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    Juneteenth

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    Juneteenth

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    For other uses, see Juneteenth (disambiguation).

    Juneteenth

    Juneteenth festival in Milwaukee, 2019

    Also called

    Juneteenth National Independence Day

    Jubilee Day[1]

    Emancipation Day (TX)[2][3]

    Freedom Day

    Black Independence Day[4]

    Observed by United States

    Type Federal

    Significance Emancipation of slaves in states in rebellion against the Union

    Observances African-American history, culture, and progress

    Date June 19[a] Frequency Annually First time

    June 19, 1866 (celebration)

    June 19, 2021 (federal holiday)[b]

    Related to Emancipation Day

    Juneteenth is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the emancipation of enslaved African Americans. Juneteenth marks the anniversary of the announcement of General Order No. 3 by Union Army general Gordon Granger on June 19, 1865, proclaiming freedom for enslaved people in Texas.[7] Originating in Galveston, the holiday has since been observed annually on June 19 in various parts of the United States, often broadly celebrating African-American culture. The day was first recognized as a federal holiday in June 2021, when President Joe Biden signed the Juneteenth National Independence Day Act into law.[8][9]

    Early celebrations date to 1866, at first involving church-centered community gatherings in Texas. They spread across the South and became more commercialized in the 1920s and 1930s, often centering on a food festival. Participants in the Great Migration out of the South carried their celebrations to other parts of the country. During the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, these celebrations were eclipsed by the nonviolent determination to achieve civil rights, but grew in popularity again in the 1970s with a focus on African American freedom and African-American arts. Beginning with Texas by proclamation in 1938, and by legislation in 1979, each U.S. state and the District of Columbia have formally recognized the holiday in some way. With its adoption in certain parts of Mexico, the holiday became an international holiday. Juneteenth is celebrated by the Mascogos, descendants of Black Seminoles who escaped from slavery in 1852 and settled in Coahuila, Mexico.[10][11]

    Celebratory traditions often include public readings of the Emancipation Proclamation, singing traditional songs such as "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot" and "Lift Every Voice and Sing", and the reading of works by noted African-American writers, such as Ralph Ellison and Maya Angelou. Some Juneteenth celebrations also include rodeos, street fairs, cookouts, family reunions, park parties, historical reenactments, and Miss Juneteenth contests. In 2021, Juneteenth became the first new federal holiday since Martin Luther King Jr. Day was adopted in 1983.[12]

    Contents

    1 Celebrations and traditions

    2 History 2.1 Early history

    2.1.1 The Civil War and celebrations of emancipation

    2.1.2 End of slavery in Texas

    2.1.3 Early Juneteenth celebrations

    2.1.4 Decline during Jim Crow

    2.2 Revival 2.2.1 1960s–1980s

    2.2.2 Prayer breakfast and commemorative celebrations

    2.2.3 Official statewide recognitions

    2.2.4 Juneteenth in pop culture and mass media

    2.2.5 Becoming a federal holiday

    3 Legal observance 3.1 State and local 3.2 National 4 See also 5 Explanatory notes 6 Citations

    7 General and cited references

    8 Further reading 9 External links

    Celebrations and traditions[edit]

    Traditional African dance and music performed for Juneteenth, 2019

    , a 2020 video by the House Democratic Caucus

    The holiday is considered the "longest-running African-American holiday"[13] and has been called "America's second Independence Day". Juneteenth is usually celebrated on the third Saturday in June. Historian Mitch Kachun considers that celebrations of the end of slavery have three goals: "to celebrate, to educate, and to agitate".[14] Early celebrations consisted of baseball, fishing, and rodeos. African Americans were often prohibited from using public facilities for their celebrations, so they were often held at churches or near water. Celebrations were also characterized by elaborate large meals and people wearing their best clothing.[13] It was common for former enslaved people and their descendants to make a pilgrimage to Galveston.[15] As early festivals received news coverage, Janice Hume and Noah Arceneaux consider that they "served to assimilate African-American memories within the dominant 'American story'. "[16]

    Observance today is primarily in local celebrations.[17] In many places, Juneteenth has become a multicultural holiday.[18] Traditions include public readings of the Emancipation Proclamation, singing traditional songs such as "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot" and "Lift Every Voice and Sing", and reading of works by noted African-American writers, such as Ralph Ellison and Maya Angelou.[17] Celebrations include picnics, rodeos, street fairs, cookouts, family reunions, park parties, historical reenactments, blues festivals and Miss Juneteenth contests.[13][15][19][20][21] Red food and drinks are traditional during the celebrations, including red velvet cake and strawberry soda.[20][15] The Mascogos, the descendants of Black Seminoles, who have resided in Coahuila, Mexico, since 1852, also celebrate Juneteenth.[22]

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    What Is Juneteenth?

    On June 19, 1865, enslaved African Americans in Texas were told they were free. A century and a half later, people across the U.S. continue to celebrate the day, which is now a federal holiday.

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    Source : www.nytimes.com

    What Is Juneteenth?

    Juneteenth (short for “June Nineteenth”) is a holiday commemorating this day, which marked an effective end of slavery in the United States.

    What Is Juneteenth?

    Juneteenth commemorates an effective end of slavery in the United States.

    Author: Elizabeth Nix Updated: 13 hours ago Original: Jun 19, 2015

    Bettmann Archive/Getty Images

    Juneteenth commemorates an effective end of slavery in the United States.

    Juneteenth (short for “June Nineteenth”) marks the day when federal troops arrived in Galveston, Texas in 1865 to take control of the state and ensure that all enslaved people be freed. The troops’ arrival came a full two and a half years after the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation. Juneteenth honors the end to slavery in the United States and is considered the longest-running African American holiday. On June 17, 2021, it officially became a federal holiday.

    Confederate General Robert E. Lee had surrendered at Appomattox Court House two months earlier in Virginia, but slavery had remained relatively unaffected in Texas—until U.S. General Gordon Granger stood on Texas soil and read General Orders No. 3: “The people of Texas are informed that, in accordance with a proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free.”

    WATCH: Black History Documentaries on HISTORY Vault

    9 Gallery 9 Images

    The Emancipation Proclamation 

    The Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, had established that all enslaved people in Confederate states in rebellion against the Union “shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.”

    But in reality, the Emancipation Proclamation didn’t instantly free any enslaved people. The proclamation only applied to places under Confederate control and not to slave-holding border states or rebel areas already under Union control. However, as Northern troops advanced into the Confederate South, many enslaved people fled behind Union lines.

    Illustrated print by Thomas Nast depicting life before and after emancipation.

    Keith Lance/Getty Images

    Scroll to Continue

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    In Texas, slavery had continued as the state experienced no large-scale fighting or significant presence of Union troops. Many enslavers from outside the Lone Star State had moved there, as they viewed it as a safe haven for slavery.

    After the war came to a close in the spring of 1865, General Granger’s arrival in Galveston that June signaled freedom for Texas’s 250,000 enslaved people. Although emancipation didn’t happen overnight for everyone—in some cases, enslavers withheld the information until after harvest season—celebrations broke out among newly freed Black people, and Juneteenth was born. That December, slavery in America was formally abolished with the adoption of the 13th Amendment.

    READ MORE: Does an Exception Clause in the 13th Amendment Still Permit Slavery?

    The year following 1865, freedmen in Texas organized the first of what became the annual celebration of "Jubilee Day" on June 19. In the ensuing decades, Juneteenth commemorations featured music, barbecues, prayer services and other activities, and as Black people migrated from Texas to other parts of the country the Juneteenth tradition spread.

    In 1979, Texas became the first state to make Juneteenth an official holiday; several others followed suit over the years. In June 2021, Congress passed a resolution establishing Juneteenth as a national holiday; President Biden signed it into law on June 17, 2021.

    WATCH: Emancipation Proclamation: How Lincoln Could Abolish Slavery

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    Source : www.history.com

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