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    in 1933, hitler took action against jewish people in germany by building death camps in german cities. building ghettos for jewish people in many cities. boycotting jewish-owned businesses. encouraging mob attacks on jewish communities.


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    get in 1933, hitler took action against jewish people in germany by building death camps in german cities. building ghettos for jewish people in many cities. boycotting jewish-owned businesses. encouraging mob attacks on jewish communities. from EN Bilgi.

    From Citizens to Outcasts, 1933–1938 — United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

    Chapter 3

    Chapter 3 FROM CITIZENS TO OUTCASTS, 1933–1938

    Building a National Community, 1933–1936

    World War II and the Holocaust, 1939–1945

    Through hundreds of legal measures, the Nazi-led German government gradually excluded Jews from public life, the professions, and public education. The goal of Nazi propaganda was to demonize Jews and to create a climate of hostility and indifference toward their plight. On Kristallnacht—the Night of Broken Glass—Jewish businesses and synagogues were destroyed in the first act of state-sponsored violence against the Jewish community. Many Jews who had the means tried to leave Germany but encountered countless bureaucratic hurdles.

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    How did Nazi Germany gradually isolate, segregate, impoverish, and incarcerate Jews and persecute other perceived enemies of the state between 1933 and 1939?

    Building a National Community, 1933–1936

    World War II and the Holocaust, 1939–1945



    Getting Started Guide

    Source : www.ushmm.org

    Holocaust remembrance

    Holocaust remembrance

    “To forget a Holocaust is to kill twice” – Elie Wiesel, Holocaust survivor and human rights campaigner

    The Holocaust is the name given to the systematic murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and their allies during the Second World War. As well as Jews, other groups were persecuted for their perceived racial and biological inferiority. These included Roma, disabled people, Soviet prisoners of war and homosexuals. Others, such as Jehovah’s Witnesses, Socialists and Communists, were targeted for their religious or political beliefs. “Holocaust” is a Greek word meaning “sacrifice by fire”. Jewish people also refer to it as the “Shoah”. For the Nazis, the objective of the so-called “Final Solution” was the killing of all Jews in Europe. While most of the victims died in concentration camps such as Auschwitz-Birkenau, many perished at the hands of mobile death squads and others in ghettos like the one in Warsaw.

    Photo Credit : Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity

     Holocaust timeline

    Hitler’s appointment as German chancellor in 1933 marked the start of the persecution of the Jews. The first concentration camp was built in Dachau near Munich, two months after his election. At first Jewish people suffered harassment and humiliation, but in 1938 the so-called Kristallnacht, or Night of Broken Glass, marked a big escalation in violence, with thousands of shops, synagogues and homes burned, nearly 100 Jews murdered and thousands more imprisoned. The “Final Solution” was devised in 1942 and soon afterwards mass killing began in the gas chambers of camps like Treblinka and Belzec. The slaughter was only stopped by the allied invasion of Germany and Nazi-occupied Poland in 1945.

    Hitler appointed Chancellor

    Following the Reichstag's premature dissolution, the Nazi party remained the largest group in the parliament after the November 1932 federal election. Although Hitler failed to win a majority, on 30 January 1933 President Hindenburg consented to Hitler forming a cabinet.

    Photo credit: Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-H1216-0500-002 / CC-BY-SA, CC BY-SA 3.0 DE h, via Wikimedia Commons

     Our Work

    The Holocaust was one of the reasons why the Council of Europe was set up in 1949, just four years after the liberation of Auschwitz-Birkenau. The aim was to prevent such a genocide happening again in Europe, and to ensure that human life and human rights would be respected, no matter what the person’s nationality, ethnicity, race, religion or sexual orientation. Within its wider role of promoting and protecting human rights, democracy and the rule of law, the Council of Europe works to combat anti-Semitism, homophobia and anti-gypsyism, and to promote the rights of Roma, LGBTI people and the disabled.

    Holocaust Remembrance Day

    The Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camps were liberated on 27 January 1945. Only some 7,000 prisoners were still alive, after more than a million people perished there. The Council of Europe was the moving spirit behind the introduction of a Day of Holocaust Remembrance and Prevention of Crimes against Humanity. Education ministers from member states took the decision in October 2002. While Germany and France chose 27 January, the day when Auschwitz was liberated, Holocaust Day is marked on alternative dates by other countries, according to their respective historical experience.

    Teaching Remembrance 

    The Council of Europe also helps teachers with their Holocaust Remembrance Day preparations, by making available teaching material for raising pupil awareness of those dark times and exploring the topics of genocide and crimes against humanity, so as to promote prevention, understanding, tolerance, and friendship between nations, races and religions. The aim is to develop and firmly establish the teaching of this subject in Europe.

     Holocaust survivors’ stories

    Ida Grinspan

    On a quiet winter night in 1944, in support of the Third Reich’s programme for exterminating all European Jews, French authorities arrested Ida Grinspan, a young Jewish girl hiding in a neighbour’s home in rural Nazi-occupied France. Of the many lessons she would learn after her arrest and the subsequent eighteen months in Auschwitz, the Holocaust’s most death camp, the first was that “barbarity enters on tiptoes . . . [even] in a hamlet where everything seemed to promise the peaceful slumber of places forgotten by history”. After the war, she teamed up with a French journalist to write a best-selling account of her ordeal and miraculous survival in one of the darkest periods of modern European history.

    Marin Constantin

    Marin Constantin, a survivor of the Holocaust, recounts his experiences between 1942 and 1944, when he was forcibly deported to Nazi-occupied Ukraine. He witnessed at first-hand the mass brutality and inhumane treatment of individuals, particularly the Roma people, while he was forced to work the land in exchange for meagre rations. He underlines that human rights abuses are real and relevant, even in the twenty-first century. His ordeal haunted him long after he escaped and returned home.

    Source : www.coe.int


    On November 9 to November 10, 1938, in an incident known as “Kristallnacht”, Nazis in Germany torched synagogues, vandalized Jewish homes, schools and


    Author: History.com Editors Updated: Mar 23, 2021 Original: Dec 16, 2009


    Hitler and Anti-Semitism

    From Harassment to Violence

    U.S. Reaction to Kristallnacht

    A Wake-up Call to German Jews

    A Wake-up Call to Non-Jews

    Conditions Worsen after Kristallnacht

    On November 9 to November 10, 1938, in an incident known as “Kristallnacht”, Nazis in Germany torched synagogues, vandalized Jewish homes, schools and businesses and killed close to 100 Jews. In the aftermath of Kristallnacht, also called the “Night of Broken Glass,” some 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to Nazi concentration camps. German Jews had been subjected to repressive policies since 1933, when Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) became chancellor of Germany. However, prior to Kristallnacht, these Nazi policies had been primarily nonviolent. After Kristallnacht, conditions for German Jews grew increasingly worse. During World War II (1939-45), Hitler and the Nazis implemented their so-called “Final Solution” to the what they referred to as the “Jewish problem,” and carried out the systematic murder of some 6 million European Jews in what came to be known as the Holocaust.

    Hitler and Anti-Semitism

    Soon after Adolf Hitler became Germany’s chancellor in January 1933, he began instituting policies that isolated German Jews and subjected them to persecution. Among other things, Hitler’s Nazi Party, which espoused extreme German nationalism and anti-Semitism, commanded that all Jewish businesses be boycotted and all Jews be dismissed from civil-service posts. In May 1933, the writings of Jewish and other “un-German” authors were burned in a communal ceremony at Berlin’s Opera House. Within two years, German businesses were publicly announcing that they no longer serviced Jews. The Nuremberg Laws, passed in September 1935, decreed that only Aryans could be full German citizens. Furthermore, it became illegal for Aryans and Jews to marry or have extramarital intercourse.

    Did you know? Shortly before Kristallnacht, U.S. aviator Charles Lindbergh toured Germany and was given a medal by Hermann Göring, commander of the German air force. After Kristallnacht, Lindbergh declined to return the medal. This, plus his ensuing anti-Semitic comments, stained his status as an American hero.

    Despite the repressive nature of these policies, through most of 1938, the harassment of Jews was primarily nonviolent. However, on the night of November 9, all that changed dramatically.

    10 Gallery 10 Images

    From Harassment to Violence

    In the fall of 1938, Herschel Grynszpan (1921-45), a 17-year-old ethnically Polish Jew who had been living in France for several years, learned that the Nazis had exiled his parents to Poland from Hanover, Germany, where Herschel had been born and his family had lived for years. As retaliation, on November 7, 1938, the agitated teenager shot Ernst vom Rath (1909-38), a German diplomat in Paris. Rath died two days later from his wounds, and Hitler attended his funeral. Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945), the Nazi minister for public enlightenment and propaganda, immediately seized on the assassination to rile Hitler’s supporters into an anti-Semitic frenzy.

    Kristallnacht was the result of that rage. Starting in the late hours of November 9 and continuing into the next day, Nazi mobs torched or otherwise vandalized hundreds of synagogues throughout Germany and damaged, if not completely destroyed, thousands of Jewish homes, schools, businesses, hospitals and cemeteries. Nearly 100 Jews were murdered during the violence. Nazi officials ordered German police officers and firemen to do nothing as the riots raged and buildings burned, although firefighters were allowed to extinguish blazes that threatened Aryan-owned property.

    In the immediate aftermath of Kristallnacht, the streets of Jewish communities were littered with broken glass from vandalized buildings, giving rise to the name Night of Broken Glass. The Nazis held the German-Jewish community responsible for the damage and imposed a collective fine of $400 million (in 1938 rates), according to the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. Additionally, more than 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to the Dachau, Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen concentration camps in Germany–camps that were specifically constructed to hold Jews, political prisoners and other perceived enemies of the Nazi state.

    READ MORE: Holocaust Photos Reveal Horrors of Nazi Concentration Camps

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    Recommended for you Dachau Battle of the Bulge Holocaust Photos Reveal Horrors of Nazi Concentration Camps U.S. Reaction to Kristallnacht

    On November 15, 1938, Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945), the American president, responded to Kristallnacht by reading a statement to the media in which he harshly denounced the rising tide of anti-Semitism and violence in Germany. He also recalled Hugh Wilson, his ambassador to Germany.

    Source : www.history.com

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