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    how does machiavelli support his claim that rulers can be cruel if it benefits their subjects and is necessary for security? machiavelli uses anecdotal evidence through historical examples to support his claim. machiavelli uses empirical evidence about politics and society to support his claim. machiavelli uses logical evidence through historical examples to support his claim. machiavelli uses empirical and logical evidence to support his claim.

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    ELA Unit Test Flashcards

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    What evidence does Justice Warren give for his reason in this passage?

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    C. Logical evidence, because Warren is drawing a reasonable conclusion that segregating children is psychologically harmful

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    Which statement best evaluates the effectiveness of the evidence used to support the claim that cruelty is a necessary part of leadership?

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    A. The evidence uses stories of historical figures to support the claim.

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    What evidence does Justice Warren give for his reason in this passage?

    C. Logical evidence, because Warren is drawing a reasonable conclusion that segregating children is psychologically harmful

    Which statement best evaluates the effectiveness of the evidence used to support the claim that cruelty is a necessary part of leadership?

    A. The evidence uses stories of historical figures to support the claim.

    Which statement best explains Kennedy's message in this excerpt?

    B. The United States is prepared to protect freedom.

    Which statement best describes the passage?

    A. Warren explains the students' position, then describes how it has been previously handled by the courts.

    What is the main type of appeal that Kennedy uses in this excerpt?

    B. an emotional appeal to emphasize the United States' commitment to justice

    How does Machiavelli's use of words such as seizing, usurper, inflict, knife, win, reassure, and benefits affect the tone of the passage?

    C. The words with positive connotations soften the ones with negative connotations to create a serious, matter-of-fact tone.

    How does the text structure help the author convey his central idea that a prince is judged by the quality of his servants?

    C. by providing supporting evidence of a prince believed to be clever because he chose a good servant

    What is Machiavelli's primary purpose in writing this passage?

    A. to inform readers about the relationship between a prince and his servants

    Which statement best explains how Kennedy uses a rhetorical technique to support his message?

    B. He uses parallelism to reach out to different countries around the world.

    Which statement best summarizes the central idea of this excerpt?

    B. It is important to always honor one's servants.

    How does Machiavelli support his claim that rulers can be cruel if it benefits their subjects and is necessary for security?

    C. Machiavelli uses logical evidence through historical examples to support his claim.

    Read the first three paragraphs of Franklin Roosevelt's request for a declaration of war.

    Beyond Congress, who is his primary intended audience?

    A. the American public

    How does the passage support Machiavelli's claim that a ruler must sometimes be cruel?

    B. with a historical example

    What type of logical error underlies the argument that African Americans were inferior?

    A. genetic fallacy

    Which statements best describe a text with a compare-and-contrast structure? Select three options.

    Sentences 1,2,3

    What kind of evidence does Machiavelli use in this passage to explain Hannibal's effectiveness?

    C. anecdotal evidence in the form of historical examples

    What is the purpose of presenting a false dilemma in a speech?

    A. to convince the audience that there are limited options

    What claim does Taney make in this passage?

    D. Scott is a citizen of the United States, but not of the state of Missouri.

    What reason does Warren give for believing that "separate but equal" does not give minority children equal educational opportunities?

    C. the findings that a sense of inferiority affects the motivation to learn

    What type of evidence does Machiavelli use to support his claim in this passage?

    C.logical evidence

    Which statement best summarizes the conclusion of the speech?

    B. India must live up to the standards of a great country by promoting freedom and equality.

    What is the definition of connotation?

    Connotation is the emotion or idea that is associated with a word.

    What is the most important idea the author wants readers to know?

    B. The easiest way to hold a newly acquired state is to play on the citizens' own interests.

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    Machiavelli: Cruelty Well Used

    We want to put cruelty and well used in separate categories, exclusive of one and another—but Machiavelli says cruelty can be well or ill used.

    Machiavelli: Cruelty Well Used

    FROM THE LECTURE SERIES: MACHIAVELLI IN CONTEXT

    February 21, 2017

    By William R. Cook, Ph.D., State University of New York at Geneseo

    One of the questions we might ask Machiavelli is how important is glory as opposed to power? How do we deal with the fact that some leaders that kill a lot of people end up being successful?

    Florence, Italy: Capital of the Italian Renaissance and home of Niccolò Machiavelli. (Image: Bas van Hout/Public domain)

    Niccolò Machiavelli deals with this very question in one of the most famous passages in The Prince. He says:

    Many others … employing cruel means were unable to hold on to their state even in peaceful times, not to speak of the uncertain times of war. I believe this depends on whether cruelty be badly or well used. Those cruelties are well used, if it is permitted to speak well of evil, that are carried out in a single stroke, done out of necessity to protect oneself and then are not continued, but are instead converted into the greatest possible benefits for the subjects. Those cruelties are badly used that, although few at the outset, increase with the passing of time, instead of disappearing. Those who follow the first method can remedy their standing both with God and with men, as Agathocles did. The others cannot possibly maintain their position.

    We want to put and in separate categories and make them exclusive of one and another, but Machiavelli says cruelty can be well or ill used.

    This is language that is particularly disturbing to a lot of people: “cruelty well used.” We want to put cruelty and well used in separate categories and make them exclusive of one and another, but Machiavelli says cruelty can be well or ill-used. The very language shocks us, and Machiavelli knows it shocks us. This would have been nonsense to Aristotle and to Cicero—these two great venerated classical authors and thinkers whose political ideas have so penetrated the culture of Western Europe, even more so during the Renaissance. Yet Machiavelli talks about well-used cruelty. It reminds us that this was a different kind of book, in some ways, than has ever been written in the West.

    This is a transcript from the video series Machiavelli in Context. Watch it now, on The Great Courses.

    It is a difficult task, but we need to appreciate how staggeringly different this is. Today, as well as in Machiavelli’s time, how people respond to phrases like “well-used cruelty.” You just did something cruel: Well done in this case, or badly done—either way.

    Niccolò Machiavelli, the Italian philosopher (Image: Santi di Tito/Public domain)

    Today, we find books, like Machiavelli’s Virtue, which argues for a need to understand Machiavelli as a political thinker who has described realities that need to be taken seriously. Leo Strauss, the famous 20th-century political thinker, referred to Machiavelli as a “teacher of evil.”

    One of the great questions surrounding Machiavelli’s teachings is, is there a new political morality, political amorality, or political immorality being justified? The answer isn’t a simple one. But it does provide the opportunity to consider the notion of what Machiavelli says to develop your thinking about this topic, explore it, relate it to other things, and craft your own answer.

    That’s what’s important—not a determined opinion held by someone else, but the opportunity to empower everyone to think a little bit differently, to wonder whether the categories, the boxes that we create, are the only possible boxes or are the best boxes in which to put things. When we hear a phrase like “well-used cruelty,” it reminds us that Machiavelli is, to use an over-used phrase, thinking outside the box, or, we might say, a new paradigm of political thought and political behavior.

    Learn more about Machiavelli’s philosophy of circumstances, fortuna, and his recipe for military action, virtue

    Agathocles of Syracuse

    Is Syracuse, where Agathocles ruled, a more stable, a more ordered,  and a more secure place? And if that is so, isn’t that cruelty well used?

    Agathocles Musei Vaticani is an example of somebody who used cruelty well. (Image: s.o. – Johann Jacob Bernoulli/Public domain)

    The example that Machiavelli gives is one of those that his audience was more familiar with than today’s readers unless we’re very familiar with classical history—a guy named Agathocles of Syracuse. Agathocles is an example of somebody who used cruelty well, did it early, all at once, and got on with things. Machiavelli says both people and God will forgive that kind of cruelty. We have to ask, “What did it lead to? What did it permit or make more likely to happen?” Is Syracuse, where Agathocles ruled, a more stable, more ordered, and more secure place? If that is so, isn’t that cruelty well used, Machiavelli asks? Or, do we simply say cruelty is always unjust and leads to bad consequences. That’s certainly what Cicero would say. Therefore, once we hear cruelty, we already know where to classify this man—bad guy, tyrant, or whatever label we want to put on it.

    Learn more: Machiavelli’s The Art of War

    The Challenge of Machiavelli

    Machiavelli is challenging. He was challenging in his own time. He was challenged, of course, the ideas of Cicero and Aristotle, and also the traditional Christian morality. He was challenged what’s being passed down as the word of God through interpretations of scripture, through ways that people read what Jesus said, and trying to find the political implications. Jesus didn’t talk very openly and directly about politics, but Jesus certainly gave moral lessons that many people believe are meant to apply in the macrocosm, as well as the microcosm of the individual person.

    Source : www.wondriumdaily.com

    Machiavelli's Prince and His Idea of Statecraft

    Introduction It is unlikely for anyone in politics, academically or otherwise, to not know the famous Italian Philosopher Machiavelli. Most certainly, you must have heard of Machiavelli or

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    Machiavelli's Prince and His Idea of Statecraft

    30 Nov 2021 Facebook Twitter Telegram Share

    Introduction

    It is unlikely for anyone in politics, academically or otherwise, to not know the famous Italian Philosopher Machiavelli. Most certainly, you must have heard of Machiavelli or "Machiavellianism". Whether he is famous or infamous is a matter of many debates. Still, one thing remains certain, that is, his ideas of statecraft and that of politics are widely read and identified in the practice of realpolitik.

    Niccolo Machiavelli was an Italian Philosopher who served the Republic of Florence in Italy. He is arguably referred to as the first modern political thinker for various reasons. His work reflects the effect of cultural values of Europe, and the Renaissance influenced him to a great extent.

    Machiavelli wrote a monograph, "The Prince (1513)", which is well recognised even today. It is addressed to the Governor of France, Lorenzo de Medici, and was written by Machiavelli to attain his favour and obtain a position in the government. The Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livius, also known as Discourses on Livy, is considered another of his famous work.

    Machiavellianism

    In psychology, Machiavellianism is a word that denotes the potential to be manipulative, to act cunningly, or for someone who tries every way to gain power. The word is used in a negative connotation, and interestingly, it is one among the three personality traits of " The Dark Triad", along with Narcissism and Psychopathy. However, in Politics, Machiavellianism is used in a slightly different context.

    The two books written by Machiavelli, namely The Prince, and Discourses on Livy, exhibit contrasting suggestions by Machiavelli on how Governments should behave. In most cases, The Prince is regarded as the real political thought of Machiavelli, and thinkers often notice "Duplicity" in his work. Rousseau has also asserted that Machiavelli's thoughts, according to his two books, are conflicting against each other.

    Machiavelli in his book "The Prince " suggests two different codes of conduct; one is for the ruler and the ordinary code of conduct for the people. In simpler words, the general public should stick to the normal understanding of morality and follow the same. However, the Prince or the ruler has only one moral objective to follow - the interest of his state. The ruler can exceed conventional morality as long as it meets his state's interest.

    Thus, deception and hypocrisy are often considered a trait of "Machiavellianism" Machiavelli is referred to as "Devil's Disciple" and the teacher of evil. In his book, ‘Thoughts on Machiavelli,’ Leo Strauss criticises him for motivating leaders and rulers to employ violence and fear and avoid the goodness of justice, love and compassion.

    Interesting to note here is that the opinions of scholars are as contradictory as his work. For instance, Ernest Cassier, in his book, 'The myth of the State', describes Machiavelli as a scientist and calls him "Galileo of Politics". An Italian Philosopher, Benedetto Croce, believes that Machiavelli was nothing but a realist in the true sense.

    In the book, The Foundations of Modern Political Thought, Quentin Skinner clarifies that Machiavelli allowed deviation from conventional morality only as a last resort, taking a favourable stance for him. He further states that Machiavelli advises "that the Prince ought to do good if he can but must be prepared to commit evil if he must".

    Machiavelli's Methodology

    There is a broad consensus among thinkers on calling Machiavelli a realist. It can be credited to the fact that Machiavelli employed empirical methods to conclude his idea of politics. He has used the historical method like that of Aristotle. One can say that his method is a combination of realistic and historical manners. His method is not based on speculation but on observation of facts that he draws from history. His practical method with the backing of history makes him a political thinker and not a political theorist.

    In his book, The Prince , Machiavelli writes about his method as "drawing maxims or rules for successful political behaviour from history and experience." It is true to the extent that he has drawn historical examples to prove his stance. For instance, in the book Discourses, Machiavelli points out that "if a ruler is accused of committing a wrong act, but its result proves to be good, it will absolve him from the blame". To justify this stance, he draws the example of Romulus, who was exempted from the murder of his brother. Further, he states that similar action in the same situation leads to the same result.

    However, many critics assert that Machiavelli was not historical in his approach. In the book "A History of Political Theory", George H Sabine has observed, “It is misleading to say... that Machiavelli followed a ‘historical’ method because his examples were often drawn from the past. He used history exactly as he used his observation to illustrate or support a conclusion that he had reached without any historical reference... His method, insofar as he had one, was observation guided by shrewdness and common sense."

    Source : www.drishtiias.com

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