if you want to remove an article from website contact us from top.

    in the 1940s and 1950s, pan-arabism grew in the middle east in response to a decrease in arab nationalism. the division of the ottoman empire. european conquest and colonialism. growing influence from western nations.

    James

    Guys, does anyone know the answer?

    get in the 1940s and 1950s, pan-arabism grew in the middle east in response to a decrease in arab nationalism. the division of the ottoman empire. european conquest and colonialism. growing influence from western nations. from EN Bilgi.

    Nationalism in the Middle East Flashcards

    Memorize flashcards and build a practice test to quiz yourself before your exam. Start studying the Nationalism in the Middle East flashcards containing study terms like Kemal modernized Turkey, while Ibn Saud made Saudi Arabia a more traditional nation., Pahlavi pushed for westernization in Iran, while Khomeini brought about religious reform in that nation., growing influence from Western nations. and more.

    Nationalism in the Middle East

    4.5 26 Reviews

    Kemal modernized Turkey, while Ibn Saud made Saudi Arabia a more traditional nation.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    How did Mustafa Kemal differ from Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud?

    Kemal made Turkey a more traditional nation, while Ibn Saud modernized Saudi Arabia.

    Kemal modernized Turkey, while Ibn Saud made Saudi Arabia a more traditional nation.

    Kemal maintained Islamic law in Turkey, while Ibn Saud created a hereditary monarchy in Saudi Arabia.

    Kemal created a hereditary monarchy in Turkey, while Ibn Saud maintained Islamic law in Saudi Arabia.

    Click again to see term 👆

    Pahlavi pushed for westernization in Iran, while Khomeini brought about religious reform in that nation.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    How did Reza Pahlavi differ from Ayatollah Khomeini?

    Pahlavi pushed for rights for the women of Iran, while Khomeini united the tribes of Persia.

    Pahlavi united the tribes of Persia, while Khomeini pushed for rights for the women of Iran.

    Pahlavi brought about religious reform in Iran, while Khomeini pushed for Westernization in that nation.

    Pahlavi pushed for westernization in Iran, while Khomeini brought about religious reform in that nation.

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/10 Created by htam88

    Terms in this set (10)

    Kemal modernized Turkey, while Ibn Saud made Saudi Arabia a more traditional nation.

    How did Mustafa Kemal differ from Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud?

    Kemal made Turkey a more traditional nation, while Ibn Saud modernized Saudi Arabia.

    Kemal modernized Turkey, while Ibn Saud made Saudi Arabia a more traditional nation.

    Kemal maintained Islamic law in Turkey, while Ibn Saud created a hereditary monarchy in Saudi Arabia.

    Kemal created a hereditary monarchy in Turkey, while Ibn Saud maintained Islamic law in Saudi Arabia.

    Pahlavi pushed for westernization in Iran, while Khomeini brought about religious reform in that nation.

    How did Reza Pahlavi differ from Ayatollah Khomeini?

    Pahlavi pushed for rights for the women of Iran, while Khomeini united the tribes of Persia.

    Pahlavi united the tribes of Persia, while Khomeini pushed for rights for the women of Iran.

    Pahlavi brought about religious reform in Iran, while Khomeini pushed for Westernization in that nation.

    Pahlavi pushed for westernization in Iran, while Khomeini brought about religious reform in that nation.

    growing influence from Western nations.

    In the 1940s and 1950s, pan-Arabism grew in the Middle East in response to

    a decrease in Arab nationalism.

    the division of the Ottoman Empire.

    European conquest and colonialism.

    growing influence from Western nations.

    Religious leaders created official policy.

    How did Iran change under Ayatollah Khomeini?

    Iran became more Westernized.

    Free speech was no longer limited.

    Religious leaders created official policy.

    Universities and other institutions opened.

    coordinate political goals among six Arab nations.

    The Arab League was an organization established in 1945 to

    coordinate political goals among six Arab nations.

    fight for independence from European colonialism.

    bring Western ideas and traditions to the Middle East.

    search for oil and other resources in the Arabian world.

    He invested in industrialization and modernization; he suppressed free speech and other civil liberties; he signed lucrative oil deals with Western countries; he established a land redistribution and reform program.

    Which statements describe the shah's rule of Iran in the 1950s and 1960s? Check all that apply.

    He invested in industrialization and modernization.

    He suppressed free speech and other civil liberties.

    He signed lucrative oil deals with Western countries.

    He supported fundamentalists within his government.

    He established a land redistribution and reform program.

    He fired and imprisoned many corrupt government officials.

    Hamas is a Palestinian group that opposes Israeli rule.

    Which statement best describes Hamas?

    Hamas is a protest group that fights fundamentalism.

    Hamas is a Palestinian group that opposes Israeli rule.

    Hamas is a Lebanese group that has been funded by Iran.

    Hamas is a political party that is active in Egypt and Jordan.

    adherence to Islamic political traditions.

    Today, the fundamentalist movement in the Middle East calls for

    a move to freedom and equality for all.

    adherence to Islamic political traditions.

    respect for the rights of minority groups.

    an embrace of Western ideas and customs.

    Reza Pahlavi

    Who pushed the British out of Persia in the 1920s?

    Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Mustafa Kemal Ayatollah Khomeini Reza Pahlavi

    The nation granted women the right to vote.

    What was one reform that helped transform Turkey in the 1920s?

    Oil deals were made with Western nations.

    The nation granted women the right to vote.

    Islamic laws and traditions were strictly upheld.

    The Arab League helped strengthen relations.

    Sets with similar terms

    Nationalism in the Middle East

    16 terms siallen

    Nationalism in the Middle East

    10 terms sskoglund

    Source : quizlet.com

    Arab nationalism

    Arab nationalism

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to navigation Jump to search

    The flag of the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire is a prominent symbol of Arab nationalism. Its design and colors are the basis of many of the Arab states' flags.

    Coat of arms (emblem) Hawk of Quraish: It is one of the Arab national symbols that have been used in many Arab nation states.

    The Aqaba Flagpole in Aqaba, Jordan bearing the flag of the Arab Revolt. The Aqaba Flagpole is the sixth tallest free standing flagpole in the world.

    Arab nationalism (Arabic: القومية العربية, romanized: ) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, and calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.[1] Its central premise is that the people of the Arab world, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indian Ocean, constitute one nation bound together by common ethnicity, language, culture, history, identity, geography and politics.[2][3] One of the primary goals of Arab nationalism is the end of Western influence in the Arab world, seen as a "nemesis" of Arab strength, and the removal of those Arab governments considered to be dependent upon Western power. It rose to prominence with the weakening and defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century and declined after the defeat of the Arab armies in the Six-Day War.[1][2]

    Personalities and groups associated with Arab nationalism include King Faisal I of Iraq, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, the Arab Nationalist Movement, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, the Palestine Liberation Organization, the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party which came to power in Iraq for some years and is still the ruling party in Syria, and its founder Michel Aflaq. Pan-Arabism is a related concept, in as much as it calls for supranational communalism among the Arab states.[]

    Contents

    1 Ideology 2 History 2.1 Origins

    2.2 Rise of modern Arab nationalism

    2.3 Growth of the movement

    2.4 Establishment of the Arab League

    2.5 Peak under Egyptian leadership

    2.6 Decline

    2.6.1 Reasons for decline

    3 Attempts at unity

    4 Notable Arab nationalists

    5 See also 6 References 6.1 Bibliography 7 External links

    Ideology[edit]

    Part of a series on the

    Politics of the Arab world

    show Issues show Geography show Governance show Unity show Foreign relations show Military show Economy show Transportation show Culture show Demographics vte

    Arab nationalists believe that the Arab nation existed as a historical entity prior to the rise of nationalism in the 19th–20th century. The Arab nation was formed through the gradual establishment of Arabic as the language of communication and with the advent of Islam as a religion and culture in the region. Both Arabic and Islam served as the pillars of the nation. According to writer Youssef M. Choueiri, Arab nationalism represents the "Arabs' consciousness of their specific characteristics as well as their endeavor to build a modern state capable of representing the common will of the nation and all its constituent parts."[4]

    Within the Arab nationalist movement are three main ideas: that of the Arab nation; Arab nationalism; and pan-Arab unity. The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine led to the foundation of the Arab nationalist Ba'ath Party, which asserts that the Arab nation is the group of people who speak Arabic, inhabit the Arab world, and who feel they belong to the same nation. Arab nationalism is the "sum total" of the characteristics and qualities exclusive to the Arab nation, whereas pan-Arab unity is the modern idea that stipulates that the separate Arab countries must unify to form a single state under one political system.[5]

    Local patriotism centered on individual Arab countries was incorporated into the framework of Arab nationalism starting in the 1920s. This was done by positioning the Arabian Peninsula as the homeland of the Semitic peoples (the Canaanites and Arameans of the Levant and the Assyrians and Babylonians of Mesopotamia) who migrated throughout the Near East in ancient times or by associating the other pre-Islamic cultures, such as those of Egypt and North Africa and Horn of Africa, into an evolving Arab identity.[6]

    The modern Arabic language actually has two distinct words which can be translated into English as "nationalism": قومية, derived from the word (meaning "tribe, ethnic nationality"), and وطنية, derived from the word (meaning "homeland, native country"). The term means attachment to the Arab nation, while means loyalty to a single Arab state. is sometimes disparaged as "regionalism" by those who consider pan-Arabism the only legitimate variant of Arab nationalism.[7]

    In the post-World War years, the concept of "gradually assumed a leftist coloration, calling for ... the creation of revolutionary Arab unity."[8] Groups who subscribed to this point of view advocated opposition, violent and non-violent, against Israel and against Arabs who did not subscribe to this point of view. The person most identified with was Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, who used both military and political power to spread his version of pan-Arab ideology throughout the Arab world. While still remains a potent political force today, the death of Nasser and the Arab defeat in the Six-Day War has weakened faith in this ideal. The current dominant ideology among Arab policy makers has shifted to .[9]

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    Pan

    Pan-Arabism, also called Arabism or Arab nationalism, nationalist notion of cultural and political unity among Arab countries. Its origins lie in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when increased literacy led to a cultural and literary renaissance (known as the Nahda or al-nahḍah al-adabiyyah) among Arabs of the Middle East. This contributed to political agitation and led to the independence of most Arab states from the Ottoman Empire (1918) and from the European powers (by the mid-20th century). An important event was the founding in 1943 of the Baʿth Party by Pan-Arabist thinkers Michel ʿAflaq and Salah al-Din Bitar,

    Pan-Arabism

    Pan-Arabism

    ideology Print

    By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica • Edit History

    Related Topics: social movement nationalism Arab

    See all related content →

    Pan-Arabism, also called Arabism or Arab nationalism, nationalist notion of cultural and political unity among Arab countries. Its origins lie in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when increased literacy led to a cultural and literary renaissance (known as the Nahda or al-nahḍah al-adabiyyah) among Arabs of the Middle East. This contributed to political agitation and led to the independence of most Arab states from the Ottoman Empire (1918) and from the European powers (by the mid-20th century). An important event was the founding in 1943 of the Baʿth Party by Pan-Arabist thinkers Michel ʿAflaq and Salah al-Din Bitar, which formed branches in several countries and became the ruling party in Syria and Iraq. Another important event was the founding of the Arab League in 1945. An experiment in political union between two Arab countries, Egypt and Syria, in the form of the United Arab Republic (1958–61) was short-lived. Pan-Arabism’s most charismatic and effective proponent was Egypt’s Gamal Abdel Nasser, under whom it reached its peak in both political and social expression. But, after Nasser’s death, disappointment in Pan-Arabism’s inability to effectuate lasting prosperity in the Arab world led to a rise in Islamism as an alternative. Despite the decline in enthusiasm for Pan-Arabist policies, Syria’s Ḥāfiẓ al-Assad, Iraq’s Saddam Hussein, and Libya’s Muammar al-Qaddafi were among those who tried to assume the mantle of Arab leadership after Nasser. For more on the history of integration among Arab countries, see Arab integration.

    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

    This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Zeidan.

    skinhead

    skinhead

    youth subculture Print

    By John Philip Jenkins • Edit History

    Romper Stomper See all media

    Related Topics: social movement white supremacy

    See all related content →

    skinhead, youth subculture characterized by aggressively masculine hair and dress styles, including shaved heads and heavy boots. In many countries skinheads are commonly viewed as extreme right-wing nationalists or neofascists who espouse anti-Semitic and other racist views, though the skinhead phenomenon is not always overtly political and not all skinheads are racists.

    The skinheads originated in the 1960s in the working-class neighbourhoods of London. They rejected the youthful counterculture movement—in particular its ethos of peace and love—and deliberately cultivated aspects of style and culture that were furthest removed from it. The skinheads received extensive media attention in Britain in 1969–70, following appeals from Pakistanis living in the country for protection from skinhead attacks. Although many skinheads were prone to violence, others viewed their subculture primarily as an expression of alternative values and communal solidarity and were more interested in parties, concerts, and sporting events than in violence. During the 1970s and ’80s the skinhead movement spread to Australia, North America, and western Europe, especially Germany.

    Although the first skinheads were nonpolitical, many of them were soon drawn into extreme nationalist, and especially anti-immigrant, groups. Some skinheads were recruited as “storm troopers” for neo-Nazi organizations, and the movement became increasingly politicized. Skinhead gangs often attacked immigrants or racial minorities, particularly Turks and Asians in Germany and Indians and Pakistanis in Britain. A classic fictionalized account of such a gang was presented in the Australian film Romper Stomper (1992), and similar themes also emerged in American films such as American History X (1998). In the United States skinheads were drawn into the ultranationalist white supremacy movement through groups such as White Aryan Resistance. Even so, some skinheads in the United States and elsewhere were nonpolitical or even espoused left-wing positions.

    Skinheads expressed their racism in their music as well as in their street violence. Although many early skinheads favoured West Indian reggae, later skinhead musical groups produced punk music and Oi!, a variety of punk that focused on “street” issues.

    John Philip Jenkins Slavophile

    Slavophile

    Russian history Print

    By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica • Edit History

    Related Topics: Russia nationalism

    See all related content →

    Slavophile, in Russian history, member of a 19th-century intellectual movement that wanted Russia’s future development to be based on values and institutions derived from the country’s early history. Developing in the 1830s from study circles concerned with German philosophy, the Slavophiles were influenced greatly by Friedrich Schelling. The movement was centred in Moscow and attracted wealthy, well-educated, well-traveled members of the old aristocracy. Among its leaders were Aleksey S. Khomyakov, the brothers Konstantin S. and Ivan S. Aksakov, the brothers Ivan V. and Pyotr V. Kireyevsky, and Yury F. Samarin. Their individual interests covered a broad range of topics, including philosophy, history, theology, philology, and folklore; but they all concluded that Russia should not use western Europe as a model for its development and modernization but should follow a course determined by its own character and history.

    Source : www.britannica.com

    Do you want to see answer or more ?
    James 6 month ago
    4

    Guys, does anyone know the answer?

    Click For Answer