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    in order for a root to aquire minerals it must initially do __________ which makes the root __________ compared to the soil and allows it to aquire water by _________.

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    BIOL 1202 (Pomarico)

    Start studying BIOL 1202 (Pomarico) - Ch. 9 Quiz Answers. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    BIOL 1202 (Pomarico) - Ch. 9 Quiz Answers

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    Which of the following is NOT true regarding water flow in plants?

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    Sunlight is required for transpiration.

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    Stomata are located on the underside of the leaf and are flanked by guard cells. These guard cells close the stomata by

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    Losing water by osmosis due to a loss of K+. This results in a shrinking of the guard cells that close the stomata.

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    1/10 Created by jaclyn_rose_connors

    Terms in this set (10)

    Which of the following is NOT true regarding water flow in plants?

    Sunlight is required for transpiration.

    Stomata are located on the underside of the leaf and are flanked by guard cells. These guard cells close the stomata by

    Losing water by osmosis due to a loss of K+. This results in a shrinking of the guard cells that close the stomata.

    If in the sieve tube element at the source the ΨP = +1.1 and ΨS = -1.1 and in the sieve tube element at the sink ΨP = +0.6 and ΨS = -0.6, then water will not flow because the water potentials (Ψ) are equal.

    False

    In a cell if ΨP = +0.3MPa and ΨS=-0.45MPa, then the resulting Ψ is ___.

    -0.15

    Transpiration is the process by which plants

    move water from their roots to their leaves.

    Water inside all of the xylem cells is moved upward primarily by ___.

    cohesion and tension

    Which of the following will occur in the phloem? Select all that apply

    - Flow will occur from the mature leaf to the root

    - Flow will occur from the mature leaf to the apical bud

    The value for Ψ in root tissue was found to be - 0.15MPa. If you take the root tissue and place it in a 0.1M sucrose solution (Ψ = -0.23). Which on the following should occur?

    The root will lose water to the outside solution.

    Which of the following does not directly involve some type of active transport?

    movement of water into the vascular cylinder of a root

    In order for a root to aquire minerals it must initially do __________ which makes the root __________ compared to the soil and allows it to aquire water by _________.

    active transport: hypotonic: osmosis

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    a. What are instincts? List two examples. b. Would instincts get better with practice? Explain. c. why do you think instincts are particularly important for newborn animals?

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    Explain the benefit to nonvascular plants of having very thin rhizoids and leaflike structures.

    Verified answer BIOLOGY

    One milliliter of E. coli culture was added to each of three petri dishes (I, II, and III). The dishes were incubated for 36 hours, and then the number of bacterial colonies on each were counted.

    \begin{matrix} \text{Growth of E. coli Under Various Conditions}\\ \text{Petri Dish Number} & \text{Medium} & \text{Colonies Per Dish}\\ \text{I} & \text{Agar and carbohydrates} & \text{35}\\ \text{II} & \text{Agar, carbohydrates, and vitamins} & \text{250}\\ \text{III} & \text{Agar and vitamins} & \text{0}\\ \end{matrix}

    Growth of E. coli Under Various Conditions

    Petri Dish Number I II III ​ Medium

    Agar and carbohydrates

    Agar, carbohydrates, and vitamins

    Agar and vitamins ​ Colonies Per Dish 35 250 0 ​

    Study the table and the paragraph above and answer. Which is an independent variable in this experiment? A. E. coli. B. agar. C. carbohydrates. D. number of colonies.

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    SSM

    Natural Resources Conservation Service

    Natural Resources Conservation Service Soils

    United States Department of Agriculture

    Topics Soil Survey Soil Health Contact Us About Us |

    Soil Survey Releases

    | National Centers | State Websites Browse By Audience | A-Z Index | Help You are Here: Home /

    Technical References

    / SSM - Ch. 3. Examination and Description of Soil Profiles

    SSM - Ch. 3. Examination and Description of Soil Profiles

    Revised by Soil Science Division Staff.

    Quick Links

    Introduction

    General Terms Used to Describe Soils

    Studying Pedons

    Designations for Horizons and Layers

    Near Surface Subzones

    Root-Restricting Depth

    Particle-Size Distribution

    Soil Texture

    Rock Fragments and Pararock Fragments

    Artifacts

    Compound Texture Modifiers

    Fragments on the Surface

    Soil Color Soil Structure

    Internal Ped and Void Surface Features

    Concentrations

    Pedogenic Carbonates

    Redoximorphic Features

    Consistence Roots Pores Animals

    Selected Chemical Properties

    Soil Water Soil Temperature References

    Introduction

    A description of the soils is essential in any soil survey. This chapter provides standards and guidelines for describing the soil. It contains standard technical terms and their definitions for most soil properties and features and provides information for describing the necessary related facts. For some soils, standard terms are not adequate and must be supplemented by a narrative. Some soil properties change through time. Many properties must be observed over time and summarized if one is to fully understand the soil being described and its response to short-term environmental changes. Examples are the length of time that cracks remain open, the patterns of soil temperature and moisture, and the variations in size, shape, and hardness of clods in the surface layer of tilled soils.

    This chapter does not discuss every possible soil property. For some soils, other properties need to be described. Good judgment is needed to decide what properties merit detailed attention for any given pedon (sampling unit). Observations must not be limited by preconceived ideas about what is important.

    Although the format of the description and the order in which individual properties are described are less important than the content of the description, a standard format has distinct advantages. The reader can find information more rapidly, and the writer is less likely to omit important features. Furthermore, a standard format makes data entry into a computer database more efficient. Any standardized forms need to allow enough space for all possible information.

    Each investigation of the internal properties of a soil is made on a soil body with certain dimensions. The body may be larger than a pedon (e.g., a backhoe pit) or represent only a portion of a pedon (e.g., a sample from a hand auger). During field operations, many soils are investigated by examining the soil material removed by a sampling tube or auger. For rapid investigations of thin soils, a small pit can be dug and a section of soil removed with a spade. All of these are samples of pedons. Knowledge of the internal properties of a soil is derived mainly from studies of such samples. Samples can be studied more rapidly than entire pedons; consequently, a much larger number can be studied and for several more places. For many soils, the information obtained from a small sample amply describes the pedon from which it is taken. For other soils, however, important properties of a pedon are not observable in a smaller sample and detailed studies of the entire pedon are needed. Complete study of an entire pedon requires the exposure of a vertical section and the removal of horizontal sections layer by layer. Horizons are studied in both horizontal and vertical dimensions. The kind of exposure (e.g., bucket auger, push tube, small hand-dug pit, backhoe pit, road cut, etc.) should be identified in the soil description.

    The information in this chapter, which focuses on the standards and guidelines for describing a soil profile in the field, is complemented by that provided in chapters 2, 6, 10, and 11. Chapter 2 provides information related to describing the site surrounding the soil profile. Chapter 6 discusses the use of proximal sensors to measure some soil properties quickly and efficiently at field and larger scales by using field-based electronic technology. Chapter 10 provides information specific to describing subaqueous soils. Chapter 11 discusses soils heavily impacted by human activity.

    General Terms Used to Describe Soils

    This section describes several of the general terms for internal elements of the soil. Other more specific terms are described or defined in the following sections.

    Pedon

    A pedon is a three-dimensional body of soil that has sufficient area (roughly 1 to 10 m2) and depth (up to 200 cm) to be used in describing the internal arrangement of horizons and in collecting representative samples for laboratory analysis (see chapter 4). The pedon is the individual classified with Soil Taxonomy. Multiple pedons that have the same classification and occur together in landscapes are used in defining soil series. Conceptually, these contiguous pedons are called polypedons (see chapter 4).

    Source : www.nrcs.usda.gov

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