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    imagine a human disorder that is inherited as a dominant, x-linked trait. how would the frequency of this disorder vary between males and females?

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    If a genetic disorder runs in my family, what are the chances that my children will have the condition?: MedlinePlus Genetics

    It is hard to predict if your children will inherit a genetic disorder. Learn about the factors that impact the chances of developing a genetic condition.

    If a genetic disorder runs in my family, what are the chances that my children will have the condition?

    When a genetic disorder is diagnosed in a family, family members often want to know the likelihood that they or their children will develop the condition. This can be difficult to predict in some cases because many factors influence a person's chances of developing a genetic condition. One important factor is how the condition is inherited. For example:

    Autosomal dominant inheritance: A person affected by an autosomal dominant disorder has a 50 percent chance of passing the altered gene to each child. The chance that a child will not inherit the altered gene is also 50 percent. However, in some cases an autosomal dominant disorder results from a new (de novo) variant that occurs during the formation of egg or sperm cells or early in embryonic development. In these cases, the child's parents are unaffected, but the child may pass on the condition to his or her own children.

    Autosomal recessive inheritance: Two unaffected people who each carry one copy of the altered gene for an autosomal recessive disorder (carriers) have a 25 percent chance with each pregnancy of having a child affected by the disorder. The chance with each pregnancy of having an unaffected child who is a carrier of the disorder is 50 percent, and the chance that a child will not have the disorder and will not be a carrier is 25 percent. If only one parent is a carrier of the altered gene and the other parent does not carry the variant, none of their children will develop the condition, and the chance with each pregnancy of having an unaffected child who is a carrier is 50 percent.

    X-linked dominant inheritance: The chance of passing on an X-linked dominant condition differs between men and women because men have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome, while women have two X chromosomes. A man passes on his Y chromosome to all of his sons and his X chromosome to all of his daughters. Therefore, the sons of a man with an X-linked dominant disorder will not be affected, but all of his daughters will inherit the condition. A woman passes on one or the other of her X chromosomes to each child. Therefore, a woman with an X-linked dominant disorder has a 50 percent chance of having an affected daughter or son with each pregnancy.

    X-linked recessive inheritance: Because of the difference in sex chromosomes, the probability of passing on an X-linked recessive disorder also differs between men and women. The sons of a man with an X-linked recessive disorder will not be affected, and his daughters will carry one copy of the altered gene. With each pregnancy, a woman who carries an altered gene for X-linked recessive has a 50 percent chance of having sons who are affected and a 50 percent chance of having daughters who carry one copy of the altered gene. Females with one gene variant associated with an X-linked recessive disorder typically have no or very mild signs or symptoms of the condition.

    X-linked: Because the inheritance pattern of many X-linked disorders is not clearly dominant or recessive, some experts suggest that conditions be considered X-linked rather than X-linked dominant or X-linked recessive. As above, the probability of passing on an X-linked disorder differs between men and women. The sons of a man with an X-linked disorder will not be affected, but all of his daughters will inherit the altered gene and may develop signs and symptoms of the condition. A woman passes on one or the other of her X chromosomes to each child. Therefore, with each pregnancy, a woman with an X-linked disorder has a 50 percent chance of having a child with the altered gene. An affected daughter may have milder signs and symptoms than an affected son.

    Y-linked inheritance: Because only males have a Y chromosome, only males can be affected by and pass on Y-linked disorders. All sons of a man with a Y-linked disorder will inherit the condition from their father.

    Codominant inheritance: In codominant inheritance, each parent contributes a different version of a particular gene, and both versions influence the resulting genetic trait. The chance of developing a genetic condition with codominant inheritance, and the characteristic features of that condition, depend on which versions of the gene are passed from parents to their child.

    Mitochondrial inheritance: Mitochondria, which are the energy-producing centers inside cells, each contain a small amount of DNA. Disorders with mitochondrial inheritance result from variants in mitochondrial DNA. Although these disorders can affect both males and females, only females can pass variants in mitochondrial DNA to their children. A woman with a disorder caused by changes in mitochondrial DNA will pass the variants to all of her daughters and sons, but the children of a man with such a disorder will not inherit the variant.

    It is important to note that the chance of passing on a genetic condition applies equally to each pregnancy. For example, if a couple has a child with an autosomal recessive disorder, the chance of having another child with the disorder is still 25 percent (or 1 in 4). Having one child with a disorder does not “protect” future children from inheriting the condition. Conversely, having a child without the condition does not mean that future children will definitely be affected.

    Although the chances of inheriting a genetic condition appear straightforward, factors such as a person's family history and the results of genetic testing can sometimes modify those chances. In addition, some people with a disease-causing variant never develop any health problems or may experience only mild symptoms of the disorder. If a disease that runs in a family does not have a clear-cut inheritance pattern, predicting the likelihood that a person will develop the condition can be particularly difficult.

    Source : medlineplus.gov

    bio hw 9 Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Imagine a human disorder that is inherited as a dominant, X-linked trait. How would the frequency of this disorder vary between males and females?, Select the correct statement(s) about sex determination in animals., Which of these descriptions of the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis explains Mendel's law of segregation? and more.

    bio hw 9

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    Imagine a human disorder that is inherited as a dominant, X-linked trait. How would the frequency of this disorder vary between males and females?

    Click card to see definition 👆

    Females would display this disorder with greater frequency than males.

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    Select the correct statement(s) about sex determination in animals.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    The mechanism of sex determination varies with different animal species

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    1/28 Created by damicella_rodriguez

    Terms in this set (28)

    Imagine a human disorder that is inherited as a dominant, X-linked trait. How would the frequency of this disorder vary between males and females?

    Females would display this disorder with greater frequency than males.

    Select the correct statement(s) about sex determination in animals.

    The mechanism of sex determination varies with different animal species

    Which of these descriptions of the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis explains Mendel's law of segregation?

    The two alleles for each gene separate as homologous chromosomes move apart during anaphase I.

    Which of these descriptions of the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis explains Mendel's law of independent assortment?

    The arrangement of each pair of homologous chromosomes on the metaphase plate during metaphase I is random with respect to the arrangements of other pairs.

    Gregor Mendel set up a dihybrid cross with one pea plant from the parental generation (P) producing round yellow peas and the other pea plant producing wrinkled green peas. The F2 generation included 315 plants producing round yellow peas, 108 with round green peas, 101 with wrinkled yellow peas, and 32 with wrinkled green peas. How would these results have differed if pea shape and pea color had been linked genes, located close together on the same chromosome?

    the F2 generation would have included a higher percentage of pea plants producing round, yellow peas

    For tall heterozygotes with antennae, the offspring are:

    tall-antennae 46 dwarf-antennae 7

    dwarf-no antennae 42

    tall-no antennae 5

    Calculate the recombination frequency between T and A. Enter your answer as a percentage (for example, 10%).

    12%

    For heterozygotes with antennae and an upturned snout, the offspring are:

    antennae-upturned snout 47

    antennae-downturned snout 2

    no antennae-downturned snout 48

    no antennae-upturned snout 3

    Calculate the recombination frequency between A and S. Enter your answer as a percentage (for example, 10%).

    5%

    Scientists do a further testcross using a heterozygote for height and nose morphology. The offspring are:

    tall-upturned snout 40

    dwarf-upturned snout 9

    dwarf-downturned snout 42

    tall-downturned snout 9

    Calculate the recombination frequency between T and S. Enter your answer as a percentage (for example, 10%).

    18%

    What is the correct sequence of the three linked genes?

    T−A−S

    Approximately where is a located along the chromosome?

    about one-third of the distance from the vestigial-wing locus to the brown-eye locus

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    In humans, colorblindness is a recessive, sex-linked trait. What is the likelihood that the children of a woman heterozygous for colorblindness and a man with normal color vision will be colorblind? Explain your answer.

    3 answers 1/5

    Source : quizlet.com

    Ch 15

    Study Ch 15 - The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance flashcards. Play games, take quizzes, print and more with Easy Notecards.

    Ch 15 - The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Flashcards

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    Which of the following is true of an X-linked gene, but not of a Y-linked gene?

    The gene is present in both males and females.

    In general, the frequency with which crossing over occurs between two linked genes depends on what?

    how far apart they are on the chromosome

    What is a nondisjunction?

    An error in cell division that causes homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to move to the same side of the dividing cell

    When can nondisjunction occur? Choose the best answer.

    In mitosis, when sister chromatids fail to separate

    In meiosis, when sister chromatids fail to separate

    In meiosis, when homologous chromosomes fail to separate

    Which syndrome is characterized by the XO chromosome abnormality?

    Turner Syndrome

    What kind of cell results when a diploid and a haploid gamete fuse during fertilization?

    A triploid cell

    Of the following chromosomal abnormalities, which type is most likely to be viable in humans?

    Trisomy

    If a diploid cell undergoes meiosis and produces two gametes that are normal, and one with n − 1 chromosomes, and one with n + 1 chromosomes, what type of error occurred?

    A nondisjunction error occurred in meiosis II, in which both sister chromatids of a chromosome migrated to the same pole of the cell.

    If a diploid cell undergoes meiosis and produces two gametes with n + 1 chromosomes and two gametes with n− 1 chromosomes, what type of error occurred?

    A nondisjunction error occurred in meiosis I, in which both members of a homologous pair migrated to the same pole of the cell.

    Humans are diploid and have 46 chromosomes (or two sets). How many sets of chromosomes are found in each human gamete?

    1

    Humans are diploid and have 46 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are found in each human gamete?

    23

    _____ is the process by which haploid gametes form a diploid zygote.

    Fertilization

    A particular diploid plant species has 48 chromosomes, or two sets. A mutation occurs and gametes with 48 chromosomes are produced. If self-fertilization occurs, the zygote will have _____ set(s) of chromosomes.

    4

    Which of these terms applies to an organism with extra sets of chromosomes?

    polyploid

    Mutant tetraploid plants _____.

    are unable to interbreed with a diploid plant

    Most polyploid plants arise as a result of _____.

    hybridization

    Which of the following results in a situation in which the chromosome number is either 2n+1 or 2n-1 ?

    aneuploidy

    What results if a fragment of a chromosome breaks off and then reattaches to the original chromosome at the same place but in the reverse direction?

    an inversion

    What phenomenon occurs when a particular allele will either be expressed or silenced, depending on whether it is inherited from a male or a female?

    genomic imprinting

    How are human mitochondria inherited?

    from mother only

    Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder that affects which of the following?

    heart, liver, and lungs

    How long can sperm be cryogenically stored and still be viable?

    for more than 20 years

    Which federal agency ensures that sperm donors are tested for communicable diseases?

    Food and drug administration

    Which of the following is true?

    Both women and men can be carriers for genetic disorders.

    Which of the following is a leading cause of sudden death among young athletes?

    HCM

    What pattern of inheritance would lead a geneticist to suspect that an inherited disorder of cell metabolism is due to a defective mitochondrial gene?

    The disorder would always be inherited from the mother.

    Which of these descriptions of the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis explains Mendel’s law of segregation?

    The two alleles for each gene separate as homologous chromosomes move apart during anaphase I.

    Which of these descriptions of the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis explains Mendel’s law of independent assortment?

    The arrangement of each pair of homologous chromosomes on the metaphase plate during metaphase I is random with respect to the arrangements of other pairs.

    Select the correct statement(s) about sex determination in animals.

    The mechanism of sex determination varies with different animal species.

    Imagine a human disorder that is inherited as a dominant, X-linked trait. How would the frequency of this disorder vary between males and females?

    Females would display this disorder with greater frequency than males.

    In humans, what determines the sex of offspring and why?

    The male gamete determines sex because each male gamete can contribute either an X or a Y chromosome.

    What can we observe in order to visualize Mendel's Law of Segregation?

    homologous chromosomes separating during meiosis I

    What name is given to the most common phenotype in a natural population?

    wild type

    A white-eyed female Drosophila is crossed with a red-eyed male Drosophila. Which statement below correctly describes the results?

    None of the females will have white eyes.

    Source : www.easynotecards.com

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