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    if a person has type b blood, which statement describes the antibodies present in his or her blood? only anti-a antibodies are present. only anti-b antibodies are present. both anti-a and anti-b antibodies are present. neither anti-a nor anti-b antibodies are present.

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    get if a person has type b blood, which statement describes the antibodies present in his or her blood? only anti-a antibodies are present. only anti-b antibodies are present. both anti-a and anti-b antibodies are present. neither anti-a nor anti-b antibodies are present. from EN Bilgi.

    The ABO blood group

    The discovery of the ABO blood group, over 100 years ago, caused great excitement. Until then, all blood had been assumed to be the same, and the often tragic consequences of blood transfusions were not understood. As our understanding of the ABO group grew, not only did the world of blood transfusion become a great deal safer, but scientists could now study one of the first human characteristics proven to be inherited. A person's ABO blood type was used by lawyers in paternity suits, by police in forensic science, and by anthropologists in the study of different populations.

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    Chapter 5The ABO blood group

    The discovery of the ABO blood group, over 100 years ago, caused great excitement. Until then, all blood had been assumed to be the same, and the often tragic consequences of blood transfusions were not understood. As our understanding of the ABO group grew, not only did the world of blood transfusion become a great deal safer, but scientists could now study one of the first human characteristics proven to be inherited. A person's ABO blood type was used by lawyers in paternity suits, by police in forensic science, and by anthropologists in the study of different populations.

    The ABO blood group antigens remain of prime importance in transfusion medicine—they are the most immunogenic of all the blood group antigens. The most common cause of death from a blood transfusion is a clerical error in which an incompatible type of ABO blood is transfused. The ABO blood group antigens also appear to have been important throughout our evolution because the frequencies of different ABO blood types vary among different populations, suggesting that a particular blood type conferred a selection advantage (e.g., resistance against an infectious disease.)

    However, despite their obvious clinical importance, the physiological functions of ABO blood group antigens remain a mystery. People with the common blood type O express neither the A nor B antigen, and they are perfectly healthy. Numerous associations have been made between particular ABO phenotypes and an increased susceptibility to disease. For example, the ABO phenotype has been linked with stomach ulcers (more common in group O individuals) and gastric cancer (more common in group A individuals). Another observation is that individuals with blood type O tend to have lower levels of the von Willebrand Factor (vWF), which is a protein involved in blood clotting.

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    At a glance

    Antigens of the ABO blood group

    Number of antigens 4: A, B, AB, and A1Antigen specificity Carbohydrate

    The sequence of oligosaccharides determines whether the antigen is A, B, or A1.

    Antigen-carrying molecules Glycoproteins and glycolipids of unknown function

    The ABO blood group antigens are attached to oligosaccharide chains that project above the RBC surface. These chains are attached to proteins and lipids that lie in the RBC membrane.

    Molecular basis The ABO gene indirectly encodes the ABO blood group antigens.

    The ABO locus has three main allelic forms: A, B, and O. The A and B alleles each encode a glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of the A and B antigen, respectively. The A/B polymorphism arises from several SNPs in the ABO gene, which result in A and B transferases that differ by four amino acids. The O allele encodes an inactive glycosyltransferase that leaves the ABO antigen precursor (the H antigen) unmodified.

    Frequency of ABO blood group antigens A: 43% Caucasians, 27% Blacks, 28% AsiansB: 9% Caucasians, 20% Blacks, 27% AsiansA1: 34% Caucasians, 19% Blacks, 27% Asians

    Note: Does not include AB blood groups (1).

    Frequency of ABO phenotypes Blood group O is the most common phenotype in most populations.

    Caucasians: group O, 44%; A1, 33%; A2, 10%; B, 9%; A1B, 3%; A2B, 1%

    Blacks: group O, 49%; A1, 19%; A2, 8%; B, 20%; A1B, 3%; A2B, 1%

    Asians: group O, 43%; A1, 27%; A2, rare; B, 25%; A1B, 5%; A2B, rare

    Note: Blood group A is divided into two main phenotypes, A1 and A2 (1).

    Antibodies produced against ABO blood group antigens

    Antibody type IgG and IgM

    Naturally occurring. Anti-A is found in the serum of people with blood groups O and B. Anti-B is found in the serum of people with blood groups O and A.

    Antibody reactivity Capable of hemolysis

    Anti-A and anti-B bind to RBCs and activate the complement cascade, which lyses the RBCs while they are still in the circulation (intravascular hemolysis).

    Transfusion reaction Yestypically causes an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction

    Most deaths caused by blood transfusion are the result of transfusing ABO-incompatible blood.

    Hemolytic disease of the newborn No or mild disease

    HDN may occur if a group O mother has more than one pregnancy with a child with blood group A, B, or AB. Most cases are mild and do not require treatment.

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    Background information

    History

    At the beginning of the 20th century an Austrian scientist, Karl Landsteiner, noted that the RBCs of some individuals were agglutinated by the serum from other individuals. He made a note of the patterns of agglutination and showed that blood could be divided into groups. This marked the discovery of the first blood group system, ABO, and earned Landsteiner a Nobel Prize.

    Landsteiner explained that the reactions between the RBCs and serum were related to the presence of markers (antigens) on the RBCs and antibodies in the serum. Agglutination occurred when the RBC antigens were bound by the antibodies in the serum. He called the antigens A and B, and depending upon which antigen the RBC expressed, blood either belonged to blood group A or blood group B. A third blood group contained RBCs that reacted as if they lacked the properties of A and B, and this group was later called "O" after the German word "Ohne", which means "without". The following year the fourth blood group, AB, was added to the ABO blood group system. These RBCs expressed both A and B antigens.

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    Human Blood: ABO Blood Types

    ABO Blood Types

    Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943)

    The most well-known and medically important blood types are in the ABO group.  They were discovered in 1900 and 1901 at the University of Vienna by Karl Landsteiner in the process of trying to learn why blood transfusions sometimes cause death and at other times save a patient.  In 1930, he belatedly received the Nobel Prize for his discovery of blood types.

    All humans and many other primates can be typed for the ABO blood group.  There are four principal types: A, B, AB, and O.  There are two antigens and two antibodies that are mostly responsible for the ABO types.  The specific combination of these four components determines an individual's type in most cases.  The table below shows the possible permutations of antigens and antibodies with the corresponding ABO type ("yes" indicates the presence of a component and "no" indicates its absence in the blood of an individual).

    ABO

    Blood Type

    Antigen

    A Antigen B     Antibody anti-A   Antibody Anti-B

    A   yes no   no yes B   no yes   yes no O   no no   yes yes AB   yes yes   no no

    For example, people with type A blood will have the A antigen on the surface of their red cells (as shown in the table below).  As a result, anti-A antibodies will not be produced by them because they would cause the destruction of their own blood.  However, if B type blood is injected into their systems, anti-B antibodies in their plasma will recognize it as alien and burst or agglutinate the introduced red cells in order to cleanse the blood of alien protein.

    ABO

    Blood Type

      Antigen

    A   Antigen B     Antibody anti-A   Antibody Anti-B

       A          yes no   no yesB   no yes   yes noO   no no   yes yesAB   yes yes   no no

    Individuals with type O blood do not produce ABO antigens.  Therefore, their blood normally will not be rejected when it is given to others with different ABO types.  As a result, type O people are universal donors for transfusions, but they can receive only type O blood themselves.  Those who have type AB blood do not make any ABO antibodies.  Their blood does not discriminate against any other ABO type.  Consequently, they are universal receivers for transfusions, but their blood will be agglutinated when given to people with every other type because they produce both kinds of antigens.

    ABO

    Blood Type

      Antigen

    A   Antigen B     Antibody anti-A   Antibody Anti-B

    A   yes no   no yesB   no yes   yes no    O           no no   yes yes   AB          yes yes   no no

    It is easy and inexpensive to determine an individual's ABO type from a few drops of blood.  A serum containing anti-A antibodies is mixed with some of the blood.  Another serum with anti-B antibodies is mixed with the remaining sample.   Whether or not agglutination occurs in either sample indicates the ABO type.   It is a simple process of elimination of the possibilities.  For instance, if an individual's blood sample is agglutinated by the anti-A antibody, but not the anti-B antibody, it means that the A antigen is present but not the B antigen.  Therefore, the blood type is A.

    Genetic Inheritance Patterns

    Research carried out in Heidelberg, Germany by Ludwik Hirszfeld and Emil von Dungern in 1910 and 1911 showed that the ABO blood types are inherited.  We now know that they are determined by genes on chromosome 9, and they do not change as a result of environmental influences during life.  An individual's ABO type results from the inheritance of 1 of 3 alleles (A, B, or O) from each parent.  The possible outcomes are shown below:

    The possible ABO alleles for one

    parent are in the top row and the

    alleles of the other are in the left

    column.  Offspring genotypes

    are shown in black.  Phenotypes

    are red.

    Parent Alleles A B OA AA

    (A) AB (AB) AO (A)

    B AB

    (AB) BB (B) BO (B)

    O AO

    (A) BO (B) OO (O)

    Both A and B alleles are dominant over O.  As a result, individuals who have an AO genotype will have an A phenotype.  People who are type O have OO genotypes.  In other words, they inherited a recessive O allele from both parents. The A and B alleles are codominant.  Therefore, if an A is inherited from one parent and a B from the other, the phenotype will be AB.   Agglutination tests will show that these individuals have the characteristics of both type A and type B blood.

    CAUTION: the inheritance of ABO blood types does not always follow such straightforward rules of inheritance.  If you wish to explore the reason why this is true, select the Bombay Phenotype button below.

    Bombay Phenotype

    ABO Blood type antigens are not only found on the surface of red cells.  They are also normally secreted by some people in their body fluids, including saliva, tears, and urine.  Whether someone is able to secrete them is genetically controlled.  Police agencies now routinely use this so-called secretor system data to identify potential victims and criminals when blood samples are not available.

    Source : www2.palomar.edu

    TOPIC TEST (1) 92% Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Pedigrees are used to help geneticists understand how traits are inherited between generations. The Romanovs, a Russian royal family, had a history of hemophilia, a sex-linked disorder that is determined by a recessive allele on the X chromosome. What is the best evidence to prove that Irene was heterozygous for hemophilia? A) Alice carried the recessive allele. B) Alexandra carried the recessive allele. C) Frederick carried the recessive allele. D) Waldemar carried the recessive allele., Mary has type A blood. Her son Bill has type AB blood. Which blood type does Bill's dad have if he is homogenous for blood type? A B AB O, In a dihybrid cross for round and yellow seeds (RrYy x RrYy), what is the probability of having green and wrinkled seeds? Key: R = round r = wrinkled Y = yellow y = green 1:16 3:16 8:16 9:16 and more.

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    Pedigrees are used to help geneticists understand how traits are inherited between generations. The Romanovs, a Russian royal family, had a history of hemophilia, a sex-linked disorder that is determined by a recessive allele on the X chromosome.

    What is the best evidence to prove that Irene was heterozygous for hemophilia?

    A) Alice carried the recessive allele.

    B) Alexandra carried the recessive allele.

    C) Frederick carried the recessive allele.

    D) Waldemar carried the recessive allele.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    Alice carried the recessive allele.

    Click again to see term 👆

    Mary has type A blood. Her son Bill has type AB blood. Which blood type does Bill's dad have if he is homogenous for blood type?

    A B AB O

    Click card to see definition 👆

    B

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    Terms in this set (25)

    Pedigrees are used to help geneticists understand how traits are inherited between generations. The Romanovs, a Russian royal family, had a history of hemophilia, a sex-linked disorder that is determined by a recessive allele on the X chromosome.

    What is the best evidence to prove that Irene was heterozygous for hemophilia?

    A) Alice carried the recessive allele.

    B) Alexandra carried the recessive allele.

    C) Frederick carried the recessive allele.

    D) Waldemar carried the recessive allele.

    Alice carried the recessive allele.

    Mary has type A blood. Her son Bill has type AB blood. Which blood type does Bill's dad have if he is homogenous for blood type?

    A B AB O B

    In a dihybrid cross for round and yellow seeds (RrYy x RrYy), what is the probability of having green and wrinkled seeds?

    Key: R = round r = wrinkled Y = yellow y = green 1:16 3:16 8:16 9:16 1:16

    Which was most likely an effect on society that resulted from improvements in blood handling during World War I and World War II?

    More soldiers died as a result of incorrect blood typing.

    More soldiers who had lost a limb returned home.

    More donations were needed as a result of poor storage techniques.

    More organizations spoke out against the war.

    More soldiers who had lost a limb returned home.

    Which of Thomas Hunt Morgan's hypotheses was valid?

    White eyes are lethal in female Drosophila.

    White eyes are lethal in male Drosophila.

    White eyes are homozygous recessive in female Drosophila.

    White eyes are the dominant trait in female Drosophila.

    White eyes are homozygous recessive in female Drosophila.

    A purebred plant that has yellow flowers is crossed with a purebred plant that has white flowers. All the offspring have yellow flowers. Which conclusion about yellow flowers is supported by these results?

    Yellow flower color is a dominant trait.

    Yellow flower color is a recessive trait.

    Yellow flower color is a heterozygous trait.

    Yellow flower color is a monohybrid trait.

    Yellow flower color is a dominant trait.

    In peas, yellow seed color (Y) is dominant to green seed color (y). Which describes an organism that has nonidentical alleles for seed color?

    yy and has green seeds

    Yy and has yellow seeds

    YY and has yellow seeds

    Yy and has green seeds

    Yy and has yellow seeds

    Paolo hypothesizes that thick leg muscles are an inherited trait in dogs. He collects data about several dogs. The data show that dogs that live outdoors have thicker leg muscles than dogs that live indoors. What should Paolo conclude?

    Inheritance of thick leg muscles is associated with coat thickness.

    Inheritance alone may not account for thick leg muscles.

    Dogs that have thick leg muscles require more exercise than dogs that have thin leg muscles.

    Dogs that inherit thick leg muscles may not survive indoors.

    Inheritance alone may not account for thick leg muscles.

    A student is given a list of traits and is asked to organize them in a Venn diagram as shown below.

    mc009-1.jpg

    Which traits should the student put in section I (Inherited)?

    wolf's social status and blood type

    skin color and a scar

    tiger's stripes and blood type

    a scar and wolf's social status

    tiger's stripes and blood type

    Which of Mendel's generations was allowed to self-pollinate?

    F1 generation P generation

    F1 generation and F2 generation

    P generation and F2 generation

    F1 generation

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