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    how did darius i, the great act to strengthen government authority over the many cultures of the persian empire?

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    How did Darius I the Great act to strengthen government authority over the many cultures of the Persian Empire? – PanicJanet.com

    History and politics

    How did Darius I the Great act to strengthen government authority over the many cultures of the Persian Empire?

    02/26/2020Alex Dopico

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    How did Darius I the Great act to strengthen government authority over the many cultures of the Persian Empire?

    Darius the Great further expanded the empire and introduced reforms such as standard currency and satraps—provincial governors—to rule over smaller regions of the empire on his behalf. The increased wealth and power of the empire allowed Darius to construct a brand new capital city, called Persepolis.

    Why did Persia invade Greece quizlet?

    Why did Persia want to invade Greece? They wanted to invade Greece because Greece sent soldiers to help the revolting Greek cities. They would have swept through Greece and destroyed many cities other than Athens.

    How did the establishment of a standardized metal coin affect the Persian Empire?

    Taxes were easily paid with the standardized coins, inspired by Lydia. Darius had districts which were governed locally-23 satrapies, which were administrative and taxed districts governed by satraps. Most satraps Persian so they were more loyal.

    When the Persians approached Athens in around 480 BCE The Athenians did what?

    In 480 B.C.E., as news of the Greek defeat at Thermopylae reached Athens, its citizens panicked. They boarded ships and sailed for nearby islands. Only a small army of Athenians was left to defend the city. Within two weeks, the Persians had burned Athens to the ground.

    Why did King Darius invade Greece?

    The invasion, consisting of two distinct campaigns, was ordered by the Persian king Darius the Great primarily in order to punish the city-states of Athens and Eretria. Darius also saw the opportunity to extend his empire into Europe, and to secure its western frontier.

    Why was Salamis a difficult place for Persians to fight?

    Why was Salamis a difficult place for the Persians to fight? The mountainous land made it hard for the Persians to travel through it. The large body of water made it hard for the Persians to get safely onto land. The narrow channel made it hard for the Persians to move their ships around.

    Why did the Ionians lose?

    Darius and his army captured Miletus in BC 494. After the city-state fell, the revolts in the Persian Empire crumbled, due to a lack of leadership. The revolt had several lasting effects. Darius I’s anger for Athens grew, because of the aid they provided to the Ionians, and gave him the incentive to invade Greece.

    What happened in 480 BC in Greece?

    Battle of Thermopylae, (480 bce), battle in central Greece at the mountain pass of Thermopylae during the Persian Wars. After three days of holding their own against the Persian king Xerxes I and his vast southward-advancing army, the Greeks were betrayed, and the Persians were able to outflank them.

    How many days did the Battle of Salamis last?

    The Greeks faced off against the Persians in a narrow strait west of the island of Salamis. The battle lasted for 12 hours, but at the end, the Greeks were victorious. It was likely the Greek army’s smaller, more manoeuvrable boats that gave them the advantage in the narrow waters around Salamis.

    Did Sparta fight at Salamis?

    Although heavily outnumbered, the Greek Allies were persuaded by the Athenian general Themistocles to bring the Persian fleet to battle again, in the hope that a victory would prevent naval operations against the Peloponnese….The Greek fleet.

    City Chalcis Number of ships 20 City Megara Number of ships 20 City Sparta

    Who won battle of Plataea?

    Spartans

    What happened at Salamis?

    Battle of Salamis, (480 bc), battle in the Greco-Persian Wars in which a Greek fleet defeated much larger Persian naval forces in the straits at Salamis, between the island of Salamis and the Athenian port-city of Piraeus. The Greeks sank about 300 Persian vessels while losing only about 40 of their own.

    What do we call Persia today?

    Iran

    What caused the Salamis war?

    The Spartans wanted to return to the Peloponnese, seal off the Isthmus of Corinth with a wall, and prevent the Persians from defeating them on land, but the Athenian commander Themistocles persuaded them to remain at Salamis, arguing that a wall across the Isthmus was pointless as long as the Persian army could be …

    What battle ended the Persian War?

    Plataea and Mycale

    What are the 4 Persian wars?

    4 persian war

    Persian War 499 BCE – 449 BCE.

    Persian War (499 – 449 BCE) By 500 BCE, Athens had emerged as the wealthiest Greek city-state.

    Persian War (499 – 449 BCE) Persians had conquered the Greek city-states of Ionia.

    How did Athens fall?

    Athens under Macedon (355–322 BC) In 338 BC the armies of Philip II defeated Athens at the Battle of Chaeronea, effectively limiting Athenian independence.

    How old is Athens?

    3,400 years Twitter Facebook Reddit Outlook.com Telegram WhatsApp Share

    Source : panicjanet.com

    The Rise of Persia (article)

    Ancient Persia

    The Rise of Persia

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    Overview

    The Achaemenid Persian Empire first expanded under the leadership of Cyrus the Great, who utilized a strategy of religious and cultural toleration to maintain order.

    Darius the Great further expanded the empire and introduced reforms such as standard currency and satraps—provincial governors—to rule over smaller regions of the empire on his behalf.

    The increased wealth and power of the empire allowed Darius to construct a brand new capital city, called Persepolis.

    The Achaemenid Empire fell when it was conquered by Alexander the Great.

    Creation of the Achaemenid Persian Empire

    The probable extent of the Median Empire.

    The probable extent of the Median Empire. Image credit: History of Persia, CC BY-SA 4.0

    In 559 BCE, a man named Cyrus became the leader of Persia. He was the great-great-grandson of the first Persian king, Achaemenes—whose name is why historians call this the Achaemenid Persian Empire!

    Prior to Cyrus’s rule, Persia was a small tributary state to the Median Empire, which happened to be ruled by Cyrus’s grandfather, Astyages. Persia paid the Medes for protection and to maintain a level of independence.

    Cyrus came into conflict with his grandfather—for reasons that are unknown—and initiated a rebellion that ultimately succeeded in 550 BCE. Cyrus commemorated his victory over Astyages by building a city on the site of the battle and naming it Pasargadae, after his tribe.

    By defeating Astyages, Cyrus took on his role as ruler of what had been the Median Empire. Not everyone who had been paying tribute to Astyages accepted Cyrus as their new ruler, however. In order to solidify his power, Cyrus had to find ways to bring lesser rulers under his control. His success earned Cyrus the title of "Cyrus the Great."

    Religious toleration and maintaining local traditions

    Cyrus was a successful military commander, but he also recognized the need to leave the regions that he conquered in good economic order if they were going to provide him with tribute revenues. To achieve this, Cyrus left local rulers in place after conquering a region, and he allowed the local population to continue practicing their preferred religious traditions. These policies ensured that conquered regions continued to function economically and reduced the chance that they would rebel against him.

    In ancient Mesopotamia, a common imperial strategy was to relocate conquered populations to new areas in order to break up their political and cultural unity and make them less dangerous to the ruling power. Cyrus reversed this practice by allowing the Jews, who had been relocated by the Babylonians, to return to Israel and establish a tributary state. While this might appear to be an act of generosity, it was probably a calculated move on the part of Cyrus to help ensure Jewish loyalty, and thus a continuation of his general policy of tolerance.

    What did Cyrus hope to achieve by leaving local rulers in charge after he conquered them?Why might this have been an effective strategy? Why could it have been dangerous?

    Political developments

    Cyrus’s son, Cambyses II, added to the Achaemenid Empire by conquering Egypt. While Cambyses II was away in Egypt, a man pretending to be his brother tried to take control of the empire. Cambyses died in 522 BCE while returning from Egypt to remove this pretender and was succeeded by a general named Darius.

    Although Darius had a legitimate claim in that he was distantly related to Cambyses II, several other claimants to the Persian throne challenged Darius. Many regions saw the resulting chaos as an opportunity to rebel against Achaemenid rule.

    Darius eventually established himself as the sole ruler of Persia and reconquered the rebellious regions, growing the Achaemenid Empire to its greatest extent. Partly as a response to the initial challenges that he faced, Darius reorganized the empire by dividing it into satrapies, or provinces. For each satrapy, Darius appointed a satrap—a political governor—and a military commander.

    The division of military and political power was meant to prevent regional leaders from becoming too powerful. Unlike the system of local control employed by Cyrus, Darius appointed these satraps directly, meaning that their loyalty was to him.

    Like most ancient rulers, Darius used religion to justify his power. He claimed that the Zoroastrian god, Ahura Mazda, had appointed him to rule the world. To emphasize his power over his appointed satraps—and also to demonstrate that he was ruler of a diverse empire, rather than of a single kingdom or people—he took the title of Shahanshah, King of Kings. The idea here was to avoid the appearance of favoring a particular group or region within the empire.

    Economic reforms

    Darius introduced a standard currency—a gold coin known as a daric. Having a standardized currency encouraged more economic activity within the empire by making transactions easier. Unlike specific goods and services, money was accepted by almost everyone in exchange for almost anything and was also easier to transport than most goods. A standardized currency also allowed Darius to collect taxes and tributes in coin rather than in goods or services, which allowed him to concentrate the empire’s wealth where he chose.

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

    Darius I

    Darius I, byname Darius the Great, (born 550 bc—died 486), king of Persia in 522–486 bc, one of the greatest rulers of the Achaemenid dynasty, who was noted for his administrative genius and for his great building projects. Darius attempted several times to conquer Greece; his fleet was destroyed by a storm in 492, and the Athenians defeated his army at Marathon in 490. Darius was the son of Hystaspes, the satrap (provincial governor) of Parthia. The principal contemporary sources for his history are his own inscriptions, especially the great trilingual inscription on the Bīsitūn (Behistun) rock at the village

    Darius I

    king of Persia

    Alternate titles: Darayavaush, Darius the Great

    By J.M. Munn-Rankin • Edit History

    Darius I See all media Born: 550 BCE Died: 486 BCE

    Title / Office: king (522BC-486BC), Egypt king (522BC-486BC), Persia

    Founder: Persepolis

    House / Dynasty: Achaemenian dynasty Achaemenid dynasty

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    Darius I, byname Darius the Great, (born 550 BC—died 486), king of Persia in 522–486 BC, one of the greatest rulers of the Achaemenid dynasty, who was noted for his administrative genius and for his great building projects. Darius attempted several times to conquer Greece; his fleet was destroyed by a storm in 492, and the Athenians defeated his army at Marathon in 490.

    Ascent to monarchy

    Darius was the son of Hystaspes, the satrap (provincial governor) of Parthia. The principal contemporary sources for his history are his own inscriptions, especially the great trilingual inscription on the Bīsitūn (Behistun) rock at the village of the same name, in which he tells how he gained the throne. The accounts of his accession given by the Greek historians Herodotus and Ctesias are in many points obviously derived from this official version but are interwoven with legends.

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    According to Herodotus, Darius, when a youth, was suspected by Cyrus II the Great (who ruled from 559 to 529 BC) of plotting against the throne. Later Darius was in Egypt with Cambyses II, the son of Cyrus and heir to his kingdom, as a member of the royal bodyguard. After the death of Cambyses in the summer of 522 BC, Darius hastened to Media, where, in September, with the help of six Persian nobles, he killed Bardiya (Smerdis), another son of Cyrus, who had usurped the throne the previous March. In the Bīsitūn inscription Darius defended this deed and his own assumption of kingship on the grounds that the usurper was actually Gaumata, a Magian, who had impersonated Bardiya after Bardiya had been murdered secretly by Cambyses. Darius therefore claimed that he was restoring the kingship to the rightful Achaemenid house. He himself, however, belonged to a collateral branch of the royal family, and, as his father and grandfather were alive at his accession, it is unlikely that he was next in line to the throne. Some modern scholars consider that he invented the story of Gaumata in order to justify his actions and that the murdered king was indeed the son of Cyrus.

    Darius did not at first gain general recognition but had to impose his rule by force. His assassination of Bardiya was followed, particularly in the eastern provinces, by widespread revolts, which threatened to disrupt the empire. In Susiana, Babylonia, Media, Sagartia, and Margiana, independent governments were set up, most of them by men who claimed to belong to the former ruling families. Babylonia rebelled twice and Susiana three times. In Persia itself a certain Vahyazdata, who pretended to be Bardiya, gained considerable support. These risings, however, were spontaneous and uncoordinated, and, notwithstanding the small size of his army, Darius and his generals were able to suppress them one by one. In the Bīsitūn inscription he records that in 19 battles he defeated nine rebel leaders, who appear as his captives on the accompanying relief. By 519 BC, when the third rising in Susiana was put down, he had established his authority in the east. In 518 Darius visited Egypt, which he lists as a rebel country, perhaps because of the insubordination of its satrap, Aryandes, whom he put to death.

    Fortification of the empire

    Having restored internal order in the empire, Darius undertook a number of campaigns for the purpose of strengthening his frontiers and checking the incursions of nomadic tribes. In 519 BC he attacked the Scythians east of the Caspian Sea and a few years later conquered the Indus Valley. In 513, after subduing eastern Thrace and the Getae, he crossed the Danube River into European Scythia, but the Scythian nomads devastated the country as they retreated from him, and he was forced, for lack of supplies, to abandon the campaign. The satraps of Asia Minor completed the subjugation of Thrace, secured the submission of Macedonia, and captured the Aegean islands of Lemnos and Imbros. Thus, the approaches to Greece were in Persian hands, as was control of the Black Sea grain trade through the straits, the latter being of major importance to the Greek economy. The conquest of Greece was a logical step to protect Persian rule over the Greeks of Asia Minor from interference by their European kinsmen. According to Herodotus, Darius, before the Scythian campaign, had sent ships to explore the Greek coasts, but he took no military action until 499 BC, when Athens and Eretria supported an Ionian revolt against Persian rule. After the suppression of this rebellion, Mardonius, Darius’ son-in-law, was given charge of an expedition against Athens and Eretria, but the loss of his fleet in a storm off Mount Athos (492 BC) forced him to abandon the operation. In 490 BC another force under Datis, a Mede, destroyed Eretria and enslaved its inhabitants but was defeated by the Athenians at Marathon. Preparations for a third expedition were delayed by an insurrection in Egypt, and Darius died in 486 BC before they were completed.

    Source : www.britannica.com

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