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    Square Deal

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    Square Deal

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    For the tile game, see Square Deal (game). For the employment practices of George F. Johnson, see Endicott-Johnson Co. & The Square Deal. For other uses, see Square Deal (disambiguation).

    Part of a series on Progressivism show History show Ideas show People show By region show Related Philosophy portal Politics portal vte

    This article is part of

    a series about Theodore Roosevelt

    Political positionsElectoral history

    Early lifeFamily

    Rough Riders Battle of San Juan Hill

    1886 New York City mayoral election

    33rd Governor of New York

    Governorship"The Strenuous Life"

    25th Vice President of the United States

    1900 McKinley-Roosevelt campaign"Speak softly and carry a big stick"

    26th President of the United States

    Presidency Timeline First term

    McKinley assassination1st inauguration

    Square DealWest WingCoal strike

    Booker T. Washington dinner

    Venezuela crisis Roosevelt Corollary

    Second term

    1904 campaign Election

    2nd inaugurationConservation

    Antiquities ActForest Service

    Pure Food and Drug Act

    FDA Meat Inspection Act

    Treaty of PortsmouthNobel PrizeFBI

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    1912 election

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    The Square Deal was Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program, which reflected his three major goals: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection.[1]

    These three demands are often referred to as the "three Cs" of Roosevelt's Square Deal. Thus, it aimed at helping middle class citizens and involved attacking plutocracy and bad trusts while at the same time protecting business from the most extreme demands of organized labor. He explained in 1901–1909:

    When I say that I am for the square deal, I mean not merely that I stand for fair play under the present rules of the game, but that I stand for having those rules changed so as to work for a more substantial equality of opportunity and of reward for equally good service.[2]

    A progressive Republican, Roosevelt believed in government action to mitigate social evils, and as president he in 1908 denounced "the representatives of predatory wealth" as guilty of "all forms of iniquity from the oppression of wage workers to unfair and unwholesome methods of crushing competition, and to defrauding the public by stock-jobbing and the manipulation of securities."[3]

    During his second term, Roosevelt tried to extend his Square Deal further, but was blocked by conservative Republicans in Congress.

    Contents

    1 History

    1.1 Coining of the term

    1.2 Initial legislation

    1.3 Second term 2 Impact 2.1 Labor

    2.2 Health and welfare

    2.3 Conservation 2.4 Public projects 2.5 Veterans 2.6 Education 2.7 Rural areas

    2.8 Business regulation

    3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

    History[edit]

    Coining of the term[edit]

    1:32

    Address to the Boys Progressive League by former President Theodore Roosevelt, New York City, recorded March 4, 1913 (according to Allen Koenigsberg's latest research).

    The press was using the term "Square Deal" as early as 1871 in a local news article that reads "Many of the inscriptions on the front of trucks, drays, and other vehicles are quite amusing. On one there is a picture of a hand containing four aces, and over it is inscribed square deal."[4] In 1888, in "letters from the people" (letters to the editor), one writer signed off as "Square Deal".[5] In 1890, the phrase started to appear in headlines, e.g., "Give China a Square Deal"[6] and "Not a Square Deal".[7]

    An early usage of "square deal" by Theodore Roosevelt in the press occurred in 1899, when quoted his saying, "I did not appoint a man because he came from Dr. Wall's or any other church; I gave each man a square deal on his own account. That is what I mean by Americanism."[8]

    In 1901, he declared "a square deal for every man, big or small, rich or poor" during a speech in Lynn, Massachusetts, recorded by stereograph (photo) image.[9][10]

    In a 1903 speech in Springfield, Illinois, he stated, "It seems to me eminently fitting that the guard around the tomb of Lincoln should be composed of colored soldiers. It was my own good fortune at Santiago to serve beside colored troops. A man who is good enough to shed his blood for his country is good enough to be given a square deal afterwards."[11]

    In October 1904, while Roosevelt was readying publication of his book [12] (Chicago, R. J. Thompson, 1905), reported:

    No sooner have the Democrats concluded their task of going through the President's many books with a fine-tooth comb to ferret out campaign material, than Republicans come forth with a pamphlet of about the same size, and prepared on a somewhat similar plan, making conspicuous Mr. Roosevelt's sentiments on numerous civic and governmental questions. It Is entitled "A Square Deal for Every Man" and the paragraphs printed, which are more numerous than those in "Roosevelt, Historian", are culled, to some extent, from the same volumes. Republicans are now considering the purchase of over a million of those booklets. Chairman Cortelyou has discussed has matter, and negotiations on the subject were continued yesterday at the White House.

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    Theodore Roosevelt

    Despite his caution, Roosevelt managed to do enough in his first three years in office to build a platform for election in his own right. In 1902 he resurrected the nearly defunct Sherman Antitrust Act by bringing a lawsuit that led to the breakup of a huge railroad conglomerate, the Northern Securities Company. Roosevelt pursued this policy of “trust-busting” by initiating suits against 43 other major corporations during the next seven years. Early in his term, he also sought the creation of an agency that would have the power to investigate businesses engaged in interstate commerce (though without regulatory powers);

    The Square Deal of Theodore Roosevelt

    Despite his caution, Roosevelt managed to do enough in his first three years in office to build a platform for election in his own right. In 1902 he resurrected the nearly defunct Sherman Antitrust Act by bringing a lawsuit that led to the breakup of a huge railroad conglomerate, the Northern Securities Company. Roosevelt pursued this policy of “trust-busting” by initiating suits against 43 other major corporations during the next seven years. Early in his term, he also sought the creation of an agency that would have the power to investigate businesses engaged in interstate commerce (though without regulatory powers); the Bureau of Corporations was formally established in 1903.

    Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt.

    Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

    Study how Teddy Roosevelt leveraged federal power over mine owners to earn a victory for labourers

    Teddy Roosevelt's intervention in a 1902 coalminers' strike had a lasting impact on the American labour movement.

    Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

    See all videos for this article

    In 1902 Roosevelt intervened in the anthracite coal strike when it threatened to cut off heating fuel for homes, schools, and hospitals. The president publicly asked representatives of capital and labour to meet in the White House and accept his mediation. He also talked about calling in the army to run the mines, and he got Wall Street investment houses to threaten to withhold credit to the coal companies and dump their stocks. The combination of tactics worked to end the strike and gain a modest pay hike for the miners. This was the first time that a president had publicly intervened in a labour dispute at least implicitly on the side of workers. Roosevelt characterized his actions as striving toward a “Square Deal” between capital and labour, and those words became his campaign slogan in the 1904 election.

    Once he won that election—overwhelmingly defeating the Democratic contender Alton B. Parker by 336 to 140 electoral votes—Roosevelt put teeth into his Square Deal programs. He pushed Congress to grant powers to the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate interstate railroad rates. The Hepburn Act of 1906 conveyed those powers and created the federal government’s first true regulatory agency. Also in 1906, Roosevelt pressed Congress to pass the Pure Food and Drug and Meat Inspection acts, which created agencies to assure protection to consumers. The “muckrakers,” investigative journalists of the era, had exposed the squalid conditions of food-processing industries.

    Roosevelt’s boldest actions came in the area of natural resources. At his urging, Congress created the Forest Service (1905) to manage government-owned forest reserves, and he appointed a fellow conservationist, Gifford Pinchot, to head the agency. Simultaneously, Roosevelt exercised existing presidential authority to designate public lands as national forests in order to make them off-limits to commercial exploitation of lumber, minerals, and waterpower. Roosevelt set aside almost five times as much land as all of his predecessors combined, 194 million acres (78.5 million hectares). In commemoration of Roosevelt’s dedication to conservation, Theodore Roosevelt National Park in North Dakota and Theodore Roosevelt Island in Washington, D.C., a 91-acre (37-hectare) wooded island in the Potomac River, were named in his honour.

    Theodore Roosevelt photographed in Colorado in 1905.

    Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

    Foreign policy

    Roosevelt believed that nations, like individuals, should pursue the strenuous life and do their part to maintain peace and order, and he believed that “civilized” nations had a responsibility for stewardship of “barbarous” ones. He knew that taking on the Philippine Islands as an American colony after the Spanish-American War had ended America’s isolation from international power politics—a development that he welcomed. Every year he asked for bigger appropriations for the army and navy. Congress cut back on his requests, but by the end of his presidency he had built the U.S. Navy into a major force at sea and reorganized the army along efficient, modern lines.

    Several times during Roosevelt’s first years in office, European powers threatened to intervene in Latin America, ostensibly to collect debts owed them by weak governments there. To meet such threats, he framed a policy statement in 1904 that became known as the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. It stated that the United States would not only bar outside intervention in Latin American affairs but would also police the area and guarantee that countries there met their international obligations. In 1905, without congressional approval, Roosevelt forced the Dominican Republic to install an American “economic advisor,” who was in reality the country’s financial director.

    Source : www.britannica.com

    List two actions that Theodore Roosevelt took as president that reflected his Square Deal ideas.

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    List two actions that Theodore Roosevelt took as president that reflected his Square Deal ideas.

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    President Teddy Roosevelt's Square Deal was based on providing a "fair" society in which all citizens could benefit. Within this Square Deal, he focused on protecting the consumer and controlling corporations.

    One action he took to protect the consumers was passing the Meat Inspection Act. After the book The Jungle was produced, Roosevelt became aware of the unsanitary working conditions of the meat packing industry. These unsanitary methods resulted in rotten food that made thousands of Americans sick. The law passed by Roosevelt resulted in federal regulation of the meat packing industry.

    Another action taken by Roosevelt was taking different corporations to court in order to break up trusts. During the course of his presidency, Roosevelt took on thirty different companies that, in his mind, were acting like monopolies by manipulating a certain part of the market.

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    The Square Deal was Theodore Roosevelt's domestic agenda, and it reflected his three principal goals: natural resource conservation, corporate control, and consumer protection. These three objectives were known as the "three Cs" of Roosevelt's Square Deal.

    It advocated for consumer protection, corporate control, and natural resource conservation. His Square deal Ideas were expressed in two actions:

    1. It opposed special treatment for large capitalists and is a key component of his distrust-busting attitude.

    2. This transaction exemplified the concept that all enterprises must serve the greater good.

    For more information regarding the Square deals ideas, refer to the link:

    brainly.com/question/4197003

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