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    How does energy transformation happen in photosynthesis?

    During photosynthesis, solar energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP molecules. During photosynthesis solar energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of energy rich bond of ATP molecule. ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) and ADP (Adenosine diphosphate) molecules are termed currency of energy. ADP molecule is converted into ATP molecules, whenever energy is available in certain exothermic reactions of metabolism. ATP molecules are store- house of energy. ATP molecule is broken down into ADP molecule in presence of enzyme ATPase, releasing energy whenever energy is required. The synthesis of ATP molecules, utilizing solar energy during photosynthesis, is termed photo-phosphorylation. These ATP molecules produced during light reaction of photosynthesis are utilized in dark reaction of photosynthesis (Calvin cycle). ATP molecules synthesized during photo-phosphorylation may also be used in other metabolic reactions. Photo-phosphorylation is of 2 types, i.e. Cyclic and Non-cyclic photo-phosphorylation. Chlorophyll molecules entrap solar energy . There are 2 types of photo-systems in chlorophyll. These are photo-system -I and photo-system-II . The electrons of chlorophyll molecule of photo-system I get excited which pass through series of electron carriers in electron transport system arranged in the order of decreasing energy level. During the passage of electrons from carriers of higher energy level to the carriers of lower energy level, the energy is lost which is utilized for converting ADP molecule into ATP molecule. Photo-system I is concerned with light reaction of photosynthesis only, constituting cyclic photo-phosphorylation. The electron transport during Photo-system II results in the synthesis of NADPH2 in presence of enzyme NADP reductase. NADPH2 is used in reduction reaction of Calvin cycle. Both Photo-systems participate in non-cyclic photo-phosphorylation that results in the synthesis of NADPH2 in addition to the synthesis of ATP molecules.

    How does energy transformation happen in photosynthesis?

    Biology Energy In Organisms Photosynthesis

    1 Answer

    Krishan T. Jan 20, 2018

    During photosynthesis, solar energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP molecules.

    Explanation:

    During photosynthesis solar energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of energy rich bond of ATP molecule.

    ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) and ADP (Adenosine diphosphate) molecules are termed currency of energy. ADP molecule is converted into ATP molecules, whenever energy is available in certain exothermic reactions of metabolism.

    ATP molecules are store- house of energy. ATP molecule is broken down into ADP molecule in presence of enzyme ATPase, releasing energy whenever energy is required.

    The synthesis of ATP molecules, utilizing solar energy during photosynthesis, is termed photo-phosphorylation.

    These ATP molecules produced during light reaction of photosynthesis are utilized in dark reaction of photosynthesis (Calvin cycle).

    ATP molecules synthesized during photo-phosphorylation may also be used in other metabolic reactions.

    Photo-phosphorylation is of 2 types, i.e. Cyclic and Non-cyclic photo-phosphorylation.

    Chlorophyll molecules entrap solar energy . There are 2 types of photo-systems in chlorophyll. These are photo-system -I and photo-system-II .

    The electrons of chlorophyll molecule of photo-system I get excited which pass through series of electron carriers in electron transport system arranged in the order of decreasing energy level.

    During the passage of electrons from carriers of higher energy level to the carriers of lower energy level, the energy is lost which is utilized for converting ADP molecule into ATP molecule.

    Photo-system I is concerned with light reaction of photosynthesis only, constituting cyclic photo-phosphorylation.

    The electron transport during Photo-system II results in the synthesis of NADPH2 in presence of enzyme NADP reductase. NADPH2 is used in reduction reaction of Calvin cycle.

    Both Photo-systems participate in non-cyclic photo-phosphorylation that results in the synthesis of NADPH2 in addition to the synthesis of ATP molecules.

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    What Energy Transformations Take Place during Photosynthesis?

    What type of energy transformation occurs during photosynthesis? During photosynthesis, the process used by autotrophs to produce their own food, energy from the sun is converted to chemical energy. This chemical energy is stored and moved by ATP and NADPH, molecules essential to all life on Earth.

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    What Energy Transformations Take Place during Photosynthesis?

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    How Do Plant Cells Obtain Energy?

    Updated December 02, 2021

    By Meg Schader

    Reviewed by: Sylvie Tremblay, M.Sc. Molecular Biology and Genetics

    How is energy transformed in photosynthesis? A chemical reaction fueled by the energy of the sun, photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide, water and sunlight into glucose and oxygen. Autotrophs, organisms like plants that make their own food, use photosynthesis to fuel growth, reproduction and repair of their cells. Photosynthesis takes place in two stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light independent-reactions.

    Because plants can't use the energy from the sun directly to produce glucose, sunlight is converted into chemical energy through the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH). During the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, ATP and NADPH are created; these are energy-carrying molecules. The chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH is then used during the light-independent stage of photosynthesis, which is also known as the Calvin cycle, to produce carbohydrates.

    Photosynthesis Energy Conversion

    Essentially, energy from the sun is stored in ATP and NADPH during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. Notably, these two energy-carrying molecules are used not only in plants for photosynthesis – they are essential molecules for storing chemical energy in animals, too.

    In the light-dependent phase of photosynthesis, plants absorb sunlight using a special pigment called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll, the green pigment that gives plants their color, is located within chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are organelles in plant cells that are essential to the process of photosynthesis.

    Chlorophyll captures energy from sunlight by energizing electrons, and the energy from these energized electrons is used to produce NADPH. ATP is also created during the light-dependent phase of photosynthesis, using energy created by a flow of hydrogen ions.

    The Calvin Cycle

    The second part of photosynthesis, the light-independent stage, is also known as the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle also takes place within the chloroplasts of plant cells. There are three stages within the Calvin cycle, consisting of a series of chemical reactions.

    In general terms, the chemical energy from the ATP and NADPH created in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis is used to create carbohydrates during the Calvin cycle. Through a series of complex reactions, carbohydrates and oxygen are made from carbon dioxide with the energy from ATP and NADPH.

    ATP and NADPH are molecules that can be thought of as "full" of energy. As this energy is used during the Calvin cycle, these energy-carrying molecules are converted into their "empty" forms: ADP and NADP. These "full" and "empty" energy-carrying molecules are cycled back and forth between the light-dependent and light-independent phases of photosynthesis, providing the fuel needed to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen.

    Turning Light Into Life

    Autotrophs like trees and algae form the foundation of all food webs on the planet. Even carnivores, animals that eat other animals, ultimately depend on the organic materials produced by autotrophs – for example, wolves eat rabbits, and rabbits are herbivores that live on plants.

    Therefore, the energy-carrying molecules used in the process of photosynthesis, ATP and NADPH, are essential to all life on Earth. ATP and NADPH do not last long – some estimate their lifespans to be in the millionths of seconds – but the carbon and carbohydrates produced by their energy last for hundreds of millions of years, in the form of plants and animals.

    Not only do plants use the energy from ATP and NADPH to fuel their own growth, they also produce oxygen in the process. Most of the oxygen in our atmosphere is a product of photosynthesis – so, animals depend on plants for both food and oxygen.

    The energy transformations that take place during photosynthesis are critical to making the planet inhabitable, and the energy-carrying molecules ATP and NADPH make it all possible.

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    References

    Biology LibreTexts: Overview of Photosynthesis

    Source : sciencing.com

    photosynthesis

    photosynthesis, the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light energy into chemical energy. During photosynthesis in green plants, light energy is captured and used to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds. It would be impossible to overestimate the importance of photosynthesis in the maintenance of life on Earth. If photosynthesis ceased, there would soon be little food or other organic matter on Earth. Most organisms would disappear, and in time Earth’s atmosphere would become nearly devoid of gaseous oxygen. The only organisms able to exist under such conditions would be

    photosynthesis

    biology

    By Hans Lambers | See All • Last Updated: Feb 25, 2022 • Edit History

    photosynthesis See all media

    Key People: Joseph Priestley Melvin Calvin Jan Ingenhousz Jean Senebier Robert Huber

    Related Topics: chlorophyll photolysis photosystem I pheophytin photorespiration

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    TOP QUESTIONS

    Why is photosynthesis important?

    What is the basic formula for photosynthesis?

    Which organisms can photosynthesize?

    photosynthesis, the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light energy into chemical energy. During photosynthesis in green plants, light energy is captured and used to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds.

    It would be impossible to overestimate the importance of photosynthesis in the maintenance of life on Earth. If photosynthesis ceased, there would soon be little food or other organic matter on Earth. Most organisms would disappear, and in time Earth’s atmosphere would become nearly devoid of gaseous oxygen. The only organisms able to exist under such conditions would be the chemosynthetic bacteria, which can utilize the chemical energy of certain inorganic compounds and thus are not dependent on the conversion of light energy.

    Energy produced by photosynthesis carried out by plants millions of years ago is responsible for the fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and gas) that power industrial society. In past ages, green plants and small organisms that fed on plants increased faster than they were consumed, and their remains were deposited in Earth’s crust by sedimentation and other geological processes. There, protected from oxidation, these organic remains were slowly converted to fossil fuels. These fuels not only provide much of the energy used in factories, homes, and transportation but also serve as the raw material for plastics and other synthetic products. Unfortunately, modern civilization is using up in a few centuries the excess of photosynthetic production accumulated over millions of years. Consequently, the carbon dioxide that has been removed from the air to make carbohydrates in photosynthesis over millions of years is being returned at an incredibly rapid rate. The carbon dioxide concentration in Earth’s atmosphere is rising the fastest it ever has in Earth’s history, and this phenomenon is expected to have major implications on Earth’s climate.

    Requirements for food, materials, and energy in a world where human population is rapidly growing have created a need to increase both the amount of photosynthesis and the efficiency of converting photosynthetic output into products useful to people. One response to those needs—the so-called Green Revolution, begun in the mid-20th century—achieved enormous improvements in agricultural yield through the use of chemical fertilizers, pest and plant-disease control, plant breeding, and mechanized tilling, harvesting, and crop processing. This effort limited severe famines to a few areas of the world despite rapid population growth, but it did not eliminate widespread malnutrition. Moreover, beginning in the early 1990s, the rate at which yields of major crops increased began to decline. This was especially true for rice in Asia. Rising costs associated with sustaining high rates of agricultural production, which required ever-increasing inputs of fertilizers and pesticides and constant development of new plant varieties, also became problematic for farmers in many countries.

    A second agricultural revolution, based on plant genetic engineering, was forecast to lead to increases in plant productivity and thereby partially alleviate malnutrition. Since the 1970s, molecular biologists have possessed the means to alter a plant’s genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA) with the aim of achieving improvements in disease and drought resistance, product yield and quality, frost hardiness, and other desirable properties. However, such traits are inherently complex, and the process of making changes to crop plants through genetic engineering has turned out to be more complicated than anticipated. In the future such genetic engineering may result in improvements in the process of photosynthesis, but by the first decades of the 21st century, it had yet to demonstrate that it could dramatically increase crop yields.

    Another intriguing area in the study of photosynthesis has been the discovery that certain animals are able to convert light energy into chemical energy. The emerald green sea slug (Elysia chlorotica), for example, acquires genes and chloroplasts from Vaucheria litorea, an alga it consumes, giving it a limited ability to produce chlorophyll. When enough chloroplasts are assimilated, the slug may forgo the ingestion of food. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) can harness light to manufacture the energy-rich compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP); this ability has been linked to the aphid’s manufacture of carotenoid pigments.

    General characteristics

    General characteristics Development of the idea

    The study of photosynthesis began in 1771 with observations made by the English clergyman and scientist Joseph Priestley. Priestley had burned a candle in a closed container until the air within the container could no longer support combustion. He then placed a sprig of mint plant in the container and discovered that after several days the mint had produced some substance (later recognized as oxygen) that enabled the confined air to again support combustion. In 1779 the Dutch physician Jan Ingenhousz expanded upon Priestley’s work, showing that the plant had to be exposed to light if the combustible substance (i.e., oxygen) was to be restored. He also demonstrated that this process required the presence of the green tissues of the plant.

    Source : www.britannica.com

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