele causes NDI?

    individual 4

    Punnett squares are used to show possible combinations of alleles or to predict the probability of a trait occurring in offspring. An incomplete dominance cross is performed between a bird that is homozygous for red feathers and a bird that is homozygous for blue feathers. Purple offspring result. Then, two of the purple offspring are crossed. According to the Punnett square for this cross, how many of the offspring from the second cross will have a feather color that results from incomplete dominance?

    2 in 4

    If Mendel had crossed a true breeding dominant plant with a true breeding recessive plant, in which of the three generations is the recessive trait visible?

    P generation and F2 generation

    Which blood type could be given as a transfusion for patient with AB blood when the RH factor is unknown?

    AB-

    Parents with the genotypes AO and AB have a child. What are all the possible blood types of the child?

    A, AB, B

    These notes were taken during a class about biological evolution, but the subject title is missing.

    -results from immigration

    -new genes brought into a population

    -variation in a population increases

    What do the notes describe?

    gene flow

    Changes in the gene pool can occur due to various mechanisms. In 1989, a large oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, when the Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground. Approximately 11 million gallons of oil were spilled and spread 1,300 miles along the Alaskan coastline. The damage from the oil spill affected thousands of animals in the area, including killer whales, harbor seals, sea otters, fish, and sea birds. Which mechanism most likely affected the gene pools of the organism populations in the areas around the oil spill?

    genetic drift

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    Source : quizlet.com

    Mendel’s principles of inheritance — Science Learning Hub

    Our understanding of how inherited traits are passed between generations comes from principles first proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1866. Mendel worked on pea plants, but his principles apply to traits in plants and animals – they can explain how we inherit our eye colour, hair colour and even tongue-rolling ability.

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    Mendel’s principles of inheritance

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    Our understanding of how inherited traits are passed between generations comes from principles first proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1866. Mendel worked on pea plants, but his principles apply to traits in plants and animals – they can explain how we inherit our eye colour, hair colour and even tongue-rolling ability.

    Rights: Hugo Iltis - Wellcome Library, London, CC BY 4.0

    Gregor Mendel

    Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) is known as the father of genetics. He proposed the key laws of genetics from this work on inheritance of traits in peas in 1866.

    Inheritance in pea plants

    Mendel followed the inheritance of 7 traits in pea plants (). He chose traits that had 2 forms:

    Pea shape (round or wrinkled)

    Pea colour (yellow or green)

    Flower colour (purple or white)

    Flower position (terminal or axial)

    Plant height (tall or short)

    Pod shape (inflated or constricted)

    Pod colour (yellow or green).

    Mendel began with pure-breeding pea plants because they always produced progeny with the same characteristics as the parent plant. Mendel cross-bred these pea plants and recorded the traits of their progeny over several generations.

    Read more about Mendel’s experiments.

    Mendel’s principles of inheritance

    Key principles of genetics were developed from Mendel’s studies on peas.

    1. Fundamental theory of heredity

    Inheritance involves the passing of discrete units of inheritance, or genes, from parents to offspring.

    Mendel found that paired pea traits were either dominant or recessive. When pure-bred parent plants were cross-bred, dominant traits were always seen in the progeny, whereas recessive traits were hidden until the first-generation (F1) hybrid plants were left to self-pollinate. Mendel counted the number of second-generation (F2) progeny with dominant or recessive traits and found a 3:1 ratio of dominant to recessive traits. He concluded that traits were not blended but remained distinct in subsequent generations, which was contrary to scientific opinion at the time.

    Mendel didn’t know about genes or discover genes, but he did speculate that there were 2 factors for each basic trait and that 1 factor was inherited from each parent.

    We now know that Mendel’s inheritance factors are genes, or more specifically alleles – different variants of the same gene. In today’s genetic language, a pure-breeding pea plant line is a homozygote – it has 2 identical copies of the same allele. An F1 cross-bred pea plant is a heterozygote – it has 2 different alleles.

    Rights: University of Waikato

    Inheritance of a single trait in peas

    Mendel followed the inheritance of 7 pea traits. Dominant traits, like round peas, appeared in the first-generation hybrids (F1), whereas recessive traits, like wrinkled peas, were masked. However, recessive traits reappeared in the second generation (F2). Each individual carries a pair of factors for each trait, and they separate from each other during fertilisation. This is the basis of Mendel’s principle of segregation.

    2. Principle of segregation

    During reproduction, the inherited factors (now called alleles) that determine traits are separated into reproductive cells by a process called meiosis and randomly reunite during fertilisation.

    Mendel proposed that, during reproduction, the inherited factors must separate into reproductive cells. He had observed that allowing hybrid pea plants to self-pollinate resulted in progeny that looked different from their parents. Separation occurs during meiosis when the alleles of each gene segregate into individual reproductive cells (eggs and sperm in animals, or pollen and ova in plants).

    3. Principle of independent assortment

    Genes located on different chromosomes will be inherited independently of each other.

    Mendel observed that, when peas with more than one trait were crossed, the progeny did not always match the parents. This is because different traits are inherited independently – this is the principle of independent assortment. For example, he cross-bred pea plants with round, yellow seeds and plants with wrinkled, green seeds. Only the dominant traits (yellow and round) appeared in the F1 progeny, but all combinations of trait were seen in the self-pollinated F2 progeny. The traits were present in a 9:3:3:1 ratio (round, yellow: round, green: wrinkled, yellow: wrinkled, green).

    Rights: University of Waikato

    Inheritance of multiple traits in peas

    Mendel cross-bred plants with 2 or more traits and found that each trait was inherited independently of the other and produced its own 3:1 ratio. For example, a plant with round, yellow seeds crossed with a plant with wrinkled green seeds gives a ratio of 9:3:3:1. This is the basis for Mendel’s principle of independent assortment.

    Source : www.sciencelearn.org.nz

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