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    if the domino effect occurs as a result of changes in the money supply, what will most likely happen as an immediate result of interest rates being increased? borrowing will decrease. investing will decrease. inflation will increase. liquidity will increase.


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    Monetary Policy: The Federal Reserve (Quiz) Edg. Flashcards

    Start studying Monetary Policy: The Federal Reserve (Quiz) Edg.. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Monetary Policy: The Federal Reserve (Quiz) Edg.

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    In how many cities are Federal Reserve district banks located?

    4 12 50 8

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    B) 12

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    When the Fed adjusts its interest rate, it directly influences consumer

    saving. spending. borrowing. investing.

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    C) Borrowing

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    Terms in this set (10)

    In how many cities are Federal Reserve district banks located?

    4 12 50 8 B) 12

    When the Fed adjusts its interest rate, it directly influences consumer

    saving. spending. borrowing. investing. C) Borrowing

    Which statement best describes how the Fed responds to recessions?

    It sells more securities.

    It charges banks more interest.

    It increases reserve requirements.

    It increases the money supply.

    D) It increases the money supply

    The _______ rate is the interest rate banks charge each other for borrowing or storing money.

    Federal funds

    Economists studying the money supply categorize the status of the money based on

    interest rates. liquidity. inflation rates. credit. B) Liquidity

    What is the full name of the US central bank, known as the Fed?

    the Federal Reserve Bank

    the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

    the Federal Financial Institution

    the Federal Bank

    A) the Federal Reserve Bank

    If the domino effect occurs as a result of changes in the money supply, what will most likely happen as an immediate result of banks having more money to lend?

    Borrowing will decrease.

    Interest rates will decrease.

    Investing will decrease.

    Inflation will decrease.

    D) Inflation will decrease.

    Why does the Fed pay interest to banks?

    It is interest on money held in reserve.

    It is interest on credit available to the Fed.

    It is interest on loans taken by the Fed.

    It is interest on government investments.

    A) It is interest on money held in reserve.

    What is a potential negative effect of an expansionary policy?

    decreased borrowing

    increased interest rates

    increased inflation

    decreased available credit

    C) increased inflation

    The Fed's use of open market operations affects banks'

    interest rates.

    money available to lend.

    lending practices. stability.

    B) money available to lend.

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    Verified questions


    What is the difference between accounting and economic profit?

    Verified answer ECONOMICS

    In the change from communism to capitalist societies, how was the voucher system of privatization of public property abused?

    Verified answer ECONOMICS

    To be considered unemployed, a person must I. not be working. II. be actively seeking a job. III. be available for work. A. I only B. II only C. III only D. II and III E. I, II, and III

    Verified answer ECONOMICS

    You have been named as investment adviser to a foundation established by Dr. Walter Jones with an original contribution consisting entirely of the common stock of Jomedco, Inc. Founded by Dr. Jones, Jomedco manufactures and markets medical devices invented by the doctor and collects royalties on other patented innovations. All of the shares that made up the initial contribution to the foundation were sold at a public offering of Jomedco common stock, and the $5 million proceeds will be delivered to the foundation within the next week. At the same time, Mrs. Jones will receive$5 million in proceeds from the sale of her stock in Jomedco. Dr. Jones’s purpose in establishing the Jones Foundation was to “offset the effect of inflation on medical school tuition for the maximum number of worthy students.” You are preparing for a meeting with the foundation trustees to discuss investment policy and asset allocation. a. Define and give examples that show the differences between an investment objective, an investment constraint, and investment policy. b. Identify and describe an appropriate set of investment objectives and investment constraints for the Jones Foundation. c. Based on the investment objectives and investment constraints identified in part (b), prepare a comprehensive investment policy statement for the Jones Foundation to be recommended for adoption by the trustees.

    Source : quizlet.com

    How Do Open Market Operations Affect U.S. Money Supply?

    The Federal Reserve's open market operations—the purchase or sale of government bonds—can push interest rates and the money supply lower or higher.


    How Do Open Market Operations Affect the U.S. Money Supply?

    By KESAVAN BALASUBRAMANIAM Updated June 29, 2021

    Reviewed by MICHAEL J BOYLE

    Fact checked by MARCUS REEVES

    The U.S. Federal Reserve conducts open market operations—the buying or selling of bonds and other securities to control the money supply. With these transactions, the Fed can expand or contract the amount of money in the banking system and drive short-term interest rates lower or higher, depending on the objectives of its monetary policy.

    The Importance of Open Market Operations

    Open market operations are one of three key tools the Fed uses to achieve its policy objectives, and arguably the most powerful and frequently used. (The other two tools are banks' reserve requirement ratios and the terms and conditions for bank borrowing at the Fed's discount window.)

    Conducted by the trading desk at the Fed's New York branch, open market operations enable the Fed to influence the supply of reserves in the banking system. This process then affects interest rates, banks' willingness to lend and consumers' and businesses' willingness to borrow and invest.


    The Federal Reserve buys and sells government securities to control the money supply and interest rates. This activity is called open market operations.

    The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) sets monetary policy in the United States, and the Fed's New York trading desk uses open market operations to achieve that policy's objectives.

    To increase the money supply, the Fed will purchase bonds from banks, which injects money into the banking system. It will sell bonds to reduce the money supply.

    0 seconds of 0 secondsVolume 75%


    Open Market Definition

    The Role of the Federal Open Market Committee

    The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) sets monetary policy in the United States, with a dual mandate of achieving full employment and controlling inflation. The committee meets eight times a year to set policy, essentially determining whether to increase or decrease the money supply in the economy. The New York Fed's trading desk then conducts its market operations with the aim of achieving that policy, buying or selling securities in open market operations.

    Expanding the Money Supply to Fuel Economic Growth

    During a recession or economic downturn, the Fed will seek to expand the supply of money in the economy, with a goal of lowering the federal funds rate—the rate at which banks lend to each other overnight.

    To do this, the Fed trading desk will purchase bonds from banks and other financial institutions and deposit payment into the accounts of the buyers. This increases the amount of money that banks and financial institutions have on hand, and banks can use these funds to provide loans. With more money on hand, banks will lower interest rates to entice consumers and businesses to borrow and invest, thereby stimulating the economy and employment.

    Contractionary Monetary Policy

    The Fed will undertake the opposite process when the economy is overheating and inflation is reaching the limit of its comfort zone. When the Fed sells bonds to the banks, it takes money out of the financial system, reducing the money supply.

    This will cause interest rates to rise, discouraging individuals and businesses from borrowing and investing, while encouraging them to put their money in less productive investments such as interest-bearing savings accounts and certificates of deposit. This has the effect of slowing inflation and economic growth.

    Open Market Operations and Quantitative Easing

    The Fed's open market operations were largely obscure to the public until the 2007-2008 Global Financial Crisis, which prompted the Fed to undertake an unprecedented level of asset purchases via open market operations from the end of 2008 through October 2014.1 During this time the federal funds target rate was kept at a historic low: a range of 0% to 0.25%.2 At the end of this period the Fed's asset holdings had reached $4.5 trillion—five times the pre-crisis levels.3

    This asset-purchase program was commonly known as "quantitative easing."

    The Bottom Line

    Whether the Fed wants to stimulate or cool economic growth, one of its most important tools is open market operations. The Fed's buying or selling of securities has ripple effects through the money supply, interest rates, economic growth, and employment.

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    Monetary Policy: Stabilizing Prices and Output

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    Monetary Policy: Stabilizing Prices and Output


    Koshy Mathai

    Central banks use tools such as interest rates to adjust the supply of money to keep the economy humming

    Cash on the nail (photo: Agencia Estado/Corbis)

    Monetary policy has lived under many guises. But however it may appear, it generally boils down to adjusting the supply of money in the economy to achieve some combination of inflation and output stabilization.

    Most economists would agree that in the long run, output—usually measured by gross domestic product (GDP)—is fixed, so any changes in the money supply only cause prices to change. But in the short run, because prices and wages usually do not adjust immediately, changes in the money supply can affect the actual production of goods and services. This is why monetary policy—generally conducted by central banks such as the U.S. Federal Reserve (Fed) or the European Central Bank (ECB)—is a meaningful policy tool for achieving both inflation and growth objectives.

    In a recession, for example, consumers stop spending as much as they used to; business production declines, leading firms to lay off workers and stop investing in new capacity; and foreign appetite for the country’s exports may also fall. In short, there is a decline in overall, or aggregate, demand to which government can respond with a policy that leans against the direction in which the economy is headed. Monetary policy is often that countercyclical tool of choice.

    Such a countercyclical policy would lead to the desired expansion of output (and employment), but, because it entails an increase in the money supply, would also result in an increase in prices. As an economy gets closer to producing at full capacity, increasing demand will put pressure on input costs, including wages. Workers then use their increased income to buy more goods and services, further bidding up prices and wages and pushing generalized inflation upward—an outcome policymakers usually want to avoid.

    Twin objectives

    The monetary policymaker, then, must balance price and output objectives. Indeed, even central banks, like the ECB, that target only inflation would generally admit that they also pay attention to stabilizing output and keeping the economy near full employment. And at the Fed, which has an explicit “dual mandate” from the U.S. Congress, the employment goal is formally recognized and placed on an equal footing with the inflation goal.

    Monetary policy is not the only tool for managing aggregate demand for goods and services. Fiscal policy—taxing and spending—is another, and governments have used it extensively during the recent global crisis. However, it typically takes time to legislate tax and spending changes, and once such changes have become law, they are politically difficult to reverse. Add to that concerns that consumers may not respond in the intended way to fiscal stimulus (for example, they may save rather than spend a tax cut), and it is easy to understand why monetary policy is generally viewed as the first line of defense in stabilizing the economy during a downturn. (The exception is in countries with a fixed exchange rate, where monetary policy is completely tied to the exchange rate objective.)

    Independent policy

    Although it is one of the government’s most important economic tools, most economists think monetary policy is best conducted by a central bank (or some similar agency) that is independent of the elected government. This belief stems from academic research, some 30 years ago, that emphasized the problem of . Monetary policymakers who were less independent of the government would find it in their interest to promise low inflation to keep down inflation expectations among consumers and businesses. But later, in response to subsequent developments, they might find it hard to resist expanding the money supply, delivering an “inflation surprise.” That surprise would at first boost output, by making labor relatively cheap (wages change slowly), and would also reduce the real, or inflation-adjusted, value of government debt. But people would soon recognize this “inflation bias” and ratchet up their expectations of price increases, making it difficult for policymakers ever to achieve low inflation.

    To overcome the problem of time inconsistency, some economists suggested that policymakers should commit to a rule that removes full discretion in adjusting monetary policy. In practice, though, committing credibly to a (possibly complicated) rule proved difficult. An alternative solution, which would still shield the process from politics and strengthen the public’s confidence in the authorities’ commitment to low inflation, was to delegate monetary policy to an independent central bank that was insulated from much of the political process—as was the case already in a number of economies. The evidence suggests that central bank independence is indeed associated with lower and more stable inflation.

    Source : www.imf.org

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