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    Human sex ratio

    Human sex ratio

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    Map indicating the human sex ratio by country.[1]

    Countries with more females than males

    Countries with more males than females

    Countries with very similar proportions of males and females (to 3 significant figures, i.e., 1.00 males to 1.00 females)

    No data

    Sex ratio by country for total population. Blue represents more men and boys, red more women and girls than the world average of 1.01 males/female.

    Sex ratio by country for the population below age 15. Blue represents more boys, red more girls than the world average of 1.07 males/female.

    Sex ratio by country for the over-65 population. Blue represents more men, red more women than the world average of 0.81 males/female.

    In anthropology and demography, the human sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. More data are available for humans than for any other species, and the human sex ratio is more studied than that of any other species, but interpreting these statistics can be difficult.

    Like most sexual species, the sex ratio in humans is close to 1:1. In humans, the natural ratio between males and females at birth is slightly biased towards the male sex: it is estimated to be about 1.05[2] or 1.06[3] or within a narrow range from 1.03 to 1.06[4] males per female. Sex imbalance may arise as a consequence of various factors including natural factors, exposure to pesticides and environmental contaminants,[5][6] war casualties, sex-selective abortions, infanticides,[7] aging, gendercide and problems with birth registration.[2]

    The sex ratio for the entire world population is approximately 101 males to 100 females (2021 est.).[8] Human sex ratios, either at birth or in the population as a whole, can be reported in any of four ways: the ratio of males to females, the ratio of females to males, the proportion of males, or the proportion of females. If there are 108,000 males and 100,000 females the ratio of males to females is 1.080 and the proportion of males is 51.9%. Scientific literature often uses the proportion of males. This article uses the ratio of males to females, unless specified otherwise.


    1 Natural ratio

    2 Factors affecting sex ratio in humans

    2.1 Fisher's principle

    2.2 Natural factors

    2.3 Environmental factors

    2.3.1 Effects of climate change

    2.3.2 Effects of gestation environment

    2.3.3 Effects of chemical pollution

    2.4 Social factors

    2.4.1 Effects of war

    2.4.2 Early marriage and parents' age

    2.4.3 Data sources and data quality issues

    2.5 Economic factors

    2.6 Other gestational factors

    3 Gender imbalance

    4 Consequences of a high sex ratio

    5 History 6 See also 7 References

    Natural ratio[edit]

    World map of birth sex ratios, 2012. Gray = no data

    In a study around 2002, the natural sex ratio at birth was estimated to be within a narrow range of 1.07 to 1.03 males/female.[4][9] Some scholars suggest that countries considered to have significant practices of prenatal sex-selection are those with birth sex ratios of 1.08 and above (selection against females) and 1.02 and below (selection against males). This assumption has been questioned by some scholars.[10]

    Infant mortality is significantly higher in boys than girls in most parts of the world. Often this is explained as due to biological and genetic sex differences, with boys more biologically vulnerable to premature death and disease.[11][12] Recent studies have found that numerous preconception or prenatal environmental factors affect the probabilities of a baby being conceived male or female. It has been proposed that these environmental factors also explain sex differences in mortality.[13] In most populations, adult males tend to have higher death rates than adult females of the same age (even after allowing for causes specific to females such as death in childbirth), due to both natural causes such as heart attacks and strokes, which account for by far the majority of deaths, and also violent causes, such as homicide and warfare. Thus females have a higher life expectancy. For example, in the United States, as of 2006, an adult non-elderly male was 3 to 6 times more likely to become a victim of a homicide and 2.5 to 3.5 times more likely to die in an accident than a female of the same age.[14]

    In the United States, the sex ratios at birth over the period 1970–2002 were 1.05 for the white non-Hispanic population, 1.04 for Mexican Americans, 1.03 for African Americans and Indians, and 1.07 for mothers of Chinese or Filipino ethnicity.[15] Among Western European countries around 2001, the ratios ranged from 1.04 in Belgium to 1.07 in Switzerland,[16] Italy,[17] Ireland[18] and Portugal. In the aggregated results of 56 demographic and health surveys[19] in African countries, the ratio is 1.03, albeit with considerable country-to-country variation.[20]

    Source : en.wikipedia.org


    Gender and health

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    Gender and health

    Overview WHO's role

    Gender refers to the characteristics of women, men, girls and boys that are socially constructed.  This includes norms, behaviours and roles associated with being a woman, man, girl or boy, as well as relationships with each other. As a social construct, gender varies from society to society and can change over time.

    Gender is hierarchical and produces inequalities that intersect with other social and economic inequalities.  Gender-based discrimination intersects with other factors of discrimination, such as ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability, age, geographic location, gender identity and sexual orientation, among others. This is referred to as intersectionality.

    Gender interacts with but is different from sex, which refers to the different biological and physiological characteristics of females, males and intersex persons, such as chromosomes, hormones and reproductive organs. Gender and sex are related to but different from gender identity. Gender identity refers to a person’s deeply felt, internal and individual experience of gender, which may or may not correspond to the person’s physiology or designated sex at birth.

    Gender influences people’s experience of and access to healthcare. The way that health services are organized and provided can either limit or enable a person’s access to healthcare information, support and services, and the outcome of those encounters. Health services should be affordable, accessible and acceptable to all, and they should be provided with quality, equity and dignity.

    Gender inequality and discrimination faced by women and girls puts their health and well-being at risk.  Women and girls often face greater barriers than men and boys to accessing health information and services. These barriers include restrictions on mobility; lack of access to decision-making power; lower literacy rates; discriminatory attitudes of communities and healthcare providers; and lack of training and awareness amongst healthcare providers and health systems of the specific health needs and challenges of women and girls.

    Consequently, women and girls face greater risks of unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections including HIV, cervical cancer, malnutrition, lower vision, respiratory infections, malnutrition and elder abuse, amongst others. Women and girls also face unacceptably high levels of violence rooted in gender inequality and are at grave risk of harmful practices such as female genital mutilation, and child, early and forced marriage. WHO figures show that about 1 in 3 women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence in their lifetime.

    Harmful gender norms – especially those related to rigid notions of masculinity – can also affect boys and men’s health and wellbeing negatively. For example, specific notions of masculinity may encourage boys and men to smoke, take sexual and other health risks, misuse alcohol and not seek help or health care. Such gender norms also contribute to boys and men perpetrating violence – as well as being subjected to violence themselves. They can also have grave implications for their mental health.

    Rigid gender norms also negatively affect people with diverse gender identities, who often face violence, stigma and discrimination as a result, including in healthcare settings. Consequently, they are at higher risk of HIV and mental health problems, including suicide.

    The work of WHO is aligned with and supports the advancement of the Sustainable Development Goals, particularly SDG 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages, and SDG 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. The Organization is committed to non-discrimination and to leaving no-one behind. It seeks to ensure that every person, regardless of gender or sex, can live a healthy life.

    Gender inequality hinders progress to fulfill everyone’s right to health. Efforts in support of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) must focus on reaching those most often left behind, such as marginalized, stigmatized and geographically isolated people of all sexes and gender identities, with a special focus on those in situations of increased vulnerability, including poor people, persons with disabilities and racialized and indigenous peoples. Addressing discrimination against women and girls is critical to achieving UHC.

    WHO develops norms, standards and guidelines on gender-responsive health service provision and delivery, and commissions research on issues focusing on gender equality, human rights and health equity. WHO also supports country-level action to strengthen health sector response to gender-based violence, as well as to address gender equality in health workforce development and gender-related barriers to health services.

    Fact sheets Data Tools WHO Resolutions Q & A WHO teams


    All →

    1 April 2022 Departmental news

    Parliaments promote women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health in the time of COVID-19

    16 March 2022 Departmental news

    Changing legislation: when women move mountains

    27 January 2022 Departmental news

    Ensuring quality and ethics of research on FGM: new WHO guidance out now

    23 November 2021 Departmental news

    Quality assurance of gender-based violence health services in Bangladesh

    Source : www.who.int

    Chapter 10: Sex, Gender, and Sexuality Inquizative Flashcards

    Start studying Chapter 10: Sex, Gender, and Sexuality Inquizative. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Chapter 10: Sex, Gender, and Sexuality Inquizative

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    Which of the following sexual dysfunctions tend to be associated with a state of general unhappiness or dissatisfaction with life?

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    in women, pain during penetration

    reduced or absent sexual desire

    inability to achieve orgasm

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    In the 1950s in the United States, the first major figure in the scientific study of sex was Alfred Kinsey. He gathered data by means of surveys. A few years later, Virginia Johnson and William Masters gathered data by observation of people engaged in sexual activities. Their work provided the first detailed account of the physiology of sex, including a description of the sexual response cycle in men and women.

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    Terms in this set (23)

    Which of the following sexual dysfunctions tend to be associated with a state of general unhappiness or dissatisfaction with life?


    in women, pain during penetration

    reduced or absent sexual desire

    inability to achieve orgasm

    In the 1950s in the United States, the first major figure in the scientific study of sex was Alfred Kinsey. He gathered data by means of surveys. A few years later, Virginia Johnson and William Masters gathered data by observation of people engaged in sexual activities. Their work provided the first detailed account of the physiology of sex, including a description of the sexual response cycle in men and women.


    Identify the true and false statements about gender identity.

    True Statement(s)

    Sam is biologically male and identifies herself as a woman. Sam may be considered transgender.

    Jennifer is biologically female and identifies as a woman. Jennifer may be considered cis female.

    Match each biological factor with either males being gay or females being lesbian.

    being lesbian

    being raised by a domineering mother

    prenatal exposure to high levels of androgens

    being gay

    being right-handed and having more older male siblings

    having a gay uncle on one's mother's side

    The case study of Bruce/Brenda/David Reimer regarding gender identity shows which of the following?

    Correct Answer(s)

    Prenatal development can affect gender identity before a baby is born.

    Gender identity has a strong biological component.

    Identify the true and false statements about menarche.

    True Statement(s)

    On average, menarche occurs earlier today than it did 50 years ago.

    In the majority North American culture, menarche boosts a girl's social status within her peer group.

    gender expression

    the outward communication of gender using clothes and other means

    gender schema

    mental categories that contain gender-related information about what is associated with males or females

    gender identity

    a person's thoughts and feelings about being male or female

    gender role

    a set of social expectations about jobs and characteristics appropriate for a person of a certain gender within a culture

    Identify the true and false statements about asexuality.

    True Statement(s)

    Asexuality is not a personal choice.

    Approximately 1 in 100 people have an asexual sexual orientation.

    Identify the true and false statements about the relationship between hormonal influence and sexual orientation.

    True Statement(s)

    High levels of androgens prenatally are associated with greater rates of same-sex attraction in women later in life.

    Johnson has a bachelor's degree in psychology and a master's degree in social work (MSW). He just got a job offer at the Accord Alliance.

    Which of the following job descriptions would be most fitting for Johnson, given his credentials?

    Correct Answer(s)

    Works with gay and lesbian clients to identify services, benefits, and support for individuals and their families.

    Helps transgender clients to document discrimination and harassment experienced in daily life.

    Gender schemas begin developing very early in childhood. Place each gender schema in chronological order of development.

    1. male voices are deeper than female voices

    2. male and female faces look different

    3. some toys are for boys, while others are for girls

    4. some girls have short hair and wear boys' shirts

    Juan-hui most likely feels the most comfortable with what gender identity?


    Place the events in the life of Coy Mathis in chronological order.

    1. coy's parents dressed coy as a boy and encouraged typical boy behavior

    2. coy insisted that she was a girl and wanted to be treated as a girl

    3. coy began feeling depressed and anxious

    4. experts helped coy's parents understand that their child was transgender

    5. coy was legally declared a girl

    6. coy started kindergarten as a girl

    With the exception of a few states like California and Oregon, most states in the United States recognize only two categories of gender. On the other hand, India and Bangladesh recognize a third group of people called hijra, who think of themselves as being between male and female. They are legally considered a third gender.

    Source : quizlet.com

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