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    The French Revolution Begins Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like After the National Assembly was locked out of the Estates-General meeting, members of the assembly met on a tennis court in Versailles and swore the Tennis Court Oath. What vow did they make with this oath?, What action made Louis XVI such an unpopular ruler?, What was one advantage of being a member of the 2nd Estate? and more.

    The French Revolution Begins

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    After the National Assembly was locked out of the Estates-General meeting, members of the assembly met on a tennis court in Versailles and swore the Tennis Court Oath. What vow did they make with this oath?

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    to continue to work until France had a constitution

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    What action made Louis XVI such an unpopular ruler?

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    He did not support government reform.

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    Terms in this set (16)

    After the National Assembly was locked out of the Estates-General meeting, members of the assembly met on a tennis court in Versailles and swore the Tennis Court Oath. What vow did they make with this oath?

    to continue to work until France had a constitution

    What action made Louis XVI such an unpopular ruler?

    He did not support government reform.

    What was one advantage of being a member of the 2nd Estate?

    having extensive privileges

    What was France's Old Regime?

    a social and political system

    How did French support of the American Revolution increase problems for King Louis XVI?

    It accelerated the economic crisis.

    In an era of bad harvests, famine, and rioting, the French government took steps to improve the worsening financial crisis. What did the government do?

    The government raised taxes.

    The clergy comprised the wealthy First Estate, with members of noble descent in particular having a great deal of power. What was the source of the clergy's wealth?

    tithes

    When the National Assembly broke off from the Estates-General, what was the assembly's intent?

    to achieve genuine government reform

    How did the American Revolution influence the French Revolution?

    The colonies' victory demonstrated that a king could be defeated.

    Why did the Third Estate form the National Assembly?

    They wanted to find ways to benefit ordinary citizens.

    On July 14, 1789, French citizens unhappy with the failed government reforms stormed the Bastille, a medieval fortress prison. What has this event come to represent in French history?

    liberty

    Montesquieu believed that government power should be divided between different branches, much like the executive, legislative, and judicial branches in the United States. He believed that this division promoted liberty and justice. What else does the separation of powers do?

    It prevents one branch from gaining too much power.

    The Declaration of the Rights of Man made all French citizens equal before the law. How did this equality contrast with the ways of the Old Regime?

    The declaration abolished the 3 estates.

    The Declaration of Independence and the Declaration of the Rights of Man are similar because they both

    stated that people should be able to enjoy liberty

    Which group paid the least in taxes under the Old Regime?

    the aristocracy

    Why was Louis XVI considered ineffectual?

    He failed to respond to the needs of the people

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    Verified questions

    QUESTION

    How much should a historian trust a confession extracted by torture?

    Verified answer QUESTION

    Which of the following characteristics of the Industrial Revolution would support the argument made by the author in the excerpt above? (A) In some of the less industrialized areas, cottage industry persisted. (B) Leisure time centered increasingly on the family. (C) By the end of the nineteenth century, wages and the quality of life improved for the working class. (D) A heightened consumerism developed by the end of the nineteenth century.

    Source : quizlet.com

    How Did the American Revolution Influence the French Revolution?

    While the French Revolution was a complex conflict with numerous triggers and causes, the American Revolution set the stage for an effective uprising that the French had observed firsthand.

    How Did the American Revolution Influence the French Revolution?

    While the French Revolution was a complex conflict with numerous triggers and causes, the American Revolution set the stage for an effective uprising.

    Author: Julie Marks Updated: Nov 4, 2021 Original: May 1, 2018

    American military commander General George Washington leading the Continental Army in the Battle of Princeton during the American Revolutionary War, 1777.

    (Credit: Stock Montage/Getty Images)

    When American colonists won independence from Great Britain in the Revolutionary War, the French, who participated in the war themselves, were both close allies and key participants.

    Several years after the revolt in America, French reformers faced political, social and economic hardships that mirrored the colonists’ struggles. While the French Revolution was a complex conflict with numerous triggers and causes, the American Revolution set the stage for an effective uprising that the French had observed firsthand.

    The Revolutions Shared Similar Causes

    Although the French and American people had several distinct and differing motives for revolting against their ruling governments, some similar causes led to both revolutions, including the following:

    Economic struggles: Both the Americans and French dealt with a taxation system they found discriminating and unfair. Additionally, France’s involvement in the American Revolution, along with extravagant spending practices by King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette, left the country on the verge of bankruptcy.Monarchy: Although the American colonists had lived in a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system, they revolted against the royal powers of King George III just like the French rose up against Louis XVI.Unequal rights: Like the American colonists, the French felt that specific rights were only granted to certain segments of society, namely the elite and aristocrats.

    Enlightenment Philosophy Was a Major Influence

    Many experts believe that the same ideologies that sparked the American Revolution had long percolated through French culture.

    During the war in North American colonies, some allied Frenchmen fought side by side with soldiers of the Continental Army, which allowed for the exchanging of values, ideas and philosophies.

    One key ideological movement, known as the Enlightenment, was central to the American uprising. Enlightenment stressed the idea of natural rights and equality for all citizens.

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    The ideas of the Enlightenment flowed from Europe to the North American continent and sparked a revolution that made enlightened thought all the more popular back across the Atlantic.

    The Declaration of Independence Became a Template for the French

    The French who had direct contact with the Americans were able to successfully implement Enlightenment ideas into a new political system.

    The National Assembly in France even used the American Declaration of Independence as a model when drafting the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen in 1789.

    Much like the American document, the French declaration included Enlightenment principles, such as equal rights and popular sovereignty.

    Americans' Victory Encouraged the French

    The Americans’ victory over the British may have been one of the greatest catalysts for the French Revolution.

    The French people saw that a revolt could be successful—even against a major military power–and that lasting change was possible. Many experts argue that this gave them the motivation to rebel. The newly-formed government of the United States also became a model for French reformers.

    Ideas that were once just abstract thoughts—such as popular sovereignty, natural rights, constitutional checks and balances and separation of powers—were now part of an actual political system that worked.

    What Was the Extent of America’s Influence?

    Though most historians agree that the American Revolution influenced the French Revolution, which lasted from 1789-1799, some scholars debate the significance and extent of its impact.

    France, a country on the verge of financial collapse with an outdated feudal system and a wildly unpopular monarchy, was a powder keg waiting to explode, with or without the American war to serve as an example.

    Other political, social and religious factors also activated the French people’s appetite for change.

    Though there were clear differences between the motives for each revolt and how the two wars were fought, most experts believe that the war in America at least partly paved the way for France’s own uprising. The Americans provided a working model of revolutionary success that cannot have been lost on the French.

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    French Revolution

    French Revolution, also called Revolution of 1789, revolutionary movement that shook France between 1787 and 1799 and reached its first climax there in 1789—hence the conventional term “Revolution of 1789,” denoting the end of the ancien régime in France and serving also to distinguish that event from the later French revolutions of 1830 and 1848. The French Revolution had general causes common to all the revolutions of the West at the end of the 18th century and particular causes that explain why it was by far the most violent and the most universally significant of these revolutions. The first of

    French Revolution

    1787–1799

    Alternate titles: Revolution of 1789

    By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica • Edit History

    Louis XVI: execution by guillotine

    See all media Date: 1787 - 1799 Location: France

    Participants: bourgeoisie Montagnard peasant philosophe sansculotte

    Major Events: Coup of 18–19 Brumaire Civil Constitution of the Clergy French Revolutionary wars Reign of Terror Thermidorian Reaction

    Key People: Marie-Thérèse-Louise de Savoie-Carignan, princesse de Lamballe Louis XVI Marie-Antoinette Napoleon I Maximilien Robespierre

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    Top Questions

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    Summary

    Read a brief summary of this topic

    French Revolution, also called Revolution of 1789, revolutionary movement that shook France between 1787 and 1799 and reached its first climax there in 1789—hence the conventional term “Revolution of 1789,” denoting the end of the ancien régime in France and serving also to distinguish that event from the later French revolutions of 1830 and 1848.

    Origins of the Revolution

    The French Revolution had general causes common to all the revolutions of the West at the end of the 18th century and particular causes that explain why it was by far the most violent and the most universally significant of these revolutions. The first of the general causes was the social structure of the West. The feudal regime had been weakened step-by-step and had already disappeared in parts of Europe. The increasingly numerous and prosperous elite of wealthy commoners—merchants, manufacturers, and professionals, often called the bourgeoisie—aspired to political power in those countries where it did not already possess it. The peasants, many of whom owned land, had attained an improved standard of living and education and wanted to get rid of the last vestiges of feudalism so as to acquire the full rights of landowners and to be free to increase their holdings. Furthermore, from about 1730, higher standards of living had reduced the mortality rate among adults considerably. This, together with other factors, had led to an increase in the population of Europe unprecedented for several centuries: it doubled between 1715 and 1800. For France, which with 26 million inhabitants in 1789 was the most populated country of Europe, the problem was most acute.

    BRITANNICA QUIZ

    Plots and Revolutions Quiz

    Plots and revolutions can take many different forms. Unravel the intrigue with this quiz.

    A larger population created a greater demand for food and consumer goods. The discovery of new gold mines in Brazil had led to a general rise in prices throughout the West from about 1730, indicating a prosperous economic situation. From about 1770, this trend slackened, and economic crises, provoking alarm and even revolt, became frequent. Arguments for social reform began to be advanced. The philosophes—intellectuals whose writings inspired these arguments—were certainly influenced by 17th-century theorists such as René Descartes, Benedict de Spinoza and John Locke, but they came to very different conclusions about political, social, and economic matters. A revolution seemed necessary to apply the ideas of Montesquieu, Voltaire, or Jean-Jacques Rousseau. This Enlightenment was spread among the educated classes by the many “societies of thought” that were founded at that time: masonic lodges, agricultural societies, and reading rooms.

    It is uncertain, however, whether revolution would have come without the added presence of a political crisis. Faced with the heavy expenditure that the wars of the 18th century entailed, the rulers of Europe sought to raise money by taxing the nobles and clergy, who in most countries had hitherto been exempt, To justify this, the rulers likewise invoked the arguments of advanced thinkers by adopting the role of “enlightened despots.” This provoked reaction throughout Europe from the privileged bodies, diets. and estates. In North America this backlash caused the American Revolution, which began with the refusal to pay a tax imposed by the king of Great Britain. Monarchs tried to stop this reaction of the aristocracy, and both rulers and the privileged classes sought allies among the nonprivileged bourgeois and the peasants.

    Although scholarly debate continues about the exact causes of the Revolution, the following reasons are commonly adduced: (1) the bourgeoisie resented its exclusion from political power and positions of honour; (2) the peasants were acutely aware of their situation and were less and less willing to support the anachronistic and burdensome feudal system; (3) the philosophes had been read more widely in France than anywhere else; (4) French participation in the American Revolution had driven the government to the brink of bankruptcy; (5) France was the most populous country in Europe, and crop failures in much of the country in 1788, coming on top of a long period of economic difficulties, compounded existing restlessness; and (6) the French monarchy, no longer seen as divinely ordained, was unable to adapt to the political and societal pressures that were being exerted on it.

    Source : www.britannica.com

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