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    Trigonella foenum

    Background The antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Trigonella foenum-graceum have been suggested. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the plant seeds and metformin against the diabetes-induced memory impairment were investigated. Materials and methods The rats were treated: (1) control, (2) …

    . 2019 Jun 6;39(2):/j/hmbci.2019.39.issue-2/hmbci-2018-0074/hmbci-2018-0074.xml.

    doi: 10.1515/hmbci-2018-0074.

    Trigonella foenum-graceum seed (Fenugreek) hydroalcoholic extract improved the oxidative stress status in a rat model of diabetes-induced memory impairment

    Solaiman Bafadam  1 , Farimah Beheshti  2   3 , Tayebeh Khodabakhshi  3 , Amir Asghari  1 , Babak Ebrahimi  4 , Hamid Reza Sadeghnia  5 , Maryam Mahmoudabady  6 , Saeed Niazmand  6 , Mahmoud Hosseini  1   7

    Affiliations

    Affiliations

    1 Division of Neurocognitive Sciences, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

    2 Neuroscience Research Center, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran.

    3 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

    4 Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

    5 Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

    6 Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

    7 Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, Phone: +98-51-38828565, Fax: +98-51-38828564.

    PMID: 31188777

    DOI: 10.1515/hmbci-2018-0074

    Trigonella foenum-graceum seed (Fenugreek) hydroalcoholic extract improved the oxidative stress status in a rat model of diabetes-induced memory impairment

    Solaiman Bafadam et al. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2019.

    . 2019 Jun 6;39(2):/j/hmbci.2019.39.issue-2/hmbci-2018-0074/hmbci-2018-0074.xml.

    doi: 10.1515/hmbci-2018-0074.

    Authors

    Solaiman Bafadam  1 , Farimah Beheshti  2   3 , Tayebeh Khodabakhshi  3 , Amir Asghari  1 , Babak Ebrahimi  4 , Hamid Reza Sadeghnia  5 , Maryam Mahmoudabady  6 , Saeed Niazmand  6 , Mahmoud Hosseini  1   7

    Affiliations

    1 Division of Neurocognitive Sciences, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

    2 Neuroscience Research Center, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran.

    3 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

    4 Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

    5 Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

    6 Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

    7 Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, Phone: +98-51-38828565, Fax: +98-51-38828564.

    PMID: 31188777

    DOI: 10.1515/hmbci-2018-0074

    Abstract

    Background The antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Trigonella foenum-graceum have been suggested. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the plant seeds and metformin against the diabetes-induced memory impairment were investigated. Materials and methods The rats were treated: (1) control, (2) diabetic (3-6) and diabetic rats treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of the plant extract or metformin. The rats were diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg). After the passive avoidance test, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, total thiol (SH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in the brain. Results In the diabetic group, at 3, 24 and 48 h after receiving a shock, the latency to enter the dark room was lower than for the controls (p < 0.001). All doses of the extract and metformin increased the latencies to enter the dark at 3 and 24 h after the shock treatment (p < 0.05-p < 0.001). Additionally, the two higher doses of the extract and metformin increased the latency at 48 h after the shock (p < 0.05-p < 0.001). Diabetes also elevated MDA and NO metabolites, while it reduced thiol, SOD and CAT in the hippocampal and cortical tissues (p < 0.001). Treatment of the diabetic animals by the highest dose of the extract and also metformin reduced the MDA and NO metabolites, while it improved thiols, SOD and CAT (p < 0.01-p < 0.001). Conclusions Based on our findings, metformin and the hydro-alcoholic extract from the T. foenum-graceum seed prevented memory deficits resulting from diabetes. Preventing oxidative damage in the brain may at least, in part, be responsible for the positive effects of the extract and metformin.

    Keywords: Trigonella foenum-graceum; diabetes; memory; oxidative; passive avoidance.

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    Source : pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    The Effects of Hydro

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex clinical disorder that can lead to an increase in oxidative stress. Patients with this syndrome are at risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) plant has many therapeutic ...

    J Obes Metab Syndr. 2020 Sep 30; 29(3): 198–207.

    Published online 2020 Sep 4. doi: 10.7570/jomes19051

    PMCID: PMC7539338 PMID: 32883888

    The Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Fenugreek Seeds on the Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Maryam Mohammad-Sadeghipour,1,2 Mehdi Afsharinasab,3,4 Maryam Mohamadi,4 Mehdi Mahmoodi,2 Soudeh Khanamani Falahati-pour,5 and Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh3,4,*

    Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer

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    Abstract

    Background

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex clinical disorder that can lead to an increase in oxidative stress. Patients with this syndrome are at risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) plant has many therapeutic effects, including anti-diabetic and antioxidant. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the hydro-alcoholic extract of fenugreek seeds (HEFS) on dyslipidemia and oxidative stress due to high-fructose diet-induced MetS.

    Methods

    In this experimental study, to induce MetS, animals received water containing 20% fructose for 8 weeks. After induction of MetS, 48 male Wistar rats (200?250 g) were randomized into six groups. HEFS was administered to animals at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg orally for 4 weeks. Animal blood samples were collected to measure biochemical and antioxidant parameters of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC).

    Results

    The findings showed that the serum levels of FPG, TC, LDL-C, TG, and MDA were significantly reduced in HEFS-exposed groups compared with the control group (P<0.05). Also, significant increases in HDL-C, GPX, CAT, and TAC levels (P<0.05) were observed.

    Conclusion

    Our results revealed that treatment with HEFS increases the levels of antioxidant enzymes, decreases FPG level, and at the same time, modifies the lipid profile in MetS. Therefore, HEFS may help to alleviate the risk of some chronic complications of this disease.

    Keywords: Antioxidants, Dyslipidemia, Trigonella, Metabolic syndrome, Oxidative stress

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    INTRODUCTION

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by clustering of metabolic abnormalities of central obesity, hypertension, elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG), dyslipidemia, high body mass index, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress.1 MetS has become a significant problem in public health, with a prevalence rate of 20% to 25% among adults worldwide.2 Patients with this syndrome are at risk of various diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease,3 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,4 and cancer.5 Excessive consumption of fructose, a simple monosaccharide, is closely related to obesity. Fructose-fed rats have been reported as a rat model of MetS6 and were used as such in the present study.

    One of the products of biological systems is reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are highly reactive and short-lived. One of the primary methods for removal of ROS is the antioxidant system.7,8 The most important antioxidant enzymes include catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ceruloplasmin.9,10 Imbalance between ROS (increased level) and the antioxidant system (reduced antioxidants) is the leading cause of oxidative stress.7,10 Malondialdehyde (MDA) resulting from oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids is an important marker of oxidative stress.11

    There is a relationship between oxidative stress and MetS, which aggravates MetS factors such as insulin resistance, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and reduction of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).12,13 The risk of MetS increases with an increase in oxidative stress.14 Recent studies have shown that MetS patients exhibit a significant reduction in activity/expression of antioxidant systems, including SOD, GPX, CAT, and reduced glutathione (GSH).15 Currently, many chemical medications are suggested for treatment and control of MetS factors, including lipidlowering agents (statins),16 insulin sensitizers (metformin, acarbose, and thiazolidinedione),17 and weight loss medications, but their various side effects limit their use. Finding a therapeutic approach with few side effects is a challenge for researchers that has prompted consideration of herbal medicines as treatment.18

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) is an annual plant belonging to the family Leguminosae.19 Properties of fenugreek seeds include lowering total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C)20 and being anti-diabetic,21 antitympanites, anti-diarrheal,20,22 diuretic,23 anti-inflammatory, and anti-cough.24 Beneficial compounds, including trigonelline, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, diosgenin, orientin, luteolin flavonoids, steroid saponins, vitamins, and minerals such as iron and calcium, have been found in fenugreek seeds,25 indicating its use as a valuable therapeutic food. Moreover, studies of fenugreek in type 2 diabetes showed that active ingredients such as 4-hydroxyisoleucine, diosgenin, and galactomannan had positive effects on this pathologic state.24

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    Effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum

    Fenugreek is a herb that is widely used in cooking and as a traditional medicine for diabetes in Asia. It has been shown to acutely lower postprandial glucose levels, but the long-term effect on glycemia remains uncertain. We systematically reviewed clinical trials of the effect of fenugreek intake on markers of glucose homeostasis. PubMed, SCOPUS, the Cochrane Trials Registry, Web of Science, and BIOSIS were searched up to 29 Nov 2013 for trials of at least 1 week duration comparing intake of fenugreek seeds with a control intervention. Data on change in fasting blood glucose, 2 hour postload glucose, and HbA1c were pooled using random-effects models. A total of 10 trials were identified. Fenugreek significantly changed fasting blood glucose by -0.96 mmol/l (95% CI: -1.52, -0.40; I2 = 80%; 10 trials), 2 hour postload glucose by -2.19 mmol/l (95% CI: -3.19, -1.19; I2 = 71%; 7 trials) and HbA1c by -0.85% (95% CI: -1.49%, -0.22%; I2 = 0%; 3 trials) as compared with control interventions. The considerable heterogeneity in study results was partly explained by diabetes status and dose: significant effects on fasting and 2 hr glucose were only found for studies that administered medium or high doses of fenugreek in persons with diabetes. Most of the trials were of low methodological quality. Results from clinical trials support beneficial effects of fenugreek seeds on glycemic control in persons with diabetes. However, trials with higher methodology quality using a well characterized fenugreek preparation of sufficient dose are needed to provide more conclusive evidence.

    Review Open Access

    Published: 18 January 2014

    Effect of fenugreek (L.) intake on glycemia: a meta-analysis of clinical trials

    Nithya Neelakantan, Madanagopal Narayanan, Russell J de Souza & Rob M van Dam

    volume

    13, Article number: 7 (2014) Cite this article

    29k Accesses 83 Citations 70 Altmetric Metrics details

    Abstract

    Background and aim

    Fenugreek is a herb that is widely used in cooking and as a traditional medicine for diabetes in Asia. It has been shown to acutely lower postprandial glucose levels, but the long-term effect on glycemia remains uncertain. We systematically reviewed clinical trials of the effect of fenugreek intake on markers of glucose homeostasis.

    Methods

    PubMed, SCOPUS, the Cochrane Trials Registry, Web of Science, and BIOSIS were searched up to 29 Nov 2013 for trials of at least 1 week duration comparing intake of fenugreek seeds with a control intervention. Data on change in fasting blood glucose, 2 hour postload glucose, and HbA1c were pooled using random-effects models.

    Results

    A total of 10 trials were identified. Fenugreek significantly changed fasting blood glucose by -0.96 mmol/l (95% CI: -1.52, -0.40; I2 = 80%; 10 trials), 2 hour postload glucose by -2.19 mmol/l (95% CI: -3.19, -1.19; I2 = 71%; 7 trials) and HbA1c by -0.85% (95% CI: -1.49%, -0.22%; I2 = 0%; 3 trials) as compared with control interventions. The considerable heterogeneity in study results was partly explained by diabetes status and dose: significant effects on fasting and 2 hr glucose were only found for studies that administered medium or high doses of fenugreek in persons with diabetes. Most of the trials were of low methodological quality.

    Conclusions

    Results from clinical trials support beneficial effects of fenugreek seeds on glycemic control in persons with diabetes. However, trials with higher methodology quality using a well characterized fenugreek preparation of sufficient dose are needed to provide more conclusive evidence.

    Peer Review reports

    Introduction

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide with approximately half of all persons with diabetes living in Asia [1]. The herb fenugreek ( L., Fabaceae family) is used both in cooking and for the treatment of diabetes in many parts of the world, especially in China, Egypt, India and Middle Eastern countries [2–4]. In low-income countries, individuals with diabetes often do not have access to appropriate medications due to a lack of financial resources [5]. Active compounds of fenugreek included soluble fiber [6–8], saponins [9, 10], trigonelle [11], diosgenin [12], and 4-hydroxyisoleucine [13, 14]. Hypoglycemic activities have mainly been attributed to dietary fiber [6, 7] and saponin [9]. Fenugreek is a widely used herbal medicine for diabetes, but its efficacy for glycemic control remains unclear.

    Animal studies have shown that fenugreek seed extracts have the potential to slow enzymatic digestion of carbohydrates, reduce gastrointestinal absorption of glucose, and thus reduce post-prandial glucose levels [8]. In addition, fenugreek stimulated glucose uptake in peripheral tissues [15] and had insulinotropic properties in isolated rat pancreatic cells [16]. In humans, fenugreek seeds acutely reduced postprandial glucose and insulin levels [17–20]. In addition, several longer-term clinical trials showed reductions in fasting and post-prandial glucose levels and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) [9, 21–23], but some trials did not show benefit [24, 25]. Systematic reviews that have evaluated the effect of various alternative therapies for diabetes included only a few clinical trials of fenugreek [26–29]. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of fenugreek on glucose homeostasis based on a comprehensive literature search leading to the identification of a reasonably large number of trials with an evaluation of potential explanations for differences in study results.

    Methods

    Data sources and searches

    To identify articles on the effect of fenugreek on glucose homeostasis we searched MEDLINE (PubMed), SCOPUS, Web of Science, BIOSIS, and Cochrane Trials Registry from inception through Nov 29, 2013 using key search terms related to fenugreek (“fenugreek”, “trigonella”), an experimental study design (“trial”, “clinical trial”, “intervention”, “therapy”), to identify potentially relevant articles. The search strategy utilized both index terms and free text to search for synonyms of trigonella, fenugreek and diabetes/healthy subjects, and was limited to human studies. Grey literature such as conference proceedings, abstracts, dissertations and technical reports was identified using the same key terms through the electronic search engines Google Scholar, SCIRUS, CINAHL, and ProQuest. No language restriction was applied.

    The results (titles, abstracts and citations) of electronic searches were downloaded into EndNote software (EndNote X5, 2011, Thomson Reuters, Philadelphia) and initial screening for eligibility was performed by two independent reviewers (Nithya Neelakantan, Madanagopal Narayanan). When assessment of eligibility based on the title and abstract was insufficient, the full text of the articles was obtained. The second screening of those full text articles was then independently performed by at least two reviewers (Nithya Neelakantan, Madanagopal Narayanan, Rob M van Dam). Disagreements were resolved by consensus. The kappa for the inter-reviewer reliability was 0.78. Study authors were contacted to verify results and methodological quality of retrieved articles where necessary. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement to report our findings [30].

    Source : nutritionj.biomedcentral.com

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