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    meiosis

    Meiosis is a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in the parent cell by half and produces four gamete cells.

    meiosis

    Meiosis is a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in the parent cell by half and produces four gamete cells. This process is required to produce egg and sperm cells for sexual reproduction. During reproduction, when the sperm and egg unite to form a single cell, the number of chromosomes is restored in the offspring.

    Meiosis begins with a parent cell that is diploid, meaning it has two copies of each chromosome. The parent cell undergoes one round of DNA replication followed by two separate cycles of nuclear division. The process results in four daughter cells that are haploid, which means they contain half the number of chromosomes of the diploid parent cell.

    Meiosis has both similarities to and differences from mitosis, which is a cell division process in which a parent cell produces two identical daughter cells. Meiosis begins following one round of DNA replication in cells in the male or female sex organs. The process is split into meiosis I and meiosis II, and both meiotic divisions have multiple phases. Meiosis I is a type of cell division unique to germ cells, while meiosis II is similar to mitosis.

    Meiosis I, the first meiotic division, begins with prophase I. During prophase I, the complex of DNA and protein known as chromatin condenses to form chromosomes. The pairs of replicated chromosomes are known as sister chromatids, and they remain joined at a central point called the centromere. A large structure called the meiotic spindle also forms from long proteins called microtubules on each side, or pole, of the cell. Between prophase I and metaphase I, the pairs of homologous chromosome form tetrads. Within the tetrad, any pair of chromatid arms can overlap and fuse in a process called crossing-over or recombination. Recombination is a process that breaks, recombines and rejoins sections of DNA to produce new combinations of genes. In metaphase I, the homologous pairs of chromosomes align on either side of the equatorial plate. Then, in anaphase I, the spindle fibers contract and pull the homologous pairs, each with two chromatids, away from each other and toward each pole of the cell. During telophase I, the chromosomes are enclosed in nuclei. The cell now undergoes a process called cytokinesis that divides the cytoplasm of the original cell into two daughter cells. Each daughter cell is haploid and has only one set of chromosomes, or half the total number of chromosomes of the original cell.

    Meiosis II is a mitotic division of each of the haploid cells produced in meiosis I. During prophase II, the chromosomes condense, and a new set of spindle fibers forms. The chromosomes begin moving toward the equator of the cell. During metaphase II, the centromeres of the paired chromatids align along the equatorial plate in both cells. Then in anaphase II, the chromosomes separate at the centromeres. The spindle fibers pull the separated chromosomes toward each pole of the cell. Finally, during telophase II, the chromosomes are enclosed in nuclear membranes. Cytokinesis follows, dividing the cytoplasm of the two cells. At the conclusion of meiosis, there are four haploid daughter cells that go on to develop into either sperm or egg cells.

    Source : www.nature.com

    Meiosis I and Meiosis II: What is their Difference?

    Meiosis I and Meiosis II: Meiosis I produces two haploid cells from a diploid cell. Meiosis II produces two haploid cells from each haploid cell.

    Biology

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    What is the Difference Between Meiosis I and Meiosis II?

    The Albert Team

    Last Updated On: March 1, 2022

    Recap: What is Meiosis?

    Meiosis is how eukaryotic cells (plants, animals, and fungi) reproduce sexually. It is a process of chromosomal reduction, which means that a diploid cell (this means a cell with two complete and identical chromosome sets) is reduced to form haploid cells (these are cells with only one chromosome set). The haploid cells produced by meiosis are germ cells, also known as gametes, sex cells or spores in plants and fungi. These are essential for sexual reproduction: two germ cells combine to form a diploid zygote, which grows to form another functional adult of the same species.

    The process of chromosomal reduction is important in the conservation of the chromosomal number of a species. If chromosome numbers were not reduced, and a diploid germ cell was produced by each parent, then the resulting offspring would have a tetraploid chromosome set: that is, it would have four identical sets of chromosomes. This number would keep increasing with each generation. This is why the chromosomal reduction is vital for the continuation of each species.

    Meiosis occurs in two distinct phases: meiosis I and meiosis II. There are many similarities and differences between these phases, with each phase producing different products and each phase being as crucial to the production of viable germ cells.

    What Happens Before Meiosis?

    Before meiosis, the chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell replicate to produce double the amount of chromosomal material. After chromosomal replication, chromosomes separate into sister chromatids. This is known as interphase, and can be further broken down into two phases in the meiotic cycle: Growth (G), and Synthesis (S). During the G phase proteins and enzymes necessary for growth are synthesized, while during the S phase chromosomal material is doubled.

    Meiosis is then split into two phases: meiosis I and meiosis II. In each of these phases, there is a prophase, a metaphase, and anaphase and a telophase. In meiosis I these are known as prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I and telophase I, while in meiosis II they are known as prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II and telophase II. Different products are formed by these phases, although the basic principles of each are the same. Also, meiosis I is preceded in interphase by both G phase and S phase, while meiosis II is only preceded by S phase: chromosomal replication is not necessary again.

    The Phases of Meiosis I

    After Interphase I meiosis I occurs after Interphase I, where proteins are grown in G phase and chromosomes are replicated in S phase. Following this, four phases occur. Meiosis I is known as reductive division, as the cells are reduced from being diploid cells to being haploid cells.

    1. Prophase I

    Prophase I is the longest phase of meiosis, with three main events occurring. The first is the condensation of chromatin into chromosomes that can be seen through the microscope; the second is the synapsis or physical contact between homologous chromosomes; and the crossing over of genetic material between these synapsed chromosomes. These events occur in five sub-phases:

    Leptonema – The first prophase event occurs: chromatin condenses to form visible chromosomes. Condensation and coiling of chromosomes occur.Zygonema – Chromosomes line up to form homologous pairs, in a process known as the homology search. These pairs are also known as bivalents. Synapsis happens when the homologous pairs join. The synaptonemal complex forms.Pachynema – The third main event of prophase I occurs: crossing over. Nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosome pairs exchange parts or segments. Chiasmata form where these exchanges have occurred. Each chromosome is now different to its parent chromosome but contains the same amount of genetic material.Diplonema – The synaptonemal complex dissolves and chromosome pairs begin to separate. The chromosomes uncoil slightly to allow DNA transcription.Diakinesis – Chromosome condensation is furthered. Homologous chromosomes separate further but are still joined by a chiasmata, which moves towards the ends of the chromatids in a process referred to as terminalization. The nuclear envelope and nucleoli disintegrate, and the meiotic spindle begins to form. Microtubules attach to the chromosomes at the kinetochore of each sister chromatid.

    2. Metaphase I

    Homologous pairs of chromosomes align on the equatorial plane at the center of the cell. Independent assortment determines the orientation of each bivalent but ensures that half of each chromosome pair is oriented to each pole. This is to ensure that homologous chromosomes do not end up in the same cell. The arms of the sister chromatids are convergent.

    3. Anaphase I

    Microtubules begin to shorten, pulling one chromosome of each homologous pair to opposite poles in a process known as disjunction. The sister chromatids of each chromosome stay connected. The cell begins to elongate in preparation for cytokinesis.

    Source : www.albert.io

    Meiosis Flashcards & Practice Test

    Start studying Meiosis. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Meiosis

    4.3 12 Reviews four haploid cells.

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    Meiosis starts with a single diploid cell and produces

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    interphase.

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    A cell preparing to undergo meiosis duplicates its chromosomes during

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    Terms in this set (22)

    four haploid cells.

    Meiosis starts with a single diploid cell and produces

    interphase.

    A cell preparing to undergo meiosis duplicates its chromosomes during

    homologous chromosomes stick together in pairs.

    During prophase I of meiosis

    prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, cytokinesis, meiosis II.

    The correct order of events during meiosis is what?

    prophase I.

    During meiosis, segments of nonsister chromatids can trade places. This recombination of maternal and paternal genetic material is a key feature of meiosis. During what phase of meiosis does recombination occur?

    Meiosis

    In a sexually reproducing organism, the division of a single diploid nucleus into four haploid daughter nuclei. produce haploid gametes from diploid cells in the reporductive organs of the parents

    Mitosis

    The division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei. make up the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle

    four phases for mitosis

    Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

    Diploid

    In a organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing two homologous sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent; a 2n cell has 46 chromosomes

    Haploid

    In the life cycle of an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell contains a single set of chromosomes; a n cell has 23 chromosomes

    Somatic

    Any cell in a multicellular organism except sperm or egg cell or a cell that develops into a sperm or egg.

    Gamete

    A sex cell; a haploid sperm or egg. The union of two gametes of opposite sex (fertilization) produces a zygote

    Sister chromatoids

    one of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell

    Tetrads

    A paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatoids. Tetrads form during prophase 1 of meiosis

    Crossing Over

    the exchange of segments between chromatoids of homologous chromosomes during synapsis in prophase 1 of meiosis; also, the exchange of segments between DNA molecules in prokaryotes

    Karyotypes

    a display of micrographs of the metaphase choromosomes of a cell, arranged by size and centromere position

    Autosome

    A chromosome not directly involved in determining the sex of an organism, in mammals, any chromosome other than X or Y.

    Sex chromosome

    A chromosome that determines whether an individual male or female

    Nondisjunction

    An accident of meiosisor mitosis in which a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to seperate at anaphase

    Mutation

    A change in the nucleotides sequence of an organism's DNA; mutation also can occur in the DNA or RNA of a virus; the altimate source of genetic diversity

    four types of mutation

    Deletion-a piece of DNA is lost, missing,etc.

    Duplication- a piece of DNA is add, replicated,more than once

    Inversion-a pirce of DNA breaks off and reattaches in reverse order

    Translocation-two chromosomes involved a piece of DNA breaks off one chromosomes and attaches to a differant chromosomes

    homologous Chromosomes

    The two chromosomes that make up a matched pair in a diploid cell. They are of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern and possess gene for the same characteristics at corrosponding loci. One homologous chromosomeis inherited from the organism's father, and one grom the mother

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