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    in a human karyotype, chromosomes are arranged in 23 pairs. if we choose one of these pairs, such as pair 14, which of the following do the two chromosomes of the pair have in common?

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    get in a human karyotype, chromosomes are arranged in 23 pairs. if we choose one of these pairs, such as pair 14, which of the following do the two chromosomes of the pair have in common? from EN Bilgi.

    How many chromosomes do people have?: MedlinePlus Genetics

    In humans, each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46.

    How many chromosomes do people have?

    In humans, each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. Twenty-two of these pairs, called autosomes, look the same in both males and females. The 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, differ between males and females. Females have two copies of the X chromosome, while males have one X and one Y chromosome.

    The 22 autosomes are numbered by size. The other two chromosomes, X and Y, are the sex chromosomes. This picture of the human chromosomes lined up in pairs is called a karyotype.

    Credit: U.S. National Library of Medicine

    For more information about the 23 pairs of human chromosomes:

    MedlinePlus Genetics provides information about each human chromosome written in lay language.

    MedlinePlus offers additional details about karyotype genetic tests.

    The University of Utah's Genetic Science Learning Center discusses how karyotypes can be used in diagnosing genetic disorders.

    Arizona State University's "Ask a Biologist" discusses the inheritance of human chromosomes.

    Topics in the Cells and DNA chapter

    What is a cell? What is DNA? What is a gene?

    What is a chromosome?

    How many chromosomes do people have?

    What is noncoding DNA?

    Other chapters in Help Me Understand Genetics

    The information on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Contact a health care provider if you have questions about your health.

    Source : medlineplus.gov

    Chromosomes (article)

    DNA, chromosomes, and genomes. Homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids, and haploid/diploid.

    Cell cycle

    Chromosomes

    DNA, chromosomes, and genomes. Homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids, and haploid/diploid.

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    Introduction

    When a cell divides, one of its main jobs is to make sure that each of the two new cells gets a full, perfect copy of genetic material. Mistakes during copying, or unequal division of the genetic material between cells, can lead to cells that are unhealthy or dysfunctional (and may lead to diseases such as cancer).

    But what exactly is this genetic material, and how does it behave over the course of a cell division?

    DNA and genomes

    DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material of living organisms. In humans, DNA is found in almost all the cells of the body and provides the instructions they need to grow, function, and respond to their environment.

    When a cell in the body divides, it will pass on a copy of its DNA to each of its daughter cells. DNA is also passed on at the level of organisms, with the DNA in sperm and egg cells combining to form a new organism that has genetic material from both its parents.

    Physically speaking, DNA is a long string of paired chemical units (nucleotides) that come in four different types, abbreviated A, T, C, and G, and it carries information organized into units called genes. Genes typically provide instructions for making proteins, which give cells and organisms their functional characteristics.

    Image of a eukaryotic cell, showing the nuclear DNA (in the nucleus), the mitochondrial DNA (in the mitochondrial matrix), and the chloroplast DNA (in the stroma of the chloroplast).

    In eukaryotes such as plants and animals, the majority of DNA is found in the nucleus and is called nuclear DNA. Mitochondria, organelles that harvest energy for the cell, contain their own mitochondrial DNA, and chloroplasts, organelles that carry out photosynthesis in plant cells, also have chloroplast DNA. The amounts of DNA found in mitochondria and chloroplasts are much smaller than the amount found in the nucleus. In bacteria, most of the DNA is found in a central region of the cell called the nucleoid, which functions similarly to a nucleus but is not surrounded by a membrane.

    A cell’s set of DNA is called its genome. Since all of the cells in an organism (with a few exceptions) contain the same DNA, you can also say that an organism has its own genome, and since the members of a species typically have similar genomes, you can also describe the genome of a species. In general, when people refer to the human genome, or any other eukaryotic genome, they mean the set of DNA found in the nucleus. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are considered to have their own separate genomes.

    Chromatin

    In a cell, DNA does not usually exist by itself, but instead associates with specialized proteins that organize it and give it structure. In eukaryotes, these proteins include the histones, a group of basic (positively charged) proteins that form “bobbins” around which negatively charged DNA can wrap. In addition to organizing DNA and making it more compact, histones play an important role in determining which genes are active. The complex of DNA plus histones and other structural proteins is called chromatin.

    Image of a long, double-stranded DNA polymer, which wraps around clusters of histone proteins. The DNA wrapped around histones is further organized into higher-order structures that give a chromosome its shape.

    For most of the life of the cell, chromatin is decondensed, meaning that it exists in long, thin strings that look like squiggles under the microscope. In this state, the DNA can be accessed relatively easily by cellular machinery (such as proteins that read and copy DNA), which is important in allowing the cell to grow and function.

    Decondensed may seem like an odd term for this state – why not just call it “stringy”? – but makes more sense when you learn that chromatin can also condense. Condensation takes place when the cell is about to divide. When chromatin condenses, you can see that eukaryotic DNA is not just one long string. Instead, it’s broken up into separate, linear pieces called chromosomes. Bacteria also have chromosomes, but their chromosomes are typically circular.

    Chromosomes

    Each species has its own characteristic number of chromosomes. Humans, for instance, have 46 chromosomes in a typical body cell (somatic cell), while dogs have 78

    ^1 1

    start superscript, 1, end superscript

    . Like many species of animals and plants, humans are diploid (2n), meaning that most of their chromosomes come in matched sets known as homologous pairs. The 46 chromosomes of a human cell are organized into 23 pairs, and the two members of each pair are said to be homologues of one another (with the slight exception of the X and Y chromosomes; see below).

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

    Chapter 13 Flashcards

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    The human X and Y chromosomes

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    Include genes that determine an individual's sex.

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    In a human karyotype, chromosomes are arranged in 23 Paris. If we choose one of these pairs, suck as pair 14, which of the following do the two chromosomes of the pair have in common?

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    Length, centromere position, staining pattern, and traits coded for by their genes.

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    1/42 Created by jbloodwo

    Terms in this set (42)

    The human X and Y chromosomes

    Include genes that determine an individual's sex.

    In a human karyotype, chromosomes are arranged in 23 Paris. If we choose one of these pairs, suck as pair 14, which of the following do the two chromosomes of the pair have in common?

    Length, centromere position, staining pattern, and traits coded for by their genes.

    Which of these statements is false?

    At sexual maturity, ovaries and testes produce diploid gametes by meiosis.

    Which of the following is a true statement about sexual vs. asexual reproduction?

    In sexual reproduction, individuals transmit 50% of their genes to each of their offspring.

    Which of the following best describes a karyotype?

    A display of each of the chromosomes of a single cell.

    Which of the following is an example of alternation of generation?

    A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular, haploid pollen grain (gametophyte).

    Which of the following might result in a human zygote with 45 chromosome?

    An error in either egg or sperm meiotic anaphase.

    For what purposes(s) might a karyotype be prepared? Choose the best answer. Hint 1. A karyotype provides a display of all the chromosomes from a diploid cell.

    The first three answers are correct.

    How are sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes different from each other? Hint 1. Which type of chromosomes are identical copies and which are similar?

    Homologous chromosomes contain the same gene loci but may have different alleles of a particular gene. Sister chromatids are identical copies of each other produced during DNA replication.

    A given organism has 46 chromosomes in its karyotype. We can therefore conclude which of the following?

    It's gametes must have 23 chromosomes.

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