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    European exploration

    European exploration, exploration of regions of Earth for scientific, commercial, religious, military, and other purposes by Europeans, beginning about the 4th century bce. The motives that spur human beings to examine their environment are many. Strong among them are the satisfaction of curiosity, the pursuit of trade, the spread of religion, and the desire for security and political power. At different times and in different places, different motives are dominant. Sometimes one motive inspires the promoters of discovery, and another motive may inspire the individuals who carry out the search. For a discussion of the society that engaged in these

    European exploration

    By Jean Brown Mitchell • Edit History

    European exploration: early voyages

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    European exploration, exploration of regions of Earth for scientific, commercial, religious, military, and other purposes by Europeans, beginning about the 4th century BCE.

    The motives that spur human beings to examine their environment are many. Strong among them are the satisfaction of curiosity, the pursuit of trade, the spread of religion, and the desire for security and political power. At different times and in different places, different motives are dominant. Sometimes one motive inspires the promoters of discovery, and another motive may inspire the individuals who carry out the search.

    BRITANNICA QUIZ

    European Exploration: Fact or Fiction?

    Were the French the first Europeans to reach southern Africa? Was Christopher Columbus the first European to see South America? From southern Africa to Jamaica, navigate your way through this quiz of European exploration.

    For a discussion of the society that engaged in these explorations, and their effects on intra-European affairs, see European history. The earliest European empires are discussed in ancient Greek civilization and ancient Rome.

    The threads of geographical exploration are continuous and, being entwined one with another, are difficult to separate. Three major phases of investigation may nevertheless be distinguished. The first phase is the exploration of the Old World centred on the Mediterranean Sea, the second is the so-called Age of Discovery, during which, in the search for sea routes to Cathay (the name by which China was known to medieval Europe), a New World was found, and the third is the establishment of the political, social, and commercial relationships of the New World to the Old and the elucidation of the major physical features of the continental interiors—in short, the delineation of the modern world.

    The exploration of the Old World

    From the time of the earliest recorded history to the beginning of the 15th century, Western knowledge of the world widened from a river valley surrounded by mountains or desert (the views of Babylonia and Egypt) to a Mediterranean world with hinterlands extending from the Sahara to the Gobi Desert and from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean (the view of Greece and Rome). It later expanded again to include the far northern lands beyond the Baltic and another and dazzling civilization in the Far East (the medieval view).

    Phoenician colonization in the Mediterranean

    Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

    The earliest known surviving map, dating probably from the time of Sargon of Akkad (about 2334–2279 BCE), shows canals or rivers—perhaps the Tigris and a tributary—and surrounding mountains. The rapid colonization of the shores of the Mediterranean and of the Black Sea by Phoenicia and the Greek city-states in the 1st millennium BCE must have been accompanied by the exploration of their hinterlands by countless unknown soldiers and traders. Herodotus prefaces his History (written in the 5th century BCE) with a geographical description of the then known world: this introductory material reveals that the coastlines of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea had by then been explored.

    Stories survive of a few men who are credited with bringing new knowledge from distant journeys. Herodotus tells of five young adventurers of the tribe of the Nasamones living on the desert edge of Cyrenaica in North Africa, who journeyed southwest for many months across the desert, reaching a great river flowing from west to east; this presumably was the Niger, although Herodotus thought it to be the Upper Nile.

    Source : www.britannica.com

    Voyage of Exploration Flashcards

    Start studying Voyage of Exploration. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Voyage of Exploration

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    Why did Europeans travel across the Mediterranean Sea to reach the Silk Road?

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    to obtain cloths, spices, and other goods

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    The Treaty of Tordesillas best facilitated exploration by

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    settling competition over colonized territories.

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    1/21 Created by FlintWater

    Terms in this set (21)

    Why did Europeans travel across the Mediterranean Sea to reach the Silk Road?

    to obtain cloths, spices, and other goods

    The Treaty of Tordesillas best facilitated exploration by

    settling competition over colonized territories.

    As navigation skills advanced, explorers reached the area now known as the Straits of Magellan. The Straits of Magellan are located

    south of Chile and Argentina.

    What was one difference between Vasco da Gama and Bartolomeu Dias?

    Dias accidentally reached the tip of Africa, while this was da Gama's purpose.

    What was one of Portugal's main goals in exploring the west coast of Africa?

    to claim territory along the coast

    During the Age of Discovery, the purpose of most European explorations was to search for resources and trade routes and to

    claim territory outside of Europe.

    During the Age of Discovery, interactions between Asia and Europe led to competition for land and resources and

    were accompanied by an increase in trade.

    In Portugal, the ability and motivation to explore was aided by

    strong leadership from Prince Henry.

    Cartography is

    the science of mapmaking.

    the process of transporting explorers.

    an advanced type of sailing ship.

    a device used for navigation.

    A

    Which explorer extended France's influence in the Americas through his establishment of Quebec?

    Samuel de Champlain Vasco da Gama Robert de La Salle

    Christopher Columbus

    A

    How did interactions among the peoples and societies of the world during the age of discovery affect European technology?

    They led to technological growth.

    They had no real impact on technology.

    They were damaging to technological know-how.

    They stifled technological growth.

    A

    What was Vasco da Gama's main goal?

    to find a water route to India

    to discover Brazil

    to explore for the Spanish

    to reach the Americas

    A

    What was one characteristic of early European exploration?

    It was safe. It was fast. It was expensive. It was predictable. C

    The Treaty of Tordesillas best facilitated exploration by

    settling competition over colonized territories.

    establishing sea routes to Asia.

    sponsoring voyages along Africa's west coast.

    selecting trained explorers .

    A

    Exploration was carried out

    competitively among European nations.

    cooperatively between the peoples of the world.

    cooperatively between the nations of Europe.

    with a sense of goodwill toward all people.

    A

    The fact that the astrolabe was developed in the Muslim empire implies that

    the Muslim empire was advanced in technology.

    Who explored North America and the Arctic?

    Henry Hudson

    Whose explorations led to a greater knowledge of North America, the Arctic, Australia, and the Hawaiian islands?

    Henry Hudson's and James Cook's

    Global exploration by sea was made possible primarily by

    new technology.

    What was one characteristic of early European exploration?

    It was expensive.

    Exploration was carried out

    competitively among European nations.

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    Age of Discovery

    Age of Discovery

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    The Portuguese invention of the caravel, which was maneuverable and able to undertake ocean voyages, was essential to European maritime exploration. The present image shows the "", navigating the Tagus river, Lisboa.

    The was the Spanish ship that managed to carry out the first circumnavigation in history. The present image shows a replica of , built in 1992, visiting Nagoya, Japan, for Expo 2005.

    The Age of Discovery (or the Age of Exploration) is an informal and loosely defined term for the early modern period, largely overlapping with the Age of Sail, approximately from the 15th century to the 18th century in European history, in which seafaring Europeans explored regions across the globe.

    The extensive overseas exploration, led by the Portuguese and Spanish, emerged as a powerful factor in European culture, most notably the European encounter and colonization of the Americas. It also marks an increased adoption of colonialism as a government policy in several European states, as such, it is sometimes synonymous with the first wave of European colonization.

    European exploration outside the Mediterranean started with the maritime expeditions of Portugal to the Canary Islands in 1336.[1] Shortly after, the Portuguese discoveries of the Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and Azores, claimed for the Portuguese crown in 1419 and 1427 respectively, then the coast of West Africa after 1434 until the establishment of the sea route to India in 1498 by Vasco da Gama. The Crown of Castile (Spain) sponsored the transatlantic voyages of Christopher Columbus to the Americas between 1492 and 1504 which marked the beginning of the European colonization of the continent, and did the first circumnavigation of the globe between 1519 and 1522 by the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan (completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano). These discoveries led to numerous naval expeditions across the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans, and land expeditions in the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Australia that continued into the late 19th century, followed by the exploration of the polar regions in the 20th century.

    European overseas exploration led to the rise of global trade and the European colonial empires, with the contact between the Old World (Europe, Asia, and Africa) and the New World (the Americas), as well as Australia, producing the Columbian exchange, a wide transfer of plants, animals, food, human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases and culture between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The Age of Discovery and later European exploration allowed the mapping of the world, resulting in a new worldview and distant civilizations coming into contact. At the same time, new diseases were propagated, decimating populations not previously in contact with the Old World, particularly concerning Native Americans. The era also saw the enslavement, exploitation, military conquest, and growing economic influence and spread of European culture and European technology by Europe and its colonies over native populations.

    Contents

    1 Concept 2 Overview 3 Background

    3.1 Rise of European trade

    3.2 Technology: Ship Design and the Compass

    3.3 Early geographical knowledge and maps

    3.4 Medieval European travel (1241–1438)

    3.5 Chinese missions (1405–1433)

    4 Atlantic Ocean (1419–1507)

    4.1 Portuguese exploration

    4.1.1 Portuguese exploration after Prince Henry

    4.2 Spanish exploration: Columbus's landfall in the Americas

    4.3 Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

    4.4 The Americas: The New World

    4.4.1 North America

    4.4.2 The "True Indies" and Brazil

    5 Indian Ocean (1497–1513)

    5.1 Vasco da Gama's route to India

    5.2 The "Spice Islands" and China

    6 Pacific Ocean (1513–1529)

    6.1 Balboa's expedition to the Pacific Ocean

    6.2 Subsequent developments to the east

    6.3 First circumnavigation

    6.4 Westward and eastward exploration meet

    7 Inland Spanish expeditions (1519–1532)

    7.1 Cortés' Mexico and the Aztec Empire

    7.2 Pizarro's Peru and the Inca Empire

    8 Major new trade routes (1542–1565)

    9 Northern European involvement (1595–17th century)

    9.1 Exploring North America

    9.2 Search for a northern route

    9.2.1 Barentsz' Arctic exploration

    9.3 Dutch Australia and New Zealand

    10 Russian exploration of Siberia (1581–1660)

    10.1 Conquest of the Khanate of Sibir

    10.2 Siberian river routes

    10.3 Russians reach the Pacific

    11 Global impact

    11.1 Economic impact in Europe

    12 See also 13 Footnotes 14 References 14.1 Bibliography

    14.1.1 Primary sources

    14.1.2 Secondary works

    14.1.3 Web sources 15 Further reading 16 External links

    Concept[edit]

    Main article: Discovery (observation)

    The concept of discovery has been scrutinized, critically highlighting the history of the core term of this periodization.[2] The term "age of discovery" has been in the historical literature and still commonly used. J. H. Parry, calling the period alternatively as Age of Reconnaissance, argues that not only was the era one of European explorations to regions heretofore unknown to them, but that it also produced the expansion of geographical knowledge and empirical science. "It saw also the first major victories of empirical inquiry over authority, the beginnings of that close association of science, technology, and everyday work which is an essential characteristic of the modern western world."[3] Anthony Pagden draws on the work of Edmundo O'Gorman for the statement that "For all Europeans, the events of October 1492 constituted a 'discovery'. Something of which they had no prior knowledge had suddenly presented itself to their gaze."[4] O'Gorman argues further that the physical and geographical encounter with new territories was less important than the Europeans’ effort to integrate this new knowledge into their worldview, what he calls "the invention of America".[5] Pagden examines the origins of the terms "discovery" and "invention". In English, "discovery" and its forms in the romance languages derive from ", meaning to uncover, to reveal, to expose to the gaze” with the implicit idea that what was revealed existed previously.[6] Few Europeans during the period of explorations used the term "invention" for the European encounters, with the notable exception of Martin Waldseemüller, whose map first used the term "America".[7]

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

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