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    if the diet is chronically low in fat-soluble vitamins, the bioavailability of which vitamins will be impacted most?

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    Small amounts of vitamins are required in the diet to promote growth, reproduction, and health. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are called the fat-soluble vitamins, because they are soluble in organic solvents and are absorbed and transported in a manner similar to that of fats.

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    Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk.

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    ContentsHardcopy Version at National Academies Press

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    11Fat-Soluble Vitamins

    Small amounts of vitamins are required in the diet to promote growth, reproduction, and health. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are called the fat-soluble vitamins, because they are soluble in organic solvents and are absorbed and transported in a manner similar to that of fats.

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    Dietary Sources, Patterns of Intake, and Levels of Fat-Soluble Vitamins

    Vitamin A: Carotenoids and Retinoids

    Vitamin A is required for the maintenance of normal mucous membranes and for normal vision. It occurs naturally only in foods of animal origin, such as liver, butter, whole milk, and egg yolks, but the body converts certain carotenoids, especially β-carotene, to vitamin A. Only 50 of the more than 500 naturally occurring carotenoids have provitamin A activity (Isler et al., 1971; Olson, 1983, 1984). Carotenoids are present in dark-green, leafy vegetables and in yellow and orange vegetables and fruits. In addition, skim milk, margarines, and certain breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamin A. From food composition tables, one can estimate only the total vitamin activity (vitamin A value) but not the quantity of specific carotenoids or retinoids in foods (Beecher and Khachik, 1984). However, researchers are now beginning to add carotenoid values to those in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) data bank.

    In 1980 the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for males 11 years of age and older was 1,000 retinol equivalents (RE), or 5,000 International Units (IU), and for females, 800 RE (4,000 IU) (NRC, 1980). By definition, 1 RE is equal to 1 µg of retinol, 6 µg of β-carotene, or 12 µg of other provitamin A carotenoids. One IU of vitamin A activity is defined as 0.3 µg of retinol and as 0.6 µg of β-carotene. One RE is equal to 3.33 IU of vitamin A activity from retinol and to 10 IU of vitamin A activity from β-carotene. Many food composition tables and most food labels still list vitamin A activity in IU, although the official unit is now RE.

    The availability of vitamin A in the food supply rose from 7,300 IU per capita in 1967-1969 to 9,900 IU in 1985, an increase of 37% (see Table 3-3). This increase was due chiefly to new varieties of carrots containing higher amounts of carotenoids.

    The 1977-1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, based on 3-day dietary intake reports, indicated that total vitamin A intakes averaged 133% of the RDA. More than two-thirds of the population had intakes of at least 70% of the RDA. Intakes were higher for adults over 64 years of age and for children under 8 than for other age groups. People above poverty levels were more apt to reach the RDA for vitamin A than were those below. Intakes were highest in the western United States and lowest in the South (DHHS-USDA, 1986). According to the 1976-1980 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), total mean dietary intake of vitamin A in the U.S. population, excluding infants, was approximately 1,000 RE. Carotenoids and preformed vitamin A contributed 25 and 75%, respectively, of the total intake. Mean serum vitamin A levels measured in NHANES II were within normal ranges for all race, sex, and economic groups.

    Vitamin D

    The active form of vitamin D promotes intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus and influences bone mineralization. Vitamin D occurs in two forms that are equally well utilized in the body. Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is produced commercially by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of the plant sterol ergosterol; vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is formed by the action of sunlight on the precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin. The human body utilizes both forms of vitamin D by hydroxylating first the 25-position in the liver and then the 1α-position in the kidney, producing the biologically active 1α,25-dihydroxycalciferols.

    Vitamin D occurs naturally only in animal foods such as liver, butter, fatty fish (fish containing high levels of cholesterol or fatty acids as glycerides), and egg yolks. Because natural milk is a poor source, it is fortified with vitamin D to provide 10 µg (400 IU) per quart. The amount of vitamin D formed by exposure of skin to sunlight depends upon the length of the UV irradiation, the intensity, which can be diminished by atmospheric pollution, and skin pigmentation. Aging skin may have diminished capacity to synthesize vitamin D (MacLaughlin and Holick, 1985).

    The 1980 RDAs for vitamin D are set at 10 µg (400 IU) of cholecalciferol per day during periods of growth (childhood, pregnancy, lactation) and 5 µg (200 IU) per day for nonpregnant, nonlactating adults. National surveys in the United States have never monitored vitamin D intake or nutritional status. Recent studies suggest that some elderly people may exhibit poor vitamin D status (Omdahl et al., 1982; Parfitt et al., 1982).

    Vitamin E

    Vitamin E is an important antioxidant that is thought to protect polyunsaturated fatty acids from oxidative destruction in cell membranes. Vitamin E activity in foods is due to the presence of tocopherols and tocotrienols—compounds of plant origin. The most important of these is α-tocopherol; less active are β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and α-tocotrienol. Vegetable oils are the richest source of vitamin E. Other good sources include nuts, seeds, whole grains, and wheat germ. The vitamin E content of animal foods is generally low.

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    Nutrition exam 3 (ch 7) Flashcards

    Start studying Nutrition exam 3 (ch 7). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Nutrition exam 3 (ch 7)

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    Which of the following MyPlate food group is the richest source of vitamin D?

    a) Dairy b) Fruits c) Grains d) Protein

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    Dairy

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    All of the following MyPlate food groups are good sources of vitamin B12 except for the _____ group.

    a) Dairy. b) Fruits. c) Protein.

    d) All of these are good sources of vitamin B12.

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    Terms in this set (47)

    Which of the following MyPlate food group is the richest source of vitamin D?

    a) Dairy b) Fruits c) Grains d) Protein Dairy

    All of the following MyPlate food groups are good sources of vitamin B12 except for the _____ group.

    a) Dairy. b) Fruits. c) Protein.

    d) All of these are good sources of vitamin B12.

    Fruits

    All of the following MyPlate food groups are good sources of folate except for the _____ group.

    a) Dairy b) Fruits c) Grains d) Vegetables Dairy

    The amount of a particular vitamin in a food depends on all of the following EXCEPT

    a) how much of the food is consumed.

    b) how the food is cooked.

    c) how the food is stored.

    d) what is added to the food during processing.

    how much the food is consumed

    Brian's need for a vitamin is 100 milligrams each day. The bioavailability of this vitamin is 35%. This means that Brian needs to consume _____ milligrams each day for this vitamin to meet his needs.a) 65 b) 100 c) 135 d) 170

    135

    For vitamins X and Y, the daily needs are 140 milligrams. The bioavailability of vitamin X is 45% and for vitamin Y is 20%. Which of the following statements is correct?a) Daily intake for vitamin X is higher than vitamin Y. b) Daily intake for vitamin Y is higher than vitamin X. c) Daily intake for vitamin X is the same as vitamin Y. d) None of these statements are true.

    Daily intake for Vitamin Y is is higher than Vitamin X

    If the diet is chronically low in fat-soluble vitamins, the bioavailability of which vitamins will be impacted most?a) Folate and vitamin B12

    b) Thiamin and riboflavin

    c) Vitamins A and D d) Vitamins C and E Vitamins A and D

    Which of the following vitamins have a coenzyme form?

    a) Niacin b) Vitamin A c) Vitamin D d) Vitamin K Niacin

    Which of the following is/are antioxidants?

    a) Vitamin C. b) Vitamin E. c) Selenium.

    d) All of these nutrients serve as antioxidants.

    All of these nutrients serve as antioxidants

    Which of the following vitamins must be included on the food label?

    a) Niacin and thiamin

    b) Riboflavin and iron

    c) Vitamins A and C d) Vitamins A and D Vitamins A and C

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    Chapter 7 Practice Test Flashcards

    Study Chapter 7 Practice Test flashcards. Create flashcards for FREE and quiz yourself with an interactive flipper.

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    Chapter 7 Practice Test

    44cards Kelsey W. Medicine And Health Nutrition

    what MyPlate food group is the richest source of vitamin D?

    Dairy

    what MyPlate food group is not a good source of Vitamin B12?

    Fruits

    what MyPlate food group is not a good source of folate?

    Dairy

    The amount of a particular vitamin in a food depends on what?

    how the food is cooked

    how the food is stored

    what is added to the food during processing

    Brians need for a vitamin is 100 milligrams each day. The bioavailability of this is 35%. This means that Brian needs to consume how many milligrams each day?

    135

    For vitamin X and Y, the daily needs are 140 milligrams. The bioavailability of vitamin X is 45% and for vitamin Y is 20%. What is correct?

    Daily intake for vitamin Y is higher than vitamin X

    If the diet is chronically low in fat-soluble vitamins, the bioavailability will be impacted the most by which vitamins?

    Vitamins A and D

    What vitamin has a coenzyme form?

    Niacin

    Which of the following are antioxidants?

    Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium

    What vitamins must be included on the food label?

    Vitamins A and C

    Mary needs to increase her thiamin consumption. What contains a lot of thiamin?

    3oz pork chop

    Clair reads on the food label tat the pizza contains enriched flour. What nutrients are added back to the flour enrichment process?

    Thiamin

    What active coenzyme is need to convert pyruvate into acetyl-CoA?

    Thiamin

    What statement about thiamin is true?

    Alcoholics are particularly susceptible to thiamin deficiency because thiamin absorption is decreased due to the effect the alcohol has the GI tract

    what is not a symptom of pellagra?

    diebetes

    niacin is synthesized in the body from what amino acid?

    trytophan

    Why is vitamin B12 deficiency particularly problematic?

    it prevents folate from being converted to one of its active forms

    what is a good source of niacin?

    chicken and trout

    what vitamin is important for amino acids synthesis and protein metabolism?

    B6

    what is not a function of vitamin B6?

    synthesis of collagen

    What are folate coenzymes needed for?

    the synthesis of DNA and metabolism of some amino acids

    what population is not at an increased risk of folate deficiency?

    non-smoking teenage males

    the intrinsic factor is necessary for the absorption of which B vitamin?

    Niacin

    what about vitamin B12 is false?

    Vitamin B12 is absorbed in the duodenum section of the small intestine

    what MyPlate food groups is the richest in vitamin B12?

    Protein

    When vitamin C intake is below 10 mg per day, the symptoms of what begin to appear?

    scurvy

    A family member has been taking Vitamin C supplements, but is now wondering if he should continue to spend money on these supplements. What have you learned about Vitamin C that might help them with an evidence-based decision?

    excessive supplementation can cause diarrhea and can interfere with drugs prescribed to slow blood clotting

    the symptoms of vitamin C deficiency include gums that swell and bleed. Why does this occur?

    there is reduced collagen synthesis

    Collagen is a __________. Vitamin C is necessary to form ___________ that hold adjacent collagen strands together and give the protein_________.

    protein, bonds, strength

    cells that are deficient in vitamin A become hard and dry because they produce what protein?

    keratin

    what is the process in which immature cells change in structure and function to become specialized?

    cell differentiatoin

    what statement is false about vitamin A?

    worldwide, vitamin A deficiencies are rare

    what is vitamin D deficiency in children called?

    rickets

    Active ________ is required to maintain normal blood calcium and phosphorus levels.

    vitamin D

    Vitamin E protects membranes in red blood cells, white blood cells, nerve cells, and lung cells. Why are these cells in particular in need of high amounts of vitamin E?

    oxygen concentration in these cells are high

    In its role as an antioxidant, _____ guards cell membranes, body proteins, DNA, and cholesterol, and thus helps prevent heart disease, cancer, macular degeneration, and other chronic diseases.

    vitamin E

    With a severe deficiency of _______, even a bruise or small scratch could cause you to bleed to death.

    vitamin K

    what is the major symptom of a vitamin K deficiency?

    abnormal blood coagulation

    what is the best way to ensure that you meet your nutrient needs without taking a dietary supplement?

    eat a variety of foods daily

    which nutrient supplement nutrients may be needed by older adults?

    vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium

    women of childbearing age should consume what daily from fortified food or supplements?

    folic acid

    what is not a good reason why some people may need to take supplements to meet certain nutrient needs?

    to be free from worry about their food choices

    Dietary supplements have regulations that are _____strict as compared to drugs.

    less

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act accomplished which of the following?

    Defined the term dietary supplement AND created standards for labeling products.

    Source : www.chegg.com

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