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    how did the annexation of bosnia and herzegovina in 1908 intensify the rivalry between austria-hungary and serbia?

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    Bosnian crisis of 1908, state of severe international tension caused by the annexation by Austria-Hungary of the Balkan provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Congress of Berlin (1878) had given Austria-Hungary the right to occupy and administer Bosnia and Herzegovina temporarily, but the provinces officially remained possessions of the Ottoman Empire. Still, the Austrian administration tried mightily and at great expense to improve the strategically valuable region economically and to link it closely with Austria-Hungary. When in July 1908 the Young Turks staged a revolution in Constantinople (now Istanbul), established a constitutional government, and inaugurated a reform program, the Austrian

    Bosnian crisis of 1908

    Balkan history

    By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica • Edit History

    Date: October 7, 1908 - March 1909

    Participants: Austria-Hungary Germany Russia

    Key People: Alois, Graf Lexa von Aehrenthal Bernhard, prince von Bülow Aleksandr, Count Izvolsky Alfred von Kiderlen-Wächter

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    Bosnian crisis of 1908, state of severe international tension caused by the annexation by Austria-Hungary of the Balkan provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Congress of Berlin (1878) had given Austria-Hungary the right to occupy and administer Bosnia and Herzegovina temporarily, but the provinces officially remained possessions of the Ottoman Empire. Still, the Austrian administration tried mightily and at great expense to improve the strategically valuable region economically and to link it closely with Austria-Hungary. When in July 1908 the Young Turks staged a revolution in Constantinople (now Istanbul), established a constitutional government, and inaugurated a reform program, the Austrian foreign minister Graf (count) Lexa von Aehrenthal resolved to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina before the new Turkish regime could regain control over them.

    To that end Aehrenthal met the Russian foreign minister, Aleksandr P. Izvolsky, at Buchlau, in Moravia; and, on Sept. 16, 1908, Izvolsky agreed that Russia would not object to the annexation. Aehrenthal pledged that in return Austria would not object to opening the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits to Russian warships, an advantage that had been denied to Russia since 1841. By a rescript of Oct. 7, 1908, Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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    Izvolsky, unprepared for such immediate action, could not control the strong popular opposition to the annexation that developed in Russia. Furthermore, Serbia, which was closely related to Bosnia and Herzegovina geographically and ethnically, was outraged by the annexation. It demanded that Austria cede a portion of Bosnia and Herzegovina to Serbia, and Izvolsky, pressed by anti-Austrian opinion in Russia, was forced to support the Serbian claims. Austria, however, firmly supported by its ally Germany, threatened to invade Serbia if that country persisted in its demands. Russia, having failed to secure equally strong support from its ally France, could not risk a war against both Austria-Hungary and Germany for Serbia’s sake, and in March 1909 Izvolsky notified Germany that Russia accepted Austria’s annexation. Although the crisis was resolved without immediate warfare, the resulting embittered relations between Serbia and Austria-Hungary and Russia’s resentment at having been deceived and humiliated contributed to the outbreak of World War I.

    This article was most recently revised and updated by Heather Campbell.

    Austria-Hungary

    Austria-Hungary

    historical empire, Europe

    Alternate titles: Österreich-Ungarn, Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie, Österreichisch-Ungarisches Reich, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Doppelmonarchie, Dual Monarchy

    By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica • Edit History

    Austria-Hungary, 1914

    See all media Date: 1867 - 1918

    Major Events: World War I Treaty of Versailles Battle of Caporetto Battles of the Isonzo Bosnian crisis of 1908

    Key People: Johannes Brahms Franz Joseph Franz Kafka Edward Teller Tomas Masaryk

    Related Topics:

    Related Places: Austria Hungary

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    Summary

    Read a brief summary of this topic

    Austria-Hungary, also called Austro-Hungarian Empire or Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, byname Dual Monarchy, German Österreich-Ungarn, Österreichisch-Ungarisches Reich, Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie, or Doppelmonarchie, the Habsburg empire from the constitutional Compromise (Ausgleich) of 1867 between Austria and Hungary until the empire’s collapse in 1918.

    A brief treatment of the history of Austria-Hungary follows. For full treatment, see Austria: Austria-Hungary, 1867–1918.

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    The empire of Austria, as an official designation of the territories ruled by the Habsburg monarchy, dates to 1804, when Francis II, the last of the Holy Roman emperors, proclaimed himself emperor of Austria as Francis I. Two years later the Holy Roman Empire came to an end. After the fall of Napoleon (1814–15), Austria became once more the leader of the German states, but the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 resulted in the expulsion of Austria from the German Confederation and caused Emperor Franz Joseph to reorient his policy toward the east and to consolidate his heterogeneous empire. Even before the war, the necessity of coming to terms with the rebellious Hungarians had been recognized. The outcome of negotiations was the Ausgleich concluded on February 8, 1867.

    Source : www.britannica.com

    The Bosnian Crisis of 1908

    The Bosnian Crisis of 1908-1909.

    1. INTRODUCTION.

    The annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in October, 1908, led to a controversy between the Dual Monarchy and Turkey. It also led to international complications which for several weeks early in 1909 threatened to end in a general European war. This was the Bosnian crisis.

    2. OCCASION FOR THE CRISIS.

    By article 25 of the Treaty of Berlin, 1878, Austria-Hungary was permitted to occupy and administer Bosnia and Herzegovina. This arrangement was made in consequence of an understanding between Russia and the Dual Monarchy, entered into on the eve of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 and of the support given to the Austro-Hungarian claims by England and Germany at the Congress of Berlin.. As the provinces were inhabited chiefly by Serbs, and as a route across that region would afford Serbia the most convenient form of the long-desired access to the Adriatic, the Serbian agents at the Congress of Berlin tried to protest against the arrangement. But the congress would not even hear the protest.

    From the beginning of the occupation Austria-Hungary counted upon ultimately obtaining permanent possession. Serbia, however, continued to hope that the provinces, or at least such a portion of them as would give access to the Adriatic, would some day be to her. The crisis in 1908-1909 sprang from the fact that Serbia believed that she must prevent the consummation of annexation by Austria-Hungary or give up permanently her long-cherished hopes.

    3. SERBIAN DEMANDS.

    Soon after the proclamation of annexation Serbia called a part of the reserves to the colors and lodged a vigorous protest with the powers, demanding either a return to the status quo ante or compensations calculated to assure the independence and material progress of Serbia. Serbian newspapers demanded a strip of territory extending across Novi-Bazar and Bosnia-Herzegovina to the Adriatic. The Government of the Dual Monarchy refused to receive the Serbian protest. It denied that Serbia had any right to raise a question as to the annexation.

    4. ATTITUDE OF THE POWERS.

    For a time the attitude of the powers was uncertain. With the exception of Germany, whose attitude at first was extremely reserved, all of the powers objected to the action of Austria-Hungary, but apparently more to the form than to the fact of annexation. As the controversy developed Germany came quickly and decidedly to the support of its Austro-Hungarian ally. In Russia public opinion expressed itself strongly in support of Serbia. The Russian Government, which at first had shown a disposition to do no more than record a formal protest against the infraction of the Treaty of Berlin, responded by supporting the demand first made by Turkey for an international conference to consider the matter. The British and Italian Governments then supported this demand with considerable vigor, while France sought to play a conciliatory role.

    5. NEGOTIATIONS FOR A CONFERENCE.

    Austria-Hungary declared that it was not opposed on principle to a conference, but made its acceptance depend upon the program for the conference, which it insists, must be agreed upon in advance.

    It took the position that the conference ought not to discuss the validity of the annexation, but should confine itself to registering the measure as a fait accompli. Russia, after considerable exchange of opinion with the other powers, submitted a project for a program ,which included an item dealing with advantages to be accorded to Serbia and Montenegro. Austria-Hungary, in reply, did not flatly reject the Russian proposal, but suggested that the advantages for Serbia and Montenegro should be economic only. While the discussion was in progress the Austro-Hungarian Government was endeavoring to prevent the calling of the proposed conference by settling its controversy with Turkey. Such a settlement was arranged in principle on January 12, 1909. After that Austria-Hungary claimed that there was no longer any occasion for the meeting of a conference.

    6. SERBIA FORCED TO YIELD.

    Popular feeling in Serbia did not abate. There was a strong demand that opposition to the annexation should be pushed vigorously. To avert the danger of war, Russia proposed to the powers a collective démarche at Vienna and at Belgrade. Germany promptly refused to take part, while Austria-Hungary hastened to make known that it would refuse to receive any such proposition. Learning that France and England were not inclined to lend their support, Russia quickly dropped the proposal.

    The crisis was brought to a close in a manner which involved a triumph for Austria-Hungary over Serbia and for Germany and Austria-Hungary over Russia - a triumph which left behind it much bitterness of spirit in the states which were forced to yield. The humiliation that Russia and Serbia were compelled to endure was undoubtedly a very considerable factor in determining the whole course of events which from that date led directly to the World War. The precise manner in which Serbia was forced to yield was at the time veiled in a good deal of mystery, giving rise to numerous conflicting accounts of just what happened. Complete information is not yet available. It is clear, however, that Russia, under some form of strong pressure from Germany, was forced to abandon Serbia. The Kaiser subsequently asserted that hestood beside his ally, Austria-Hungary, "in shining armor", while Prince von Bülow declared that the "German sword had been thrown into the scale of European decision". Even then Serbia yielded only under constraint from all the powers. Her humiliation was recorded in the declaration she was forced to send to Vienna (March 31, 1909):

    Source : www.mtholyoke.edu

    How Did The Annexation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina In 1908 Intensify The Rivalry Brainly?

    How did the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 intensify the rivalry between Austria-Hungary and Serbia? Serbia vowed to take back the annexed territory from Austria-Hungary.

    How did the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 intensify the rivalry between Austria-Hungary and Serbia? Serbia vowed to take back the annexed territory from Austria-Hungary.

    Related Question Answers hide

    How did the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 intensify the rivalry between Austria-Hungary and Serbia Austria-Hungary vowed to take back the annexed territory from Serbia?

    What were the effects of Austria’s annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 intensify?

    What happened to Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 and why did it anger the Serbians?

    Who conquered Bosnia Herzegovina in 1908?

    Why did the Serbs and Bosnians hate living in Austria-Hungary?

    Why did Austria-Hungary declare war on Serbia?

    Why did Russia support Serbia?

    What was the effect of Austria-Hungary's annexation of Bosnia?

    Who caused the war in Yugoslavia?

    Did Serbia want take over Bosnia?

    Why did Austria occupy Bosnia?

    What war was in 1908?

    What was Serbia trying to gain from Austria?

    What happened when Austria declared war on Serbia?

    How did the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 intensify the rivalry between Austria-Hungary and Serbia Austria-Hungary vowed to take back the annexed territory from Serbia?

    How did the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 intensify the rivalry between Austria-Hungary and Serbia? Serbia vowed to take back the annexed territory from Austria-Hungary. … Archduke Franz Ferdinand supported Austria-Hungary’s growth and dominance in the region.

    What were the effects of Austria’s annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 intensify?

    How did the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 intensify the rivalry Brainly? The annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina angered Serbia and the Balkans. Moreover, Austria-Hungary’s invasion of Serbia made Russia provide aid to Serbia and Germany came to support Hungary.

    What happened to Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 and why did it anger the Serbians?

    Bosnian crisis of 1908, state of severe international tension caused by the annexation by Austria-Hungary of the Balkan provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Who conquered Bosnia Herzegovina in 1908?

    1. INTRODUCTION. The annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in October, 1908, led to a controversy between the Dual Monarchy and Turkey. It also led to international complications which for several weeks early in 1909 threatened to end in a general European war.

    Why did the Serbs and Bosnians hate living in Austria-Hungary?

    Austria-Hungary HATED Serbia. … 1908 The Bosnia Crisis: Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia. The Serbs were furious, not just because Serbs lived there, nor even because they had hoped to conquer Bosnia themselves, but also because Austria stopped Serbian pork going through Bosnia. You may also read, How did the annexation of Texas help contribute to the Civil War?

    Why did Austria-Hungary declare war on Serbia?

    Threatened by Serbian ambition in the tumultuous Balkans region of Europe, Austria-Hungary determined that the proper response to the assassinations was to prepare for a possible military invasion of Serbia. … Check the answer of How did the anti-war movement change American society?

    Why did Russia support Serbia?

    Although Russia had no formal treaty obligation to Serbia, it wanted to control the Balkans, and had a long-term perspective toward gaining a military advantage over Germany and Austria-Hungary. Russia had incentive to delay militarization, and the majority of its leaders wanted to avoid war.

    What was the effect of Austria-Hungary's annexation of Bosnia?

    The annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in October, 1908, led to a controversy between the Dual Monarchy and Turkey. It also led to international complications which for several weeks early in 1909 threatened to end in a general European war. This was the Bosnian crisis. Read: How did the Anzacs train?

    Who caused the war in Yugoslavia?

    Its constituent republics declared independence due to unresolved tensions between ethnic minorities in the new countries, which fueled the wars. Most of the wars ended through peace accords, involving full international recognition of new states, but with a massive human cost and economic damage to the region.

    Did Serbia want take over Bosnia?

    Izvolsky believed that Aehrenthal had tricked him – Russia had declared her support for the annexation but got nothing in return. … Serbia had been against the annexation, as she wanted Bosnia-Herzegovina for herself.

    Why did Austria occupy Bosnia?

    They considered Austria-Hungary a European country assigned to control Bosnia and Herzegovina. Their main goal was to achieve Muslim religious autonomy and to maintain the agrarian relations that were in force at the time. In 1909 they achieved their religious autonomy.

    What war was in 1908?

    Start Finish Name of Conflict

    1904 1908 Herero Wars

    1904 1905 Russo-Japanese War

    1904 1905 Yemeni Rebellion of 1904 Part of the Yemeni–Ottoman Conflicts

    What was Serbia trying to gain from Austria?

    Serbia annexed much of the former Austrian holdings in the Balkans to become the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Austria was eventually annexed by Germany, ending its separate foreign relations.

    Source : alsoanswer.com

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