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    how did the loss of its control of the mississippi river contribute to the defeat of the confederacy?

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    Causes of Confederate Defeat in the Civil War – Encyclopedia Virginia

    Appomattox ENTRY

    Causes of Confederate Defeat in the Civil War

    SUMMARY

    The surrender of Confederate general Robert E. Lee‘s Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865, effectively ended the American Civil War (1861–1865). But why did Lee surrender? And why in the spring of 1865? Historians have argued over the answers to these questions since that day at Appomattox. Explanations for Confederate defeat in the Civil War can be broken into two categories: some historians argue that the Confederacy collapsed largely because of social divisions within Southern society, while others emphasize the Union’s military defeat of Confederate armies. These arguments are not mutually exclusive—no historian would deny that Southern society was riven by racial, class, gender, and regional antagonisms and, similarly, all historians recognize the enormous force brought to bear by Northern armies and the high casualties suffered by Confederate soldiers. Nonetheless, the disagreement has produced sharply different explanations for why the Civil War ended as it did.

    Contributor: Aaron Sheehan-Dean

    Although from today’s perspective, Union advantages in manpower (a five-to-two edge), draft animals, and industrial capacity suggest that Union victory was inevitable, few Confederates believed that at the war’s start. In fact, most Confederates assessed the size of their new nation (750,000 square miles), the length of their coastline (more than 3,000 miles), and their assumed martial superiority and concluded that Union victory was impossible. They used the American Revolution (1775–1783) as their historical guide, when an outnumbered and underequipped force defeated a larger enemy through effective strategy, valuable alliances, and a willingness to absorb punishment. Although the much-desired European help never arrived, Confederates effectively used all their society’s resources to resist the Union through four brutal years of warfare. The effectiveness of Confederate resistance can be seen in the fact that the North was forced to modify its initially conciliatory strategy and adopt a much-harder war policy toward South. This so-called hard war, felt particularly in Central Virginia and Central Tennessee, created great difficulties for Southern families. In addition, the Confederate government imposed a variety of policies—including the draft, impressment, and tax-in-kind—that drove up the cost of goods and created greater scarcity. Confederate civilians disliked these policies, sometimes on the grounds of states’ rights, even though they understood that their purpose was to give the state the tools it needed to prosecute the war successfully.

    Some historians interpret the criticism that Confederate civilians directed at Confederate president Jefferson Davis and other leaders as evidence that they rejected the war effort itself. The criticism of Confederate leaders impeded their ability to lead effectively and, among a smaller group, probably represented a true shift in allegiances back to the Union. But a majority of recent studies of Virginia and other Southern states demonstrates that even when Confederate civilians disparaged the policies of their government they rarely supported reconciliation with the North. In some cases, these Confederates accepted the things they did not like as the price of winning the war; others blamed hardships on what they regarded as their ultimate source—the “Yankees.” Without ignoring Confederate dissent, these historians emphasize the degree to which white Southerners supported the Confederacy. In their accounting, the end of the war came not because of internal divisions but because Union forces eroded the ability of Confederates to fight.

    Union military successes began outside of Virginia and gradually encircled the state. These included securing control of the Mississippi River (attained with the capture of Vicksburg in July 1863), blockading the Confederate coastline (a process mostly complete by early in 1864), and steadily penetrating the Confederate interior. Union control of western Virginia actually began in 1861 and led, by 1863, to the creation of the Unionist state of West Virginia. The success of Union armies in the trans-Appalachian region of the state buoyed the hopes and secured the lives of Unionists. These individuals, mostly located in counties that bordered the Ohio River, stayed loyal to the Union throughout the conflict and, in doing so, denied Virginia resources (both human and natural) that they had counted on to sustain the Confederate cause. In addition, Union control of this region was a strategic gain because it allowed the North to launch repeated forays into the Shenandoah Valley and beyond.

    In eastern Virginia, Lee and his men kept Union forces at bay through mid-1864. With the success of the Overland Campaign, Union general-in-chief Ulysses S. Grant pinned Lee’s army down inside its defenses around Petersburg and the end of the war became a question of time. Once he had Lee confined, Grant could exploit the Union’s significant advantages in matériel and manpower. Although the siege of Petersburg lasted for almost ten months, even Lee anticipated the eventual outcome. Previous Union commanders in Virginia (especially George B. McClellan, Ambrose E. Burnside, and Joseph Hooker) had failed to exploit the Union’s manpower advantage. Grant did not idly waste his soldiers’ lives (as some wartime critics complained and Lost Cause arguments continue to maintain) but he did use the larger size of his army to great advantage. Similarly, Grant destroyed the means of sustenance in Confederate Virginia in effort to further reduce Lee’s fighting effectiveness. The desperation of Lee’s men in April 1865, when hundreds collapsed from hunger along the road to Appomattox, revealed the effectiveness of this strategy.

    Source : encyclopediavirginia.org

    Civil War & Sectionalism STAAR Questions.

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    QUIZ

    Civil War & Sectionalism STAAR Ques...

    Civil War & Sectionalism STAAR Ques... 52%

    140 8th History Deleted User 4 years

    19 Qs

    1. Multiple-choice 45 seconds Q.

    How did the loss of its control of the Mississippi River Contribute to the defeat of the Confederacy?

    answer choices

    The river provided direct access to the Union's base operation.s

    Losing control of the river removed the physcial barrier between slave and free states.

    The river provided the Confederacy with a power source for factories and mills.

    Losing control of the rivers divided the Confederacy in two and cut off its supplies.

    2. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    What was an advantage the Confederacy had over the Union?

    answer choices

    Numerous factories for producing weapons and ammunition.

    A larger number of military troops in reserve

    an extensive railroad system for moving troops and supplies.

    knowledge of the terrain where most battles were fought.

    3. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which region's primary economic activity in 1861 was the cultivation of cotton?

    answer choices 1 2 3 4 4. Multiple-choice 45 seconds Q.

    Which economy and contributing factor helped the West Region?

    answer choices

    Large farms/Slaves used for labor.

    Cottage Industry/Mild weather that attracted immigrants.

    Mining/Metal Ores and Minerals

    Ranching/Railroads to transport cattle to market.

    5. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Why did the economies of the western territories develop differently from the Northeast and South?

    answer choices

    Western territories had limited land and a large immigrant population.

    Western territories had natural harbors and many navigable rivers.

    Western territories had rocky soil and a large supply of slave labor.

    Western territories had inexpensive land and abundant natural resources.

    6. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Major result of Missouri Compromise.

    answer choices

    Increases the # of immigrants settlingin northern states.

    Provided financing for canal construction

    Rapidly expanded railroad construction in southern states.

    Temporarily relieved sectional tensions.

    7. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Who made this statement about the Underground Railroad?

    answer choices

    Harriet Beecher Stowe

    Elizabeth Cady Stanton

    Harriet Tubman Phillis Wheatley. 8. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which of these correctly describes an effect of the 1850 Compromise one escaped slaves & freedmen?

    answer choices

    Members of both groups were captured under the Fugitive Slave Law.

    Unlike freedmen, escaped slaves were welcome in the gold mines of California.

    Members of both groups could be sold in Washington D.C., slave markets.

    Unlike escaped slaves, freedmen could vote in the territories of the Mexican Cession.

    9. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    Which statement best explains the table?

    answer choices

    Slaves from the Upper South were moved to the Lower South to work on cotton plantations.

    The Upper south experienced an agricultural labor shortage in the antebellum period.

    Slaves were transferred from the Lower South to the Upper South to work in newly built factories

    The Lower South lost population as settler migrated west to establish new plantations.

    10. Multiple-choice 2 minutes answer choices

    Gulf Coast states had to rely on steamboats to transport goods.

    States in the lower South had more land devoted to plantations.

    Border states had to import needed raw materials.

    States in the upper South were heavily industrialized.

    11. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which of the following was a result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.

    answer choices

    Fighting broke out between pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups in Kansas.

    Kansas entered the Union as a slave state through popular sovereignty in 1856.

    Nebraskan settlers who supported abolition moved to Kansas.

    The boundary establish by the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was extended farther south.

    12. Multiple-choice 45 seconds Q.

    Which accomplishment for Ulysses. S. Grant could by added to this diagram?

    answer choices

    Commanded the U.S. military in the west during the Indian Wars.

    Led radical republicans in Congress during reconstruction.

    Was made General-in-Chief of the Union Army during the Civil War.

    Andrew Jackson's VP after Lincoln's Assassination.

    13. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    What completes the diagram?

    answer choices

    Lincoln's First Inaugural Address

    The Gettysburg Address

    The Emancipation Proclamation

    13th Amendment. 14. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Why is Fort Sumter important?

    answer choices

    Confederate defense of the fort lengthened the war.

    Union victory divides the Confederacy along the Mississippi River.

    Invasion of the confederate capital resulted in the surrender of the confederacy.

    The Confederate attack on the Union fort started the war.

    Source : quizizz.com

    Civil War Flashcards

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    Civil War

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    Losing control of the river divided the Confederacy in two and cut off its supplies.

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    How did the loss of its control of the Mississippi River contribute to the defeat of the Confederacy?

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    Knowledge of the terrain where most battles were fought

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    One advantage the Confederacy had over the Union during the Civil War was that Confederate forces had-

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    1/23 Created by GRAYSON_EDWARDS9

    Terms in this set (23)

    Losing control of the river divided the Confederacy in two and cut off its supplies.

    How did the loss of its control of the Mississippi River contribute to the defeat of the Confederacy?

    Knowledge of the terrain where most battles were fought

    One advantage the Confederacy had over the Union during the Civil War was that Confederate forces had-

    4: Confederate States of America

    Which region's primary economic activity in 1861 was the cultivation of cotton?

    1) Mining; 2) Metal ores and minerals

    What economy and contributing factor best complete this table?

    Western territories had inexpensive land and abundant natural resources.

    Why did the economies of western territories develop so differently from the economies of the Northeast and South?

    It temporarily relieved sectional tensions.

    What was a major result of the Missouri Compromise?

    Harriet Tubman

    "I was the conductor of the Underground Railroad for eight years, and I can say what most conductors can't say- I never ran my train off the track and I never lost a passenger. -1904

    Members of both groups were captured under the Fugitive Slave Law.

    Which of these correctly describes an effect of the Compromise of 1850 on escaped slaves and freedmen?

    Slaves from the Upper South were moved to the Lower South to work on cotton plantations.

    What best explains the changes shown in this table?

    States in the lower South had more land devoted to plantations.

    These data could be used to support which conclusion?

    Fighting broke out between pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups in Kansas.

    Which of the following was a result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854?

    Was appointed general in chief of the Union army during the Civil War

    What accomplishment could be added to this diagram?

    Radical Republicans took control of Congress.

    Many historians argue that the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln changed the course of Reconstruction. Which of the following is usually cited as an aspect of that change?

    The Emancipation Proclamation

    What completes this diagram?

    The Confederate attack upon the Union fort initiated the war.

    How was the event depicted in this image significant to the Civil War?

    Implement a plan to bring Confederate states back into the Union

    After General Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House, the main priority of the United States was to-

    Slavery

    In the excerpt, what does "this interest" refer to?

    The Union matters more than current disagreements between states.

    What idea does President Lincoln express in this excerpt?

    The legal ability of states to secede

    Which constitutional issue was President Lincoln addressing in the excerpt?

    The Fourteenth Amendment

    What reversed the Supreme Court ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford?

    Source : quizlet.com

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