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    how did the navajo serve in world war ii? as code talkers in the pacific as journalists reporting from the front lines as translators of japanese codes as scouts who checked troop routes

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    Lesson 5: Internment and the Constitution Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like exclusion zones, internment, reparations and more.

    Lesson 5: Internment and the Constitution

    5.0 4 Reviews exclusion zones

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    the areas where the military can restrict citizens' movements

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    internment

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    the confining of a person during wartime

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    Terms in this set (13)

    exclusion zones

    the areas where the military can restrict citizens' movements

    internment

    the confining of a person during wartime

    reparations

    the actions that attempt to make up for past mistakes

    How did the Navajo serve in World War II?

    a. as code talkers in the Pacific

    b. as journalists reporting from the front lines

    c. as translators of Japanese codes

    d. as scouts who checked troop routes

    A) as code talkers in the Pacific

    During World War II, how did the policy of internment affect people of Japanese descent in the United States?

    a. They were forced to relocate to assembly centers.

    b. They were forced to relocate to Japan.

    c. They were forced to join the military and fight Japan.

    d. They were forced to work for the US government.

    A) They were forced to relocate to assembly centers.

    During World War II, the US government sent people of Japanese ancestry to internment camps based on

    a. how long they had lived in the US.

    b. whether they lived in an exclusion zone.

    c. how long they had lived on the East Coast.

    d. whether they had ever lived in Japan.

    B) whether they lived in an exclusion zone.

    What pivotal event led the United States to enter World War II?

    a. Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor

    b. Japan's takeover of China

    c. Japan's attack on Midway Island

    d. Japan's takeover of Southeast Asia

    A) Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor

    Who issued Executive Order 9066?

    a. Franklin Roosevelt

    b. Theodore Roosevelt

    Congress the Supreme Court

    A) Franklin Roosevelt

    Fred Korematsu argued that internment was unconstitutional mainly because internees

    a. did not receive due process.

    b. did not pose a threat to the US.

    c. were citizens who paid taxes.

    d. made the country safer.

    A) did not receive due process

    Which of the following best describes what World War II internees faced when they returned home?

    a. government apologies

    b. financial reparations

    c. property damage and discrimination

    d. discrimination and a return to normalcy

    C) property damage and discrimination

    Read the quote by President George W. Bush, honoring the Tuskegee Airmen in 2007.

    These men in our presence felt a special sense of urgency. They were fighting two wars: One was in Europe, and the other took place in the hearts and minds of our citizens. That's why we're here. The white commander of the Tuskegee airfield was once asked—with all seriousness—how do African Americans fly?—reflecting the ignorance of the times, they said, how do African Americans fly? He said, "Oh, they fly just like everybody else flies—stick and rudder.

    What were the "two wars" that were fought by the Tuskegee Airmen during World War II?

    a. the wars against Germany in Europe and Japan in the Pacific

    b. the wars to maintain superiority in the air and with naval forces at sea

    c. the wars against discrimination at home and against the axis powers

    d. the wars to mobilize the homefront and to liberate allies in other countries

    C) the wars against discrimination at home and against the axis powers

    In Korematsu v. US (1944), the Supreme Court ruled that in a time of great "emergency and peril," the internment of Japanese Americans was _______________.

    constitutional

    In the Supreme Court case Korematsu v. United States, the court decided that the Fourteenth Amendment

    a. did not apply to Korematsu because he was Japanese.

    b. could be waived in a time of emergency such as war.

    c. was null and void until after the end of the war.

    d. protected Korematsu from military obligations.

    B) could be waived in a time of emergency such as war.

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    Code talker

    Code talker

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to navigation Jump to search

    "Codetalkers" redirects here. For the band, see The Codetalkers.

    For the Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain character, see List of characters in the Metal Gear series § Code Talker.

    Choctaw soldiers in training in World War I for coded radio and telephone transmissions

    A code talker was a person employed by the military during wartime to use a little-known language as a means of secret communication. The term is now usually associated with United States service members during the world wars who used their knowledge of Native American languages as a basis to transmit coded messages. In particular, there were approximately 400 to 500 Native Americans in the United States Marine Corps whose primary job was to transmit secret tactical messages. Code talkers transmitted messages over military telephone or radio communications nets using formally or informally developed codes built upon their native languages. The code talkers improved the speed of encryption and decryption of communications in front line operations during World War II.

    There were two code types used during World War II. Type one codes were formally developed based on the languages of the Comanche, Hopi, Meskwaki, and Navajo peoples. They used words from their languages for each letter of the English alphabet. Messages could be encoded and decoded by using a simple substitution cipher where the ciphertext was the native language word. Type two code was informal and directly translated from English into the native language. If there was no word in the native language to describe a military word, code talkers used descriptive words. For example, the Navajo did not have a word for , so they translated it as .[1][2]

    The name is strongly associated with bilingual Navajo speakers specially recruited during World War II by the US Marine Corps to serve in their standard communications units of the Pacific theater. Code talking was pioneered by the Cherokee and Choctaw peoples during World War I.

    Other Native American code talkers were deployed by the United States Army during World War II, including Lakota,[3] Meskwaki, Mohawk,[4][5] Comanche, Tlingit,[6] Hopi,[7] Cree, and Crow soldiers; they served in the Pacific, North African, and European theaters.[8]

    Contents

    1 Languages 1.1 Assiniboine 1.2 Basque 1.3 Cherokee 1.4 Choctaw 1.5 Comanche 1.6 Cree 1.7 Meskwaki 1.8 Mohawk

    1.9 Muscogee (Seminole and Creek)

    1.10 Navajo 1.11 Nubian 1.12 Tlingit 1.13 Welsh 1.14 Wenzhounese

    2 Post-war recognition

    3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

    Languages[edit]

    Assiniboine[edit]

    Native speakers of the Assiniboine language served as code talkers during World War II to encrypt communications.[9] One of these code talkers was Gilbert Horn Sr., who grew up in the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation of Montana and became a tribal judge and politician.[9]

    Basque[edit]

    In November 1952, magazine[10] reported that in May of that year, upon meeting a large number of US Marines of Basque ancestry in a San Francisco camp, Captain Frank D. Carranza had thought of using the Basque language for codes.[11][12][13] His superiors were concerned about risk, as there were known settlements of Basque people in the Pacific region, including: 35 Basque Jesuits in Hiroshima, led by Pedro Arrupe; a colony of Basque jai alai players in China and the Philippines; and Basque supporters of Falange in Asia. Consequently, the US Basque code talkers were not deployed in these theaters, instead being used initially in tests and in transmitting logistics information for Hawaii and Australia.

    According to , on August 1, 1942, Lieutenants Nemesio Aguirre, Fernández Bakaicoa, and Juanana received a Basque-coded message from San Diego for Admiral Chester Nimitz. The message warned Nimitz of Operation Apple to remove the Japanese from the Solomon Islands. They also translated the start date, August 7, for the attack on Guadalcanal. As the war extended over the Pacific, there was a shortage of Basque speakers, and the US military came to prefer the parallel program based on the use of Navajo speakers.

    In 2017, Pedro Oiarzabal and Guillermo Tabernilla published a paper refuting 's article.[14] According to Oiarzabal and Tabernilla, they could not find Carranza, Aguirre, Fernández Bakaicoa, or Juanana in the National Archives and Records Administration or US Army archives. They did find a small number of US Marines with Basque surnames, but none of them worked in transmissions. They suggest that Carranza's story was an Office of Strategic Services operation to raise sympathy for US intelligence among Basque nationalists.

    Cherokee[edit]

    The first known use of code talkers in the US military was during World War I. Cherokee soldiers of the US 30th Infantry Division fluent in the Cherokee language were assigned to transmit messages while under fire during the Second Battle of the Somme. According to the Division Signal Officer, this took place in September 1918 when their unit was under British command.[15][16]

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    American Indian Code Talkers

    The idea of using American Indians who were fluent in both their traditional tribal language and in English to send secret messages in battle was first put to the test in World War I with the Choctaw Telephone Squad and other Native communications experts and messengers. However, it wasn’t until World War II that the US military developed a specific policy to recruit and train American Indian speakers to become code talkers.

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    American Indian Code Talkers

    The idea of using American Indians who were fluent in both their traditional tribal language and in English to send secret messages in battle was first put to the test in World War I with the Choctaw Telephone Squad and other Native communications experts and messengers. However, it wasn’t until World War II that the US military developed a specific policy to recruit and train American Indian speakers to become code talkers.

    What is a code talker? A code talker is the name given to American Indians who used their tribal language to send secret communications on the battlefield. Most people have heard of the famous Navajo (or Diné) code talkers who used their traditional language to transmit secret Allied messages in the Pacific theater of combat during World War II. But did you know that there were at least 14 other Native nations, including the Cherokee and Comanche, that served as code talkers in both the Pacific and Europe during the war? The idea of using American Indians who were fluent in both their traditional tribal language and in English to send secret messages in battle was first put to the test in World War I with the Choctaw Telephone Squad and other Native communications experts and messengers. However, it wasn’t until World War II that the US military developed a specific policy to recruit and train American Indian speakers to become code talkers. The irony of being asked to use their Native languages to fight on behalf of America was not lost on code talkers, many of whom had been forced to attend government or religious-run boarding schools that tried to assimilate Native peoples and would punish students for speaking in their traditional language.

    The US Army was the first branch of the military that began recruiting code talkers from places like Oklahoma in 1940. Other branches, such as the US Marines and Navy, followed a few years later, and the first class of 29 Navajo code talker US Marine recruits completed its training in 1942. Apart from basic training, these men had to develop and memorize a unique military code using their mostly unwritten language, and were placed in a guarded room until this task was completed.

    The first type of code they created, Type 1 code, consisted of 26 Navajo terms that stood for individual English letters that could be used to spell out a word. For instance, the Navajo word for “ant,” wo-la-chee, was used to represent the letter “a” in English.

    Type 2 code contained words that could be directly translated from English into Navajo, and the code talkers also developed a dictionary of 211 terms (later expanded to 411) for military words and names that didn’t originally exist in the Navajo language. For example, since there was no existing Navajo word for “submarine,” the code talkers agreed to use the term besh-lo, which translates to “iron fish.”

    The War in the Pacific

    Explore The National WWII Museum's curriculum for its Summer Teacher Institute.

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    Most code talkers were assigned in pairs to a military unit. During battle, one person would operate the portable radio while the second person would relay and receive messages in the Native language and translate them into English. Their work was highly dangerous especially in the Pacific, because Japanese soldiers would deliberately target officers, medics, and radiomen, and code talkers had to keep moving as they transmitted their messages. The work of hundreds of code talkers was essential to Allied victory in World War II, and they were present at many important battles, including at Utah Beach during the D-Day invasion in France, and at Iwo Jima in the Pacific. In fact, 5th Marine Division signal officer Major Howard Connor stated, “Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima.”

    Despite their heroic contributions during the war, American Indian code talkers were told that they had to keep their work secret. They couldn’t even tell their family members about their communications work. Since the codes that they developed remained unbroken, the US military wanted to keep the program classified in case the code talkers were needed again in future wars. Even when the WWII code talker program was declassified in 1968, national recognition of code talkers was slow. While there was some recognition in the 1970s and 1980s, it wasn’t until 2001 that Congressional Gold Medals were given to the Navajo and other code talkers.

    Topics Pacific Theater of Operations From the Collection to the Classroom Native Americans in World War II

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    The Pacific Strategy, 1941-1944

    On December 7, 1941, Japan staged a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, severely damaging the US Pacific Fleet. When Germany and Italy declared war on the United States days later, America found itself in a global war.

    Source : www.nationalww2museum.org

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