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    if a pathogen on food got past saliva, which additional defenses in the first line of defense would the pathogen contact?

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    Science Test 2 Section 8 Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like When children are young and go to the doctor, the doctor will give them booster shots. This re-exposes the children to a dead portion of a disease to help them build immunity. Which type of immunity is described? active passive antibiotic phagocytic, When studying the immune system in class, Peta concluded that T-cells are more specific to the pathogen than inflammation is. What did Peta most likely learn that led to this conclusion? T-cells are made to identify antibodies, while inflammation starts a fever. T-cells are made to identify antigens, while inflammation starts to make antibodies. T-cells make antibodies that cause a fever, while inflammation identifies antigens on the pathogens. T-cells are made to identify antigens, while inflammation fights anything in the affected area., Which of these is a weakened or dead form of a pathogen that causes an immune response? antibody vaccine antigen inflammation and more.

    Science Test 2 Section 8

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    When children are young and go to the doctor, the doctor will give them booster shots. This re-exposes the children to a dead portion of a disease to help them build immunity.

    Which type of immunity is described?

    active passive antibiotic phagocytic

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    active

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    When studying the immune system in class, Peta concluded that T-cells are more specific to the pathogen than inflammation is.

    What did Peta most likely learn that led to this conclusion?

    T-cells are made to identify antibodies, while inflammation starts a fever.

    T-cells are made to identify antigens, while inflammation starts to make antibodies.

    T-cells make antibodies that cause a fever, while inflammation identifies antigens on the pathogens.

    T-cells are made to identify antigens, while inflammation fights anything in the affected area.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    T-cells are made to identify antigens, while inflammation fights anything in the affected area.

    Click again to see term 👆

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    Terms in this set (10)

    When children are young and go to the doctor, the doctor will give them booster shots. This re-exposes the children to a dead portion of a disease to help them build immunity.

    Which type of immunity is described?

    active passive antibiotic phagocytic active

    When studying the immune system in class, Peta concluded that T-cells are more specific to the pathogen than inflammation is.

    What did Peta most likely learn that led to this conclusion?

    T-cells are made to identify antibodies, while inflammation starts a fever.

    T-cells are made to identify antigens, while inflammation starts to make antibodies.

    T-cells make antibodies that cause a fever, while inflammation identifies antigens on the pathogens.

    T-cells are made to identify antigens, while inflammation fights anything in the affected area.

    T-cells are made to identify antigens, while inflammation fights anything in the affected area.

    Which of these is a weakened or dead form of a pathogen that causes an immune response?

    antibody vaccine antigen inflammation vaccine

    Which would indicate that a vaccine is protecting a person from future disease?

    an increase in antibodies

    the production of a fever

    the production of phagocytes

    an occurrence of inflammation

    an increase in antibodies

    James was exposed to a pathogen when he was 10 years old and felt ill.

    What would most likely happen if he were exposed to the same pathogen when he is 12 years old?

    His body would destroy the pathogen before he felt symptoms.

    His reaction to the pathogen would be worse than the first.

    His antibodies would decrease, since he had been exposed already.

    New types of antibodies would be made in response to the second exposure.

    His body would destroy the pathogen before he felt symptoms.

    If a pathogen on food got past saliva, which additional defenses in the first line of defense would the pathogen contact?

    stomach acid and lymphocytes

    lymphocytes and phagocytes

    phagocytes and mucus

    mucus and stomach acid

    mucus and stomach acid

    The first line of defense involves which structure(s)?

    T-cells skin blood B-cells skin

    Which statement describes many of the structures involved in the first line of defense of the immune system?

    They have contact with the external environment.

    They are internal and contact the pathogen through blood.

    They produce B-cells in response to a pathogen.

    They produce T-cells in response to a pathogen.

    They have contact with the external environment.

    is made by the ears to prevent pathogens from entering the body.

    wax

    Which best describes the purpose of a fever?

    to make the body too hot for the bacteria to live

    to make the body too cold for the bacteria to live

    to stimulate lymphocytes to make antibodies

    to stimulate an increased production of sweat

    to make the body too hot for the bacteria to live

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    The Immune System

    Find and create gamified quizzes, lessons, presentations, and flashcards for students, employees, and everyone else. Get started for free!

    QUIZ

    The Immune System

    The Immune System 35%

    6 7th 7th Biology, Science Elizabeth Jones 1 year

    16 Qs

    1. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The first line of defense involves which structure(s)?

    answer choices T-cells skin blood B-cells 2. Multiple-choice 45 seconds Q.

    Which of these are included in the immune response? Select 3 correct answers.

    answer choices T-Cells lymphocytes B-cells stem cells oil 3. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which substances are contained in saliva and tears to break down pathogens?

    answer choices enzymes acids oils sweat 4. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    If a pathogen on food got past saliva, which additional defenses in the first line of defense would the pathogen contact?

    answer choices

    stomach acid and lymphocytes

    lymphocytes and phagocytes

    phagocytes and mucus

    mucus and stomach acid

    5. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which best describes the purpose of a fever?

    answer choices

    to make the body too hot for the bacteria to live

    to make the body too cold for the bacteria to live

    to stimulate lymphocytes to make antibodies

    to stimulate an increased production of sweat

    6. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which of these engulf bacteria and break them down?

    answer choices lymphocytes phagocytes T-cells B-cells 7. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    James was exposed to a pathogen when he was 10 years old and felt ill. What would most likely happen if he were exposed to the same pathogen when he is 12 years old?

    answer choices

    His body would destroy the pathogen before he felt symptoms.

    His reaction to the pathogen would be worse than the first.

    His antibodies would decrease, since he had been exposed already.

    New types of antibodies would be made in response to the second exposure.

    8. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which statement describes many of the structures involved in the first line of defense of the immune system?

    answer choices

    They have contact with the external environment.

    They are internal and contact the pathogen through blood.

    They produce B-cells in response to a pathogen.

    They produce T-cells in response to a pathogen.

    9. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    When studying the immune system in class, Peta concluded that T-cells are more specific to the pathogen than inflammation is. What did Peta most likely learn that led to this conclusion?

    answer choices

    T-cells are made to identify antibodies, while inflammation starts a fever.

    T-cells are made to identify antigens, while inflammation starts to make antibodies.

    T-cells make antibodies that cause a fever, while inflammation identifies antigens on the pathogens.

    T-cells are made to identify antigens, while inflammation fights anything in the affected area.

    10. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which statement best describes how a B-cell works?

    answer choices

    It produces antigens, which stimulate a fever.

    It produces antibodies specific to an antigen.

    It produces antigens specific to antibodies.

    It produces antibodies, which stimulate a fever.

    11. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which of these is a weakened or dead form of a pathogen that causes an immune response?

    answer choices antibody vaccine antigen inflammation 12. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which would indicate that a vaccine is protecting a person from future disease?

    answer choices

    an increase in antibodies

    the production of a fever

    the production of phagocytes

    an occurrence of inflammation

    13. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    When children are young and go to the doctor, the doctor will give them booster shots. This re-exposes the children to a dead portion of a disease to help them build immunity. Which type of immunity is described?

    answer choices active passive antibiotic phagocytic 14. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which would most likely cause a person to produce antibodies?

    answer choices

    receiving a vaccination

    experiencing swelling

    spraining a muscle

    experiencing a fever

    15. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Akio just got over having the flu. His brother just got the flu. His parents are not worried about Akio getting it again because he built up an immunity to this flu strain.

    Which explains the type of immunity he built up?

    answer choices

    active because he built up antibodies due to exposure to the flu

    active because his parents vaccinated him against the flu

    passive because his mother passed on the flu antibody

    passive because he had antibodies added to his blood

    16. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    __________ is made by the ears to prevent pathogens from entering the body.

    Source : quizizz.com

    The front line of host defense

    Microorganisms that cause pathology in humans and animals enter the body at different sites and produce disease by a variety of mechanisms. Many different infectious agents can cause pathology, and those that do are referred to as pathogenic microorganisms or pathogens. Invasions by microorganisms are initially countered, in all vertebrates, by innate defense mechanisms that preexist in all individuals and act within minutes of infection. Only when the innate host defenses are bypassed, evaded, or overwhelmed is an induced or adaptive immune response required. In the first part of this chapter we will describe briefly the infectious strategies of microorganisms before examining the innate host defenses that, in most cases, prevent infection from becoming established. Thus we will look at the defense functions of the epithelial surfaces of the body, the role of antimicrobial peptides and proteins, and the defense of body tissues by macrophages and neutrophils, which bind and ingest invading microorganisms in a process known as phagocytosis.

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    Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. 5th edition.

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    The front line of host defense

    Microorganisms that cause pathology in humans and animals enter the body at different sites and produce disease by a variety of mechanisms. Many different infectious agents can cause pathology, and those that do are referred to as pathogenic microorganisms or pathogens. Invasions by microorganisms are initially countered, in all vertebrates, by innate defense mechanisms that preexist in all individuals and act within minutes of infection. Only when the innate host defenses are bypassed, evaded, or overwhelmed is an induced or adaptive immune response required. In the first part of this chapter we will describe briefly the infectious strategies of microorganisms before examining the innate host defenses that, in most cases, prevent infection from becoming established. Thus we will look at the defense functions of the epithelial surfaces of the body, the role of antimicrobial peptides and proteins, and the defense of body tissues by macrophages and neutrophils, which bind and ingest invading microorganisms in a process known as phagocytosis.

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    2-1. Infectious agents must overcome innate host defenses to establish a focus of infection

    Our bodies are constantly exposed to microorganisms present in the environment, including infectious agents that have been shed from infected individuals. Contact with these microorganisms may occur through external or internal epithelial surfaces: the respiratory tract mucosa provides a route of entry for airborne microorganisms, the gastrointestinal mucosa for microorganisms in food and water; insect bites and wounds allow micro-organisms to penetrate the skin; and direct contact between individuals offers opportunities for infection of the skin and reproductive mucosa (Fig. 2.2).

    Figure 2.2

    Pathogens infect the body through a variety of routes.

    In spite of this exposure, infectious disease is fortunately quite rare. The epithelial surfaces of the body serve as an effective barrier against most microorganisms, and are rapidly repaired if wounded. Furthermore, most of the microorganisms that do succeed in crossing the epithelial surfaces are efficiently removed by innate immune mechanisms that function in the underlying tissues. Thus in most cases these defenses, which we will examine in more detail in subsequent sections, prevent a site of infection from being established. It is difficult to know how many infections are repelled in this way, because there are no symptoms of disease. It is clear, however, that the microorganisms that a normal human being inhales or ingests, or that enter through minor wounds, are mostly held at bay or eliminated, since they seldom cause disease.

    Infectious disease occurs when a microorganism succeeds in evading or overwhelming innate host defenses to establish a local site of infection and replication that allows its further transmission. In some cases, such as athlete’s foot, the initial infection remains local and does not cause significant pathology. In other cases the infectious agent causes significant pathology as it spreads through the lymphatics or the bloodstream, or as a result of secreting toxins.

    Pathogen spread is often countered by an inflammatory response that recruits more effector molecules and cells of the innate immune system from local blood vessels (Fig. 2.3), while inducing clotting farther downstream so that pathogens cannot spread through the blood. The induced responses of innate immunity act over several days while an adaptive immune response gets underway in response to pathogen antigens delivered to local lymphoid tissue. Such a response can target specific features of the pathogen and will usually clear the infection and protect the host against reinfection with the same pathogen.

    Figure 2.3

    An infection and the response to it can be divided into a series of stages. These are illustrated here for an infectious microorganism entering through a wound in the skin. The infectious agent must first adhere to the epithelial cells and then cross (more...)

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    2-2. The epithelial surfaces of the body are the first defenses against infection

    Our body surfaces are defended by epithelia, which provide a physical barrier between the internal milieu and the external world that contains pathogens. Epithelial cells are held together by tight junctions, which effectively form a seal against the external environment. Epithelia comprise the skin and the linings of the body’s tubular structures—the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urinogenital tracts. Infections occur only when the pathogen can colonize or cross through these barriers, and since the dry, protective layers of the skin present a more formidable barrier, pathogen entry most often occurs through the internal epithelial surfaces. The importance of epithelia in protection against infection is obvious when the barrier is breached, as in wounds and burns, when infection is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. In the absence of wounding or disruption, pathogens normally cross epithelial barriers by binding to molecules on internal epithelial surfaces, or establish an infection by adhering to and colonizing these surfaces. This specific attachment allows the pathogen to infect the epithelial cell, or to damage it so that the epithelium can be crossed, or, in the case of colonizing pathogens, to avoid being dislodged by the flow of air or fluid across the epithelial surface. The internal epithelia are known as mucosal epithelia because they secrete a viscous fluid called mucus, which contains many glycoproteins called mucins. Microorganisms coated in mucus may be prevented from adhering to the epithelium, and in mucosal epithelia such as that of the respiratory tract, microorganisms can be expelled in the flow of mucus driven by the beating of epithelial cilia. The efficacy of mucus flow in clearing infection is illustrated by people with defective mucus secretion or inhibition of ciliary movement; they frequently develop lung infections caused by bacteria that colonize the epithelial surface. In the gut, peristalsis is an important mechanism for keeping both food and infectious agents moving through. Failure of peristalsis is typically accompanied by overgrowth of bacteria within the intestinal lumen.

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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