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    how does the illustration help the reader understand the text? the illustration shows that grinding sugar with mechanical equipment is inefficient. the illustration emphasizes why grinding sugar cane into white sugar is necessary. the illustration depicts enslaved sugar mill workers as completely exhausted. the illustration depicts the people, equipment, and oxen required to manufacture sugar.

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    get how does the illustration help the reader understand the text? the illustration shows that grinding sugar with mechanical equipment is inefficient. the illustration emphasizes why grinding sugar cane into white sugar is necessary. the illustration depicts enslaved sugar mill workers as completely exhausted. the illustration depicts the people, equipment, and oxen required to manufacture sugar. from EN Bilgi.

    How does the illustration the reader understand the text? the illustration shows that grinding sugar with mechanical

    Correct answer ✅ to the question: How does the illustration the reader understand the text? the illustration shows that grinding sugar with mechanical equipment is inefficien

    English, 25.09.2019 02:00, QueenNerdy889

    How does the illustration the reader understand the text? the illustration shows that grinding sugar with mechanical equipment is inefficient. the illustration emphasizes why grinding sugar cane into white sugar is necessary. the illustration depicts enslaved sugar mill workers as completely exhausted. the illustration depicts the people, equipment, and oxen required to manufacture sugar.

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    Prints depicting enslaved people producing sugar in Antigua, 1823

    Discover 'Prints depicting enslaved people producing sugar in Antigua, 1823’ on the British Library website

    Prints depicting enslaved people producing sugar in Antigua, 1823

    William Clark was a 19th century British artist who was invited to Antigua by some of its planters. His Ten Views, published in 1823, portrays the key steps in the growing, harvesting and processing of sugarcane.

    What do the prints depict?

    ‘Planting the sugar cane’ shows enslaved men, women and children working together in a field. This was very hard work and usually undertaken by the strongest and fittest enslaved people who made up the ‘first gang’.

    ‘Cutting the sugar cane’ shows the fully grown sugarcane being harvested by the first gang with knives and machetes. The image also shows black ‘drivers’, a special type of enslaved person who had to make the others work hard by threatening them with a whip – or using it on them. A white ‘overseer’ on a horse is in overall charge of the gang. A wind-powered sugar mill can be seen in the background where the cut cane would be crushed to extract the cane juice. It was from this juice that sugar would be made.

    ‘Interior of a boiling house’ shows the destination for the cane juice, where it is heated in large vats until sugar forms. This was very skilled work that was performed by special enslaved workers.

    What the images don't tell us

    Although Clark’s images are very detailed and based on first-hand observation, they also give an ‘idealised’ version of what work was like on a sugar plantation. None of the everyday hardships or violence of slavery is shown. In Britain at this time many people were protesting against slavery and calling for it to be ended. Those who invited Clark to Antigua may have hoped that his images would present a more positive version of Caribbean slavery.

    Full title:

    Ten Views in the Island of Antigua, in which are represented the process of sugar making, and the employment of the negroes (London: Thomas Clay, 1823)

    Published: 1823 Format: Book

    Creator: William Clark

    Usage terms Public Domain

    Held by British Library

    Shelfmark: 1786.c.9

    This item is featured in:

    Discovering Literature: Restoration & 18th century

    Windrush Stories

    West India Regiments

    Discovering Literature: Romantics & Victorians

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    Sugar and Power in the Early Modern World – Digital Collections for the Classroom

    Sugar and Power in the Early Modern World

    DR. SARAH PETERS KERNAN, INDEPENDENT SCHOLARMARCH 18, 202116TH CENTURY, 17TH CENTURY, 18TH CENTURY, 19TH CENTURY, COLLECTION ESSAYS

    Essay Gallery Selected Sources

    Introduction

    Diderot, et al., Encyclopédie, “OEconomie Rustique, Sucrerie,” Volume 1, plate 1 (1762). See full excerpt below.

    Sugar was one of the most precious and luxurious commodities in premodern Europe. This sweet foodstuff had been processed and refined from sugarcane for many centuries in India, the Middle East, and Arab-controlled Southern Europe before the wealthiest Western Europeans began consuming sugar as a medicine and culinary ingredient. Beginning in the twelfth century, Venetians established sites of sugar production in the Mediterranean, but they were limited to small quantities due to climate, space, and labor. The Spanish and Portuguese faced the same problems when they further expanded sugar production to East Atlantic islands like Madeira, the Canary Islands, and the Cape Verde Islands. However, producers began applying new technologies, like waterwheels, to mechanize the crushing of sugarcane, and the use of enslaved Africans to provide the difficult physical labor.

    As Europeans began to colonize the New World in the late fifteenth century, the conditions were ripe for expansion of the sugar industry. Wealthy Europeans demanded increasing amounts of sugar for use in food, medicine, and to sweeten newly discovered beverages like coffee and chocolate. So European powers brought sugarcane to their colonies and, during the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries, established sugar as a main industry of the Caribbean, the Gulf region of North America, and northeast South America. The trade in sugar became a key aspect of a system of trade inextricably linking Europe, Africa, and the Americas.

    Diderot, et al., Encyclopédie, “Confiseur, Confiture Fourneau,” Volume 3, plate 1 (1762). See full excerpt below.

    The sugar industry impacted many other industries. It propelled the transatlantic slave trade to dramatic levels, encouraging a reliance on enslaved labor in other colonial industries. The need to efficiently process sugar on thousands of separate sites resulted in the development of new technologies and techniques, as well as the importation of enormous quantities of metal equipment and machinery produced in Europe.

    Sugar production increased alongside demand, feeding the bellies and imaginations of European consumers. They treated sugar as a medicine, preservative, ingredient, and artistic medium. By the nineteenth century, as sugar prices plummeted, consumers at all economic levels demanded sugar as a necessary component of their diets. The ingredient had become essential; a notion which would not change to the present day.

    Essential Questions:

    Why was sugar such an important commodity? Who were stakeholders in the success of the industry?

    How were sugar and its by-products used by consumers in Europe and its colonies?

    How did the production of sugar influence related trades, industries, and professions?

    How did sugar impact the settlement of New World colonies and communication between these colonies?

    From Raw Ingredient to Marketable Products

    Jan van der Galle, Nova Reperta, “Saccharum,” plate 12 (1580-1600)

    During the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries, sugar became a lucrative industry for all major European powers. As the industry developed, so too did the literature about sugar production and its technologies. These texts were frequently accompanied by detailed illustrations and diagrams.

    Sugarcane required a great deal of labor to grow and process into edible sugar. Since repeated sugarcane plantings depleted the soil of nutrients, intensive preparation of the fields was crucial. The ground had to be hoed, weeded, planted, and heavily fertilized. Once planted, the sugarcane needed relatively little attention until harvesting, when it was cut using machetes.

    Selection: Denis Diderot, Jean Le Rond d’Alembert, Pierre Mouchon, and Robert Bénard, Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (1762).

    These images are from a French encyclopedia intended to represent Enlightenment thought and incorporate all the world’s knowledge.

    Diderot, et al., Encyclopédie, “OEconomie Rustique, Affinerie des Sucres,” Volume 1, plate 7 (1762)

    Source : dcc.newberry.org

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