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    if a mutation introduces a new skin color in a lizard population, which factor might determine whether the frequency of the new allele will increase?

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    Evolution

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    QUIZ

    Evolution

    Evolution 61%

    22 9th - 12th Biology Carlos Cruz 5 years

    33 Qs

    1. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Darwin noticed that many organisms seemed well suited to:

    answer choices

    being preserved as fossils.

    providing humans with food.

    surviving in the environments in which they lived.

    2. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    In an experiment, suppose that the wings of fruit flies were clipped short for 50 generations. The 51st generation emerged with normal-length wings. This observation would tend to disprove the idea that evolution is based on

    answer choices

    inheritance of natural variations.

    inheritance of acquired characteristics.

    natural selection. 3. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection, individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environment. Their survival is due to the

    answer choices

    possession of adaptations developed through use.

    possession of inherited adaptations that maximize fitness.

    lack of competition within the species.

    4. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Which statement about the members of a population that live long enough to reproduce is consistent with the theory of evolution by natural selection?

    answer choices

    They transmit characteristics acquired by use and disuse to their offspring.

    They tend to produce fewer offspring than others in the population.

    They are the ones that are best adapted to survive in their environment.

    5. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Charles Darwin called the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its specific environment

    answer choices Diversity Fitness Reproduction 6. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection, the individuals that tend to survive are those that have

    answer choices

    characteristics their parents acquired by use and disuse.

    characteristics that plant and animal breeders value.

    variations best suited to environmental conditions.

    7. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Which of the following phrases best describes the results of natural selection?

    answer choices

    the natural variation found in all populations

    unrelated species living in different locations

    changes in the inherited characteristics of a population over time

    8. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Which statement is part of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection?

    answer choices

    More offspring are produced than can possibly survive.

    The organisms that are the fittest are always largest and strongest.

    The number of offspring is not related to fitness.

    9. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    The principle of common descent helps explain why

    answer choices

    well-adapted species have many offspring.

    conditions in an organism’s environment ensures the organism’s survival.

    birds and reptiles share a number of inherited characteristics.

    10. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    In humans, the pelvis and femur, or thigh bone, are involved in walking. In whales, the pelvis and femur shown in Figure

    answer choices

    examples of fossils.

    vestigial structures.

    acquired traits. 11. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Molecular evidence in support of natural selection includes

    answer choices

    the nearly universal genetic code.

    the presence of vestigial structures.

    a tendency toward perfect, unchanging DNA in various species.

    12. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Similar patterns of embryological development in different but related organisms are responsible for the formation of

    answer choices

    homologous structures

    analogous structures.

    13. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    The genes carried by all members of a particular population make up the population’s

    answer choices allele frequency. Phenotype Gene Pool 14. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    If an allele makes up one half of the frequency of a population’s allele for a given trait, its allele frequency is

    answer choices 100% 75 % 50% 15. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Natural selection acts directly on

    answer choices alleles genes phenotypes 16. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Figure 17–2 shows highest fitness toward the center of the curve. When individuals with an average form of a trait have the highest fitness, the result is

    answer choices not predictable

    disruptive selection.

    stabilizing selection.

    17. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    In a fox population, the allele frequency of a gene for red fur changes from 20%to 30%. What can you say about that population of foxes?

    answer choices

    The population is expanding.

    The population is evolving.

    The population is decreasing.

    18. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Sexual reproduction among members of a population results in

    answer choices

    different types of alleles in the gene pool.

    Source : quizizz.com

    Biology homework 17.1

    Start studying Biology homework 17.1-17.2. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Biology homework 17.1-17.2

    5.0 1 Review

    33 studiers in the last day

    Three sources of genetic variation are-

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    Sexual reproduction, lateral gene transfer, and mutations.

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    The number of phenotypes produced for a given trait depends upon-

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    The number of genes that control the trait.

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    1/25 Created by TheForgottenBand

    Terms in this set (25)

    Three sources of genetic variation are-

    Sexual reproduction, lateral gene transfer, and mutations.

    The number of phenotypes produced for a given trait depends upon-

    The number of genes that control the trait.

    One end of Figure 17-1 shows an increase in average beak size for a population of birds. When individuals at only one end of a bell curve of phenotype frequencies have high fitness, the result is-

    Directional selection.

    A single-gene trait that has two alleles and that shows a simple dominant-recessive pattern will result in-

    Two phenotypes.

    In a fox population, the allele frequency of a gene for red fur changes from 20% to 30%. What can you say about that population of foxes?

    The population is evolving.

    If an allele makes up one half of the frequency of a population's allele for a given trait, its allele frequency is-

    50%.

    In genetic drift, the allele frequencies in a gene pool change because of-

    Chance.

    A farmer sprays insecticide on his crops to kill unwanted insects. Most of the insects die, and the chemicals have the effect of damaging the DNA of the insects that are not killed. Which of these has happened?

    Mutations have arisen that may have altered allele frequencies.

    The frequency of phenotypes for a typical polygenic trait is most often illustrated as-

    A bell-shaped curve.

    The type of genetic drift that follows the colonization of a new habitat by a small group of individuals is called-

    The founder effect.

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    19.2: Population Genetics

    Individuals of a population often display different phenotypes, or express different alleles of a particular gene, referred to as polymorphisms. Populations with two or more variations of particular …

    19.2: Population Genetics

    Last updated Apr 9, 2022

    19.1: Population Evolution

    19.3: Adaptive Evolution

    picture_as_pdf Readability Cite this page Donate OpenStax OpenStax Skills to Develop

    Describe the different types of variation in a population

    Explain why only heritable variation can be acted upon by natural selection

    Describe genetic drift and the bottleneck effect

    Explain how each evolutionary force can influence the allele frequencies of a population

    Individuals of a population often display different phenotypes, or express different alleles of a particular gene, referred to as polymorphisms. Populations with two or more variations of particular characteristics are called polymorphic. The distribution of phenotypes among individuals, known as the population variation, is influenced by a number of factors, including the population’s genetic structure and the environment (Figure

    19.2.1 19.2.1

    ). Understanding the sources of a phenotypic variation in a population is important for determining how a population will evolve in response to different evolutionary pressures.

    Figure 19.2.1 19.2.1

    : The distribution of phenotypes in this litter of kittens illustrates population variation. (credit: Pieter Lanser)

    Genetic Variance

    Natural selection and some of the other evolutionary forces can only act on heritable traits, namely an organism’s genetic code. Because alleles are passed from parent to offspring, those that confer beneficial traits or behaviors may be selected for, while deleterious alleles may be selected against. Acquired traits, for the most part, are not heritable. For example, if an athlete works out in the gym every day, building up muscle strength, the athlete’s offspring will not necessarily grow up to be a body builder. If there is a genetic basis for the ability to run fast, on the other hand, this may be passed to a child.

    Heritability is the fraction of phenotype variation that can be attributed to genetic differences, or genetic variance, among individuals in a population. The greater the hereditability of a population’s phenotypic variation, the more susceptible it is to the evolutionary forces that act on heritable variation.

    The diversity of alleles and genotypes within a population is called genetic variance. When scientists are involved in the breeding of a species, such as with animals in zoos and nature preserves, they try to increase a population’s genetic variance to preserve as much of the phenotypic diversity as they can. This also helps reduce the risks associated with inbreeding, the mating of closely related individuals, which can have the undesirable effect of bringing together deleterious recessive mutations that can cause abnormalities and susceptibility to disease. For example, a disease that is caused by a rare, recessive allele might exist in a population, but it will only manifest itself when an individual carries two copies of the allele. Because the allele is rare in a normal, healthy population with unrestricted habitat, the chance that two carriers will mate is low, and even then, only 25 percent of their offspring will inherit the disease allele from both parents. While it is likely to happen at some point, it will not happen frequently enough for natural selection to be able to swiftly eliminate the allele from the population, and as a result, the allele will be maintained at low levels in the gene pool. However, if a family of carriers begins to interbreed with each other, this will dramatically increase the likelihood of two carriers mating and eventually producing diseased offspring, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression.

    Changes in allele frequencies that are identified in a population can shed light on how it is evolving. In addition to natural selection, there are other evolutionary forces that could be in play: genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, nonrandom mating, and environmental variances.

    Genetic Drift

    The theory of natural selection stems from the observation that some individuals in a population are more likely to survive longer and have more offspring than others; thus, they will pass on more of their genes to the next generation. A big, powerful male gorilla, for example, is much more likely than a smaller, weaker one to become the population’s silverback, the pack’s leader who mates far more than the other males of the group. The pack leader will father more offspring, who share half of his genes, and are likely to also grow bigger and stronger like their father. Over time, the genes for bigger size will increase in frequency in the population, and the population will, as a result, grow larger on average. That is, this would occur if this particular selection pressure, or driving selective force, were the only one acting on the population. In other examples, better camouflage or a stronger resistance to drought might pose a selection pressure.

    Another way a population’s allele and genotype frequencies can change is genetic drift (Figure

    19.2.2 19.2.2

    ), which is simply the effect of chance. By chance, some individuals will have more offspring than others—not due to an advantage conferred by some genetically-encoded trait, but just because one male happened to be in the right place at the right time (when the receptive female walked by) or because the other one happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time (when a fox was hunting).

    Source : bio.libretexts.org

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