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    key features of seed plants facilitating life on land include three of the following four traits. select the exception.

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    Key features of seed plants facilitating life on land include three

    of the following four traits. Select the exception.

    (A) homospory (B) pollen

    (C) reduced gametophytes

    (D) seeds Expert Solution

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    Life Cycle Of Angiosperms

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    Life Cycle Of Gymnosperms

    Gymnosperms, which translates to "naked seeds," are a diverse group of seed plants. The angiosperms are a sister group to one group of gymnosperms (the Gnetales), making the gymnosperms a paraphyletic group, according to the…

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    1

    seed

    consists of an embryo and nutrients surrounded by a protective coat

    2

    what are common to all seed plants?

    1. Reduced gametophytes

    2. Heterospory 3. Ovules 4. Pollen 3

    Gymnosperm

    refers to the exposed nature of the seeds

    "naked seed" not enclosed by ovaries and are exposed to sporophylls that usually form cones

    4

    Seeds produced on surface of _____ or similar structures, instead of enclosed within a fruit as in flowering plants.

    sporophylls

    5

    Phylum Coniferophyta

    This phylum is by far the largest of the gymnosperm phyla (~600 species)

    • Most conifers are evergreens and can carry out photosynthesis year round and dominate northern forests

    6

    Three key features of the gymnosperm life cycle are:

    1. Dominance of the sporophyte generation

    2. Development of seeds from fertilized ovules

    3. The transfer of sperm to ovules by pollen

    7

    The gymnosperms have “naked” seeds not enclosed by ovaries and consist of four phyla:

    – Cycadophyta (cycads)

    – Gingkophyta (one living species: Ginkgo biloba)

    – Gnetophyta (three genera: Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia)

    – Coniferophyta (conifers, such as pine, fir, and redwood)

    8

    Phylum Cycadophyta

    • Individuals have large cones and palmlike leaves (but are not palms!)

    – Slow-growing plants of tropics and subtropics

    – Tall unbranched trunks

    – Crown of large pinnately

    divided leaves

    • Thesethrivedduringthe Mesozoic, but relatively few species exist today

    9

    Phylum Ginkophyta

    Only one living species:Ginkgo biloba (maidenhair trees)

    • Only exists in cultivation

    – Notched, broad, fan-shaped leaves

    • Leaves on short, slow-growing spurs.

    – No midrib or prominent veins – Hair-like veins branch

    dichotomously. – Dioecious!

    10

    what is pollination?

    is the act of transferring pollen grains from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma

    11

    what is a fruit

    Matured ovary and its accessory parts

    – Contains seeds

    – All fruits develop from flower ovaries and accordingly are found exclusively in flowering plants.

    12

    double fertilization

    occurs when the pollen tube discharges two sperm

    into the female gametophyte within an ovule

    13

    ____ and ___ are key adaptations for life on land

    seeds and pollen grains

    14

    a microspore develops into a

    pollen grain

    15

    in gymnosperms, the seeds are produced where? as opposed to flowering plants

    produced on sporophylls as opposed to inside of a fruit in flowering plants

    16

    the pine tree is the ____ and produces ____

    sporophyte and produces sporangia in male and female cones

    17

    Small cones produce _____ called ____ each of which contains a ____ gametophyte

    microspores; pollen grains; male

    18

    familiar larger cones contain ,which produce _____ that develop into _____ gametophytes

    ovules; megaspores; female

    19

    It takes nearly ___ years from cone production to mature seed

    three

    20

    what are the four phyla of the gymnosperms?

    – Cycadophyta (cycads)

    – Gingkophyta (one living species: Ginkgo biloba)

    – Gnetophyta (three genera: Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia)

    – Coniferophyta (conifers, such as pine, fir, and redwood)

    21

    Dioecious

    Male and female structures on separate trees.

    phylum gingkophyta 22

    angiosperms

    seed plants with reproductive structures called flowers and fruits; They are the most widespread and diverse of all plants

    23

    All angiosperms are classified in a single phylum, _____ (aka Anthophyta)

    Magnoliophyta

    24

    exocarp

    skin

    25

    endocarp

    inner boundary around seed

    26

    mesocarp

    Tissue between exocarp and endocarp

    27

    Three regions collectively called

    pericarp

    28

    True fruits contain only______ ; accessory fruits are those that contain any _______

    ovarian tissue; nonovarian tissue

    29

    fleshy

    mesocarp is at least partly fleshy at maturity.

    Simple fleshy fruits develop from a flower with a single pistil

    Are eaten during the natural seed distribution process

    30

    dry

    mesocarp is dry at maturity

    Is typically not eaten by the natural seed- distributing animals

    31

    what are fruit adaptations that enhance seed dispersal?

    wind, animal transportation, animal ingestion

    32

    flower of the sporophyte is composed of ______

    both male and female structures

    ____ are contained within pollen grains produced by the

    33

    microsporangia of anthers

    male gametophytes

    34

    The female gametophyte, or _____ , develops within an ovule contained within an ovary at the base of a stigma

    embryo sac

    35

    Source : www.brainscape.com

    Flowering plant

    Flowering plant

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to navigation Jump to search

    "Flowering Plants" redirects here. For the book by G. Ledyard Stebbins, see Flowering Plants: Evolution Above the Species Level.

    Flowering plant

    Temporal range: Late Valanginian – present, 134–0 Ma

    PreꞒ Ꞓ O S D C P T J K Pg N

    Diversity of angiosperms

    Scientific classification

    Kingdom: Plantae : Tracheophytes : Spermatophytes : Angiosperms Groups (APG IV)[1] Basal angiosperms Amborellales Nymphaeales Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms Clades magnoliids monocots eudicots Orders Chloranthales Ceratophyllales Synonyms

    Anthophyta Cronquist[2]

    Angiospermae Lindl.

    Magnoliophyta Cronquist, Takht. & W.Zimm.[3]

    Magnolicae Takht.[4]

    Flowering plants are plants that bear flowers and fruits, and form the clade Angiospermae (/ˌændʒiəˈspɜːrmiː/),[5][6] commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek words ('container, vessel') and ('seed'), and refers to those plants that produce their seeds enclosed within a fruit. They are the most diverse group of land plants with 64 orders, 416 families, approximately 13,000 known genera and 300,000 known species.[7] Angiosperms were formerly called Magnoliophyta (/mæɡˌnoʊliˈɒfətə, -əˈfaɪtə/).[8]

    Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. They are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within their seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds.

    The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from the common ancestor of all living gymnosperms during the Carboniferous, over 300 million years ago,[9] with the earliest record of angiosperm pollen appearing around 134 million years ago. The first remains of flowering plants are known from 125 million years ago. They diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 million years ago, and replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 60 to 100 million years ago.

    Contents

    1 Description

    1.1 Angiosperm derived characteristics

    1.2 Vascular anatomy

    1.3 Reproductive anatomy

    2 Taxonomy

    2.1 History of classification

    2.2 Modern classification

    2.3 Evolutionary history

    2.3.1 Paleozoic

    2.3.2 Triassic and Jurassic

    2.3.3 Cretaceous 3 Gallery of photos 4 Diversity 5 Reproduction

    5.1 Fertilisation and embryogenesis

    5.2 Fruit and seed 5.3 Meiosis 5.4 Apomixis 6 Uses 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Bibliography

    10.1 Articles, books and chapters

    10.2 Websites 11 External links

    Description[edit]

    , also known as fireweed or rosebay willowherb, is a flowering plant in the willowherb family Onagraceae.

    Angiosperm derived characteristics[edit]

    Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below. These distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.[a]

    Distinctive features of angiosperms

    Feature Description

    Flowering organs Flowers, the reproductive organs of flowering plants, are the most remarkable feature distinguishing them from the other seed plants. Flowers provided angiosperms with the means to have a more species-specific breeding system, and hence a way to evolve more readily into different species without the risk of crossing back with related species. Faster speciation enabled the Angiosperms to adapt to a wider range of ecological niches. This has allowed flowering plants to largely dominate terrestrial ecosystems, comprising about 90 percent of all plant species.[10]

    Stamens with two pairs of pollen sacs Stamens are much lighter than the corresponding organs of gymnosperms and have contributed to the diversification of angiosperms through time with adaptations to specialised pollination syndromes, such as particular pollinators. Stamens have also become modified through time to prevent self-fertilization, which has permitted further diversification, allowing angiosperms eventually to fill more niches.

    Reduced male gametophyte, three cells The male gametophyte in angiosperms is significantly reduced in size compared to those of gymnosperm seed plants.[11] The smaller size of the pollen reduces the amount of time between pollination (the pollen grain reaching the female plant) and fertilization. In gymnosperms, fertilization can occur up to a year after pollination, whereas in angiosperms, fertilization begins very soon after pollination.[12] The shorter amount of time between pollination and fertilization allows angiosperms to produce seeds earlier after pollination than gymnosperms, providing angiosperms a distinct evolutionary advantage.

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

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