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get john marshall is important because he was a chief justice of the supreme court. a vice president of the united states. the first person to bring a case to the supreme court. the first speaker of the house of representatives. from EN Bilgi.
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For other people named John Marshall, see John Marshall (disambiguation).
Portrait by Henry Inman, 1832
4th Chief Justice of the United StatesIn office
February 4, 1801 – July 6, 1835
Nominated by John Adams
Preceded by Oliver Ellsworth
Succeeded by Roger B. Taney
4th United States Secretary of StateIn office
June 13, 1800 – March 4, 1801
President John Adams
Preceded by Timothy Pickering
Succeeded by James Madison
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Virginia's 13th districtIn office
March 5, 1799 – June 6, 1800
Preceded by John Clopton
Succeeded by Littleton Tazewell
Born September 24, 1755
Germantown, Virginia Colony, British America
Died July 6, 1835 (aged 79)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Political party Federalist
Spouse(s) Mary Willis Ambler
Children 10, including Edward
Education College of William & Mary
Signature Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service Continental Army
Years of service 1775–1782
Battles/wars American Revolutionary WarJohn Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the fourth chief justice of the United States from 1801 until his death in 1835. Marshall remains the longest-serving chief justice and fourth-longest serving justice in Supreme Court history, and he is widely regarded as one of the most influential justices to ever sit on the Supreme Court. Prior to joining the Supreme Court (and for one month simultaneous to his tenure as Chief Justice), Marshall served as the fourth United States Secretary of State under President John Adams.
Marshall was born in Germantown in the Colony of Virginia in 1755. After the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, he joined the Continental Army, serving in numerous battles. During the later stages of the war, he was admitted to the state bar and won election to the Virginia House of Delegates. Marshall favored the ratification of the United States Constitution, and he played a major role in Virginia's ratification of that document. At the request of President Adams, Marshall traveled to France in 1797 to help bring an end to attacks on American shipping. In what became known as the XYZ Affair, the government of France refused to open negotiations unless the United States agreed to pay bribes. After returning to the United States, Marshall won election to the United States House of Representatives and emerged as a leader of the Federalist Party in Congress. He was appointed secretary of state in 1800 after a cabinet shake-up, becoming an important figure in the Adams administration.
In 1801, Adams appointed Marshall to the Supreme Court. Marshall quickly emerged as the key figure on the court, due in large part to his personal influence with the other justices. Under his leadership, the court moved away from seriatim opinions, instead issuing a single majority opinion that elucidated a clear rule. The 1803 case of presented the first major case heard by the Marshall Court. In his opinion for the court, Marshall upheld the principle of judicial review, whereby courts could strike down federal and state laws if they conflicted with the Constitution. Marshall's holding avoided direct conflict with the executive branch, which was led by Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson. By establishing the principle of judicial review while avoiding an inter-branch confrontation, Marshall helped implement the principle of separation of powers and cement the position of the American judiciary as an independent and co-equal branch of government.
After 1803, many of the major decisions issued by the Marshall Court confirmed the supremacy of the federal government and the federal Constitution over the states. In and , the court invalidated state actions because they violated the Contract Clause. The court's decision in upheld the constitutionality of the Second Bank of the United States and established the principle that the states could not tax federal institutions. The cases of and established that the Supreme Court could hear appeals from state courts in both civil and criminal matters. Marshall's opinion in established that the Commerce Clause bars states from restricting navigation. In the case of , Marshall held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional. Marshall died in 1835, and Andrew Jackson appointed Roger Taney as his successor.
1 Early years (1755 to 1782)
2 Early political career (1782 to 1797)
3 Adams administration (1797 to 1801)
3.2 Congressman and Secretary of State
3.3 Nomination as Chief Justice
4 Chief Justice (1801 to 1835)
4.1 Personality, principles, and leadership
4.2 Jefferson administration
4.2.2 Impeachment of Samuel Chase
John Marshall, (born Sept. 24, 1755, near Germantown [now Midland], Va.—died July 6, 1835, Philadelphia, Pa.), fourth chief justice of the United States and principal founder of the U.S. system of constitutional law. As perhaps the Supreme Court’s most influential chief justice, Marshall was responsible for constructing and defending both the foundation of judicial power and the principles of American federalism. The first of his great cases in more than 30 years of service was Marbury v. Madison (1803), which established the Supreme Court’s right to expound constitutional law and exercise judicial review by declaring laws unconstitutional. His defense of
chief justice of United States
By Brian P. Smentkowski • Edit History
Marshall, John See all media
Born: September 24, 1755 Virginia
Died: July 6, 1835 (aged 79) Philadelphia Pennsylvania
Title / Office: supreme court (1801-1835), United States Supreme Court of the United States (1801-1835), United States House of Representatives (1799-1800), United States
Awards And Honors: Hall of Fame (1900)
Role In: Cohens v. Virginia Gibbons v. Ogden Marbury v. Madison McCulloch v. Maryland XYZ Affair
See all related content →John Marshall, (born Sept. 24, 1755, near Germantown [now Midland], Va.—died July 6, 1835, Philadelphia, Pa.), fourth chief justice of the United States and principal founder of the U.S. system of constitutional law. As perhaps the Supreme Court’s most influential chief justice, Marshall was responsible for constructing and defending both the foundation of judicial power and the principles of American federalism. The first of his great cases in more than 30 years of service was Marbury v. Madison (1803), which established the Supreme Court’s right to expound constitutional law and exercise judicial review by declaring laws unconstitutional. His defense of federalism was articulated in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), which upheld the authority of Congress to create the Bank of the United States and declared unconstitutional the right of a state to tax an instrument of the federal government. In his ruling on McCulloch, Marshall at once explained the authority of the court to interpret the constitution, the nature of federal-state relations inherent in a federal system of government, and the democratic nature of both the U.S. government and its governing. During his tenure as chief justice, Marshall participated in more than 1,000 decisions, writing more than 500 of them himself.
John Marshall was born in a log cabin and was the eldest of 15 children of Thomas Marshall, a sheriff, justice of the peace, and land surveyor who came to own some 200,000 acres (80,000 ha) of land in Virginia and Kentucky and who was a leading figure in Prince William county (from 1759 Fauquier county), Va., and Mary Keith Marshall, a clergyman’s daughter whose family was related to both the Randolphs and the Lees (two of Virginia’s most prominent families). Marshall’s childhood and youth were spent in the near-frontier region of Fauquier county, and he later lived in the Blue Ridge mountain area where his father had acquired properties. His schooling was primarily provided by his parents, supplemented only by the instruction afforded by a visiting clergyman who lived with the family for about a year and by a few months of slightly more formal training at an academy in Westmoreland county.
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When political debate with England was followed by armed clashes in 1775, Marshall, as lieutenant, joined his father in a Virginia regiment of minutemen and participated in the first fighting in that colony. Joining the Continental Army in 1776, Marshall served under George Washington for three years in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, his service including the harsh winter of 1777–78 at Valley Forge. He eventually rose to the rank of captain, and when the term of service of his Virginia troops expired in 1779, Marshall returned to Virginia and thereafter saw little active service prior to his discharge in 1781.
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Marshall’s only formal legal training was a brief course of lectures he attended in 1780 at William and Mary College given by George Wythe, an early advocate of judicial review. Licensed to practice law in August 1780, Marshall returned to Fauquier county and was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates in 1782 and 1784. Attending the sessions of the legislature in the state capital at Richmond, he established a law practice there and made the city his home after his marriage to Mary Ambler in January 1783.
For the next 15 years Marshall’s career was marked by increasing stature at the bar of Virginia and within Virginia politics. Although by 1787 he had not achieved a public position that would have sent him as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, he was an active, if junior, proponent of the new Constitution of the United States in the closely contested fight for ratification. That year Marshall was elected to the legislature that would take the first step toward ratification by issuing a call for a convention in Virginia to consider ratifying; he was also elected a delegate to the convention. His principal effort on the floor of the convention was, perhaps prophetically, a defense of the judiciary article. He then used his acknowledged popularity to gain or build the narrow margin by which Virginia’s ratification of the Constitution was won.
John Marshall, the Great Chief Justice
John Marshall studied law at William & Mary under the tutelage of George Wythe in 1780. Marshall's tenure here was brief but potent in forming the character of the person who would lay the foundations of American constitutional law.
America's First Law School
John Marshall, the Great Chief Justice
John Marshall, the nation's fourth chief justice, was among the first to study law at W&M
John Marshall, Chief Justice of the United States Marshall studied law here under the tutelage of George Wythe, William & Mary's - and the nation's - first professor of law. This 1946 painting by David Silvette, a copy of an 1831 portrait of Marshall by Henry Inman, hangs in the Law School's entrance hall.
Just weeks before Thomas Jefferson was to begin his presidency in 1801, incumbent John Adams appointed John Marshall as the young nation’s fourth chief justice. Generally considered to be the greatest jurist to fill that role, Marshall served under Jefferson, his political rival (and second cousin once removed), and four other presidents over the next three decades. Marshall studied law at William & Mary under the tutelage of George Wythe in 1780. Marshall’s tenure here was brief but potent in forming the character of the person who would lay the foundations of American constitutional law.
Largely self-educated, Marshall was born on September 24, 1755, in what is now Fauquier County, in the foothills of Virginia’s Blue Ridge Mountains. He was the oldest of 15 children of Thomas Marshall and Mary Randolph Keith. In youth he acquired a lifelong taste for English literature, poetry and history. Destined for the bar, Marshall set aside his law studies in 1775 to fight in the American War of Independence. As an officer in the Continental Army, he fought in the battles of Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth. He endured the sufferings at Valley Forge during the harsh winter of 1777-78. He was on leave from the army in 1780 when he attended Wythe’s lectures on law at the College. During his College sojourn, Marshall was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society. In nearby Yorktown he courted his future wife, Mary Willis (“Polly”) Ambler.
After the war, Marshall concentrated on his law practice but also found time to serve in the Virginia state legislature. He eventually entered the federal government in 1797 as President Adams’s envoy to France. After a brief stint in Congress, Marshall entered the cabinet as secretary of state, the office he held when Adams nominated him to be chief justice.
Marshall is best known for two important contributions to modern U.S. government. First, he established the power and prestige of the judiciary department, so that it could claim equal status with Congress and the Executive in a balanced government of separated powers. He asserted the judiciary’s authority to expound the Constitution as paramount law and to hold the other branches accountable to that law.
Second, Marshall interpreted the Constitution in ways that significantly enhanced the powers of the federal government. He believed that those powers, though enumerated, should be construed expansively in order to accomplish the great ends of government. Though limited, federal power was supreme within its allotted sphere, superseding state power whenever there was a conflict. Marshall’s opinions were later used to justify the great expansion of the federal government in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Marshall was revered for his winning personality, says one modern day scholar who perhaps knows John Marshall better than anyone. Dr. Charles Hobson, author of The Great Chief Justice: John Marshall and the Rule of Law, devoted 26 years of his career to editing a 12-volume collection of his papers and correspondence. Read about The Papers of John Marshall. Hobson describes him as having a “first class intellect and possession of all the social virtues. He could bring justices together and get a consensus for a case, something unheard of today. Many cases under Marshall were decided by a single opinion of the Court. His goal was to project unanimity.”
Marshall died in 1835, nearing the age of 80, without realizing the full impact of his long career as chief justice. He feared the Constitution would ultimately fail in the face of resistance from the states. But the groundwork was laid more surely than he knew, and despite the ordeal of secession and civil war, subsequent generations were able to carry his mission forward. His opinions are still taught in law schools today. Marshall exemplified his mentor George Wythe’s ideal of the “citizen lawyer” who devotes his professional knowledge and skills to public service.
On and off the court Marshall displayed a character notable for its simplicity and utter lack of pretension. Something of that character is indicated in the rumpled vest and unkempt shoelaces worn by the bronze statue of Marshall that stands along that of Wythe at the Law School’s entrance. It is one of several on-campus reminders of the great chief justice. A more regal statesman and jurist is portrayed in a copy of an 1831 portrait of Marshall by Henry Inman (shown above) that hangs in the Law School’s entrance hall. The Marshall family Bible is on display in the Nicholas J. St. George Rare Book Room.
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