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    match the types of memory distortion with their corresponding examples.

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    Memory Distortions

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    Memory

    Memory Distortions

    Memory Distortions Memory Distortions and Biases

    Memories are not stored as exact replicas of reality; rather, they are modified and reconstructed during recall.

    LEARNING OBJECTIVES

    Evaluate how mood, suggestion, and imagination can lead to memory errors or bias

    KEY TAKEAWAYS

    Key Points

    Because memories are reconstructed, they are susceptible to being manipulated with false information.

    Much research has shown that the phrasing of questions can alter memories. Children are particularly suggestible to such leading questions.

    People tend to place past events into existing representations of the world ( schemas ) to make memories more coherent.

    Intrusion errors occur when information that is related to the theme of a certain memory, but was not actually a part of the original episode, become associated with the event.

    There are many types of bias that influence recall, including fading-affect bias, hindsight bias, illusory correlation, self-serving bias, self-reference effect, source amnesia, source confusion, mood-dependent memory retrieval, and the mood congruence effect.

    Key Terms

    consolidation: The act or process of turning short-term memories into more permanent, long-term memories.schema: A worldview or representation.leading question: A query that suggests the answer or contains the information the examiner is looking for.

    Memory Errors

    Memories are fallible. They are reconstructions of reality filtered through people’s minds, not perfect snapshots of events. Because memories are reconstructed, they are susceptible to being manipulated with false information. Memory errors occur when memories are recalled incorrectly; a memory gap is the complete loss of a memory.

    Schemas

    In a 1932 study, Frederic Bartlett demonstrated how telling and retelling a story distorted information recall. He told participants a complicated Native American story and had them repeat it over a series of intervals. With each repetition, the stories were altered. Even when participants recalled accurate information, they filled in gaps with false information. Bartlett attributed this tendency to the use of schemas. A schema is a generalization formed in the mind based on experience. People tend to place past events into existing representations of the world to make memories more coherent. Instead of remembering precise details about commonplace occurrences, people use schemas to create frameworks for typical experiences, which shape their expectations and memories. The common use of schemas suggests that memories are not identical reproductions of experience, but a combination of actual events and already-existing schemas. Likewise, the brain has the tendency to fill in blanks and inconsistencies in a memory by making use of the imagination and similarities with other memories.

    Leading Questions

    Much research has shown that the phrasing of questions can also alter memories. A leading question is a question that suggests the answer or contains the information the examiner is looking for. For instance, one study showed that simply changing one word in a question could alter participants’ answers: After viewing video footage of a car accident, participants who were asked how “slow” the car was going gave lower speed estimations than those who were asked how “fast” it was going. Children are particularly suggestible to such leading questions.

    Intrusion Errors

    Intrusion errors occur when information that is related to the theme of a certain memory, but was not actually a part of the original episode, become associated with the event. This makes it difficult to distinguish which elements are in fact part of the original memory. Intrusion errors are frequently studied through word-list recall tests.

    Intrusion errors can be divided into two categories. The first are known as extra-list errors, which occur when incorrect and non-related items are recalled, and were not part of the word study list. These types of intrusion errors often follow what are known as the DRM Paradigm effects, in which the incorrectly recalled items are often thematically related to the study list one is attempting to recall from. Another pattern for extra-list intrusions would be an acoustic similarity pattern, which states that targets that have a similar sound to non-targets may be replaced with those non-targets in recall. The second type of intrusion errors are known as intra-list errors, which consist of irrelevant recall for items that were on the word study list. Although these two categories of intrusion errors are based on word-list studies in laboratories, the concepts can be extrapolated to real-life situations. Also, the same three factors that play a critical role in correct recall (i.e., recency, temporal association, and semantic relatedness) play a role in intrusions as well.

    Types of Memory Bias

    A person’s motivations, intentions, mood, and biases can impact what they remember about an event. There are many identified types of bias that influence people’s memories.

    Source : courses.lumenlearning.com

    the first letter of her name but she temporarily forgot her name Match the types

    the first letter of her name but she temporarily forgot her name Match the types from PSYCHOLOGY 6 at Auburn University

    The first letter of her name but she temporarily

    Auburn University PSYCHOLOGY 6 hlreeves2000 14 92% (24)

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    the first letter of her name, but she temporarily forgot her name-Match the types of memory distortion with their corresponding examples.oMisattribution – the student thought the psychology professor had assigned a ten-page paper, but her history professor had given that assignmentoBias – Monique recalled her elementary school friend as shy because she recentlylearned that her friend has social anxietyoSuggestibility – the teenager is told that a neighbor has a vicious dog, thenmistakenly recalls a time when the dog chased him-Match the phases of the memory process with their corresponding steps in studying for anexam.oConsolidation – getting a good night’s sleep before the examoEncoding – reading and studying your textbookoStorage – maintaining information until you take a testoRetrieval – recalling the definition of a key term from your memory-Match the memory failure examples with their corresponding memory failure processes.oAbsentmindedness – talking with a student after class, the professor forgot hisbriefcase in the classroomoBlocking – Petrine knew her friend’s phone number, but she couldn’t remember itoMemory decay – Abellona enjoyed rereading the murder mystery because sheforgot who had committed the crime

    -Based on Craik and Lockhart’s levels of processing memory model, place in order howdeeply the following information about dogs will be encoded, from the shallowest to thedeepest.oA person glances at a magazine and sees a picture of a dogoA person can remember all of the breeds of dogs because she knows a song thatlists themoA person dog-sits and spends the weekend walking and playing with a dogoA person who grew up with a dog enjoyed walking in the woods with her pet-Match the tasks with their corresponding memory types.oShort-term memory – during an argument, a person recalls something the otherperson said a few minutes earlieroLong-term memory – after two weeks of self-testing, a student recalls informationfor a cumulative final examoSensory memory – a driver glances at a pedestrian before looking back at the roadaheadoWorking memory – a person repeats a phone number until he enters it into hiscontact list-Rank how well each strategy will help on the final exam, from best to worst.oJose reads the chapter, closes the book, and tries to recall all of the conceptsdescribedoNitish creates concept maps of the informationoMaria rereads the chapter several times-Which of the following questions might a judge in a court of law ask if she thought theeyewitness testimony was distorted?oCorrect:§Was the event highly emotional to the witness?§Was the witness asked leading questions immediately following the event?§Has the witness experienced any changes in attitudes or beliefs about thecrime witnessed?

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    Psychology, Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Memory Processes

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    INQUIZITIVE PS101 Quiz 6 Flashcards

    PS101 Quiz 6 Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.

    INQUIZITIVE PS101 Quiz 6

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    Label the brain regions associated with each type of memory.

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    Place the three phases of the information processing model in the correct locations on the figure.

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    1/21 Created by zcastellon PS101 Quiz 6

    Terms in this set (21)

    Label the brain regions associated with each type of memory.

    SEE SCREEN SHOT

    Place the three phases of the information processing model in the correct locations on the figure.

    SEE SCREEN SHOT

    Label the different long-term memory systems.

    SEE SCREEN SHOT

    Identify the following ways in which false memories could be constructed.

    correct

    - A person may falsely remember that a word was part of a list, if it was related to words that were in the list.

    - A person may encode as true a story someone else tells about him.

    - An imagined event will form a mental image that may be later recalled as a real event.

    incorrect

    - A person attends to details of an event.

    - A person immediately rehearses information he learns.

    Identify the following ways in which long-term memory can be distorted.

    Correct

    -recall of flashbulb memories

    -reconstruction -suggestibility -cryptomnesia -source amnesia Incorrect

    -intentional rehearsal

    -chunking information

    -using mnemonics

    Match the memory principles with their corresponding examples.

    Context dependent:

    Tori always did her homework in her classroom and performed well on a subsequent essay exam given in the same room.

    (Context-dependent learning is encoding and retrieving information in similar situations to facilitate memory retrieval.)

    Spreading activation

    When Etsuko heard the word "cat," she started thinking about her pet cats.

    (Spreading activation refers to how the activation of one node activates other similar nodes in a simultaneous manner.)

    State dependent

    Midori was calm when studying, but anxious when taking the exam; she could not recall some of the information.

    (State-dependent learning refers to how similar internal states during encoding and retrieval enhance memory retrieval. Experiencing a calm state during encoding but an anxious state during retrieval interferes with memory.

    Encoding specificity

    When Akira smelled chocolate chip cookies, he recalled the first time he baked with his mom.

    (Stimulus cues encoded with an experience can serve as retrieval for long-term memory of those experiences.)

    Which of the following are examples of nondeclarative memory?

    correct

    - remembering how to tie a square knot

    - forgetting you saw a movie trailer but wanting to go see the movie

    - remembering how to paint a ceiling

    incorrect

    - telling someone what you had for brunch over the weekend

    - telling someone the definition of psychology

    Match the phases of the memory process with their corresponding steps in studying for an exam.

    Storage

    maintaining information until you take a test

    Encoding

    reading and studying your textbook

    Retrieval

    recalling the definition of a key term from your memory

    Consolidation

    getting a good night's sleep before the exam

    Match the memory principles with their corresponding examples.

    Method of loci

    Keaton increased his recall when learning the structures of the brain by visualizing them as different rooms of a house.

    Mnemonics

    Benat made up a silly sentence, where each word started with the same letter as a word he was trying to remember, to remind him of the order of operations in mathematics.mnemonics

    Encoding specificity principle

    Hearing the movie's soundtrack helped Sorkunde recall the details from a particular scene in the film.

    Match the types of memory distortion with their corresponding examples.

    Flashbulb memory

    Ekon retold a detailed story of how the tornado passed right by his house.

    (Flashbulb memories are vivid and detailed recollections of emotional or surprising events.)

    Repressed memory

    While undergoing psychotherapy, Roshanak comes to the conclusion that she was sexually abused by her parents as a child.

    (A proper investigation of Roshanak's allegations would include an examination of the therapy she underwent. It is possible (though it should not be assumed) that her therapist said or did things to encourage her to produce the memories of abuse.)

    Misattribution

    Abasi wrote a poem, but later discovered it was actually parts of two famous poems.

    Memory bias

    After the passing of her father, Adola tended only to recall the positive experiences that she had shared with him.

    Suggestibility

    Kamali grew up hearing stories of the great blizzard. She remembered walking home in this blizzard until she discovered that the blizzard occurred before she was born.

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