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    in which biome would you expect to find many coniferous trees?

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    Northern Coniferous Forest Biome

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    NORTHERN CONIFEROUS FOREST BIOME

    The northern coniferous forest biome occupies a vast area below the tundra, extending completely across Canada and into interior Alaska. The biome is also referred to as the or .

    Compared to the arctic tundra, the climate of the boreal forest is characterized by a longer and warmer growing season. Precipitation averages 20 inches per year, but ranges from 40 inches in the eastern regions to 10 inches in interior Alaska. Available soil moisture is high as a result of cool temperature and low evapotranspiration rates. Mineral soils are generally thin and poorly drained. Large expanses of land are covered with thick deposits of peat and organic soils, ranging in depth from several feet to nearly a hundred. These soils have very high moisture holding capacities and are often completely saturated.

    A broad belt of forest-tundra transition lies along the northern edges of the boreal forest. Here, forest trees are interspersed with tundra plants, the former occupying more stable soils not subject to movement or heaving due to cyclic freezes and thaws.

    The diversity of tree species in the boreal forest is quite low, with black spruce (), larch or tamarack (), and white spruce () the most common species. The former two species generally occupy wet sites with poorly drained mineral or organic soils, while white spruce is the climatic climax species on sites that are drier and higher in nutrient content. Balsam fir () is a dominant tree species in the eastern half of the biome.

    This species is of understory conditions (more so than the spruces which are also relatively tolerant) and competes well with tolerant hardwoods. Balsam fir is, however, susceptible to injury by insects, fungi, fire, and ice. Like the above species, it is also shallow-rooted and subject to wind throw.

    Red spruce replaces white spruce as a dominant south of the St. Lawrence Valley and into the northern Appalachians. Still further south in the high Appalachians, Fraser fir () replaces balsam fir and forms a high altitude association with red spruce as far south as the Carolinas and Tennessee. In the northwestern part of the biome, balsam fir is replaced by subalpine fir (), in association with white spruce.

    Much of the northern coniferous forest biome is covered with lakes, which eventually fill with mineral and organic matter to form bogs. A of plant communities is associated with the change in substrate and microenvironment. Thus, floating and submerged aquatic plants occupy the shallow waters near the shore, slowly accumulating wind-blown soil and decaying organic matter. This initial stage is replaced by invading sedges and grasses and in turn by shrubs, including Labrador tea (), leather leaf (), sweet gale (), alder ( spp.), and various species of blueberry ( spp.). Tamarack, with a high tolerance for wet, cold, highly acid and highly organic substrates, is the first tree species to invade bogs. It is gradually replaced by black spruce, the edaphic climax on wet, boggy sites in the biome.  Surrounding the Great Lakes in both the U.S. and Canada is the white pine-red pine association, which is included in both the northern coniferous forest and temperate deciduous forest biomes (northern hardwoods association) by various authors. The original extensive stands of eastern white pine () that once covered this area have largely been destroyed by improper logging practices and white pine blister rust; most of these stands have been replaced by northern hardwooods or jack pine (). Eastern white pine can be considered an species or a species of long duration (300-500 years). It reaches its maximum development on sandy loam soils. Moist sites in the Lake States often supported pure stands of white pine, while drier sites were more often occupied by mixed stands of red pine () and jack pine, with jack pine occupying the most extreme of dry sandy sites. On heavier (i.e., clayey) soils, none of the pines were able to compete favorably with the northern hardwoods.

    Jack pine, with its , is a prime example of a "fire species," commonly occurring in pure stands on recently burned areas. On all but the driest of these sites, jack pine is replaced by white and red pine. Quaking aspen (), balsam poplar (), and paper birch (), are all short-lived, intolerant pioneer species which quickly invade the richer or moister sites that have been denuded by fire or logging. All are good invaders with their large crops of lightweight, wind-dispersed seeds; the aspens and poplars are further enhanced in this regard by their prolific sprouting ability. In the northernmost part of the biome, black spruce (also with serotinous cones) replaces jack pine as the fire-related invader species.

    Source : dendro.cnre.vt.edu

    Environmental Science Test Flashcards

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    Environmental Science Test

    Why is it hard for trees to survive at the top of very high mountains?

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    It is hard for trees to survive at the top of very high mountains due to winds, low temperature, and low precipitation.

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    Which Biome would you expect to find in warm to hot conditions with a large amount of moisture?

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    Rain Forest

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    Terms in this set (35)

    Why is it hard for trees to survive at the top of very high mountains?

    It is hard for trees to survive at the top of very high mountains due to winds, low temperature, and low precipitation.

    Which Biome would you expect to find in warm to hot conditions with a large amount of moisture?

    Rain Forest

    Coniferous trees can be found in both the subarctic taiga and in the warm chaparral regions. What kind of conditions have these trees adapted to in these areas?

    Low precipitation

    Do animals of the tropical rain forest generally migrate? Explain.

    No, animals migrate during the winter to find food. In the rain forest where it remains warm all year they do not need to.

    How do small mammals survive in the winter in the taiga?

    Burrowing into the ground

    Most rain forest animals are food generalists, true or false?

    False

    Name two adaptations that animals might have to desert conditions?

    Nocturnal and thick skin to retain water

    How is the tundra similar to the desert?

    Both biomes receive very little precipitation

    In which biome do plants tend to have deep root systems?

    Grasslands

    How does a lake become eutrophic?

    he lake is nutrient rich so many organisms, such as algae, grow rapidly draining the water of nutrients and oxygen so that plants and animals can no longer live in the water

    What are phytoplankton and what role do they play in aquatic ecosystems?

    They are small drifting aquatic animals that go through photosynthesis. They are the primary producers in aquatic biomes

    Why are estuaries a mineral-rich environment?

    Minerals are constantly being brought in from the river

    How are salt marshes and mangrove swamps different?

    Salt marshes are dominated by marsh grass, and mangrove swamps are dominated by mangrove trees

    What are the primary producers in the open ocean?

    phytoplankton

    Name two threats to the ocean.

    Pollution and overfishing

    Unlike the jungles you see in movies, the floor of a tropical rain forest usually has little vegetation. Why?

    The soil is very nutrient poor, and sunlight does not reach the forest floor

    How might a mountain affect where particular biomes are located?

    They block the rainfall from reaching that area. Making the biome dryer

    Define biome.

    A region characterized by specific climate and organism communities

    Which forest has the greatest biodiversity?

    A tropical rain forest

    What is the diversity of the species in an area dependent on?

    Rainfall

    What are the main factors that determine weather?

    altitude, latitude, precipitation, temperature

    What biome covers the most surface area of North America? South America? Europe? Asia? Africa?

    North America- Taiga, South America-Rainforest, Europe- temperate deciduous forest, Asia- grasslands, Africa- desert

    What are plankton?

    Organisms that cannot swim against currents, so they are drifters.

    What are nekton?

    Free swimming organisms

    What are benthos?

    Bottom dwelling organisms

    List three functions of wetlands.

    trap and filter sediments and pollutants, buffer shorelines against erosion, absorb potential floodwaters

    What type of vegetation dominates mangrove swamps?

    Mangrove trees

    Organisms living in coastal areas must adapt to what changes?

    Change in salinity

    Bleaching events lead to the destruction of what kind of ecosystem?

    Coral reef

    What is the difference between swamps and marshes?

    Swamps are dominated by woody plants, marshes are a nutrient rich wetland with nonwoody plants

    List the eight biomes.

    Rainforest, deciduous forest, taiga, grassland, desert, tundra, freshwater, marine

    List the three grasslands.

    Savanna, temperate grassland, chaparral

    What are the three freshwater ecosystems?

    Still water(ponds and lakes), running water(rivers and streams), and wetlands

    What are the three marine ecosystems?

    Estuaries, coral reefs, ocean

    What are the three forest biomes?

    Rain forest, deciduous forest, taiga

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    Source : quizlet.com

    What biome would you expect to find at 30 N latitude and elevations of 1,500 meters? a) Tropical scrub forest b) Ice and snow c) Tundra Deciduous forest d) Coniferous forest

    Answer to: What biome would you expect to find at 30 N latitude and elevations of 1,500 meters? a) Tropical scrub forest b) Ice and snow c)...

    Biomes

    What biome would you expect to find at 30 N latitude and elevations of 1,500 meters? a)...

    What biome would you expect to find at 30 N latitude and elevations of 1,500 meters? a)... Question:

    What biome would you expect to find at 30 N latitude and elevations of 1,500 meters?

    a) Tropical scrub forest

    b) Ice and snow

    c) Tundra Deciduous forest

    d) Coniferous forest

    Biomes:

    A biome is a community of plants and animals that have a shared common environment. Similar flora and fauna are found in areas with similar climates. The areas are broad geographical expanses that occur across regions of land or water. Aquatic biomes are generally defined by salinity. Biomes that occur on land, or terrestrial biomes, are majorly influenced by rainfall and temperature. The dominant plant species and vegetation pattern play a major role in defining biomes. It should be noted that a biome is a descriptive, qualitative classification, not quantitative.

    Earth can be divided into the following major terrestrial biomes:

    Tropical rainforest

    Tropical deciduous forest

    Thorn forest Tropical savanna Hot desert Chaparral

    Cold desert, arid shrublands, and grasslands

    High mountains (taiga and alpine tundra)

    Temperate coniferous forest

    Temperate deciduous forest

    Taiga Arctic tundra Temperate grassland Ice

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    The correct answer is d) Coniferous forest. It should be noted that this refers to temperate coniferous forests. These forests occur at a lower...

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    What Is a Biome? - Definition & Types

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    Chapter 32 / Lesson 21

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    What is a biome? Learn about different terrestrial and aquatic biomes, the types of species and plants in each biome, and examples of biomes around the world.

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