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    Authoritarianism, Fascism, and Dictators (World History 11th Grade) Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like What was Benito Mussolini's attitude toward personal liberties?, How did Benito Mussolini attempt to increase Italy's power?, How does a totalitarian government differ from most authoritarian governments? and more.

    Authoritarianism, Fascism, and Dictators (World History 11th Grade)

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    What was Benito Mussolini's attitude toward personal liberties?

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    The state should decide which personal liberties were needed.

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    How did Benito Mussolini attempt to increase Italy's power?

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    by seizing control of new land

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    1/10 Created by Nicholas_Ennis

    Terms in this set (10)

    What was Benito Mussolini's attitude toward personal liberties?

    The state should decide which personal liberties were needed.

    How did Benito Mussolini attempt to increase Italy's power?

    by seizing control of new land

    How does a totalitarian government differ from most authoritarian governments?

    It is more extreme and rigid.

    When Benito Mussolini came into power, he promised to

    solve Italy's economic problems.

    Why did Japanese soldiers kill so many civilians in Nanking, China?

    Commanders encouraged their soldiers to be as brutal as possible.

    Who was Francisco Franco?

    the fascist dictator of Spain

    What is the most likely reason that Italy and Germany supported the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War?

    Italy and Germany wanted to promote the spread of fascism.

    How many political parties participate in a totalitarian government?

    one

    How were the governments of Japan and Italy similar in the 1930s? Check all that apply.

    Both used extreme nationalism to win support.

    Both began programs of aggressive expansion.

    How was the rebellion in Spain different from that in Italy?

    The new Spanish ruler seized power without popular support from citizens.

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    Joseph Stalin

    Wounded while serving with the bersaglieri (a corps of sharpshooters), he returned home a convinced antisocialist and a man with a sense of destiny. As early as February 1918, he advocated the emergence of a dictator—“a man who is ruthless and energetic enough to make a clean sweep”—to confront the economic and political crisis then gripping Italy. Three months later, in a widely reported speech in Bologna, he hinted that he himself might prove to be such a man. The following year the nucleus of a party prepared to support his ambitious idea was formed in Milan. In an office

    Joseph Stalin

    premier of Soviet Union

    Alternate titles: Ioseb Dzhugashvili, Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin

    By Ronald Francis Hingley • Edit History

    Joseph Stalin See all media

    Born: December 6, 1878 December 18, 1878 Gori Georgia

    Died: March 5, 1953 (aged 74) Moscow Russia

    Title / Office: prime minister (1941-1953), Soviet Union

    Political Affiliation: Bolshevik Communist Party of the Soviet Union Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party

    Notable Family Members: daughter Svetlana Alliluyeva

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    Top Questions

    When was Joseph Stalin born?

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    Joseph Stalin, Russian in full Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin, original name (Georgian) Ioseb Dzhugashvili, (born December 18 [December 6, Old Style], 1878, Gori, Georgia, Russian Empire [see Researcher’s Note] —died March 5, 1953, Moscow, Russia, U.S.S.R.), secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–53) and premier of the Soviet state (1941–53), who for a quarter of a century dictatorially ruled the Soviet Union and transformed it into a major world power.

    During the quarter of a century preceding his death, the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin probably exercised greater political power than any other figure in history. Stalin industrialized the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, forcibly collectivized its agriculture, consolidated his position by intensive police terror, helped to defeat Germany in 1941–45, and extended Soviet controls to include a belt of eastern European states. Chief architect of Soviet totalitarianism and a skilled but phenomenally ruthless organizer, he destroyed the remnants of individual freedom and failed to promote individual prosperity, yet he created a mighty military-industrial complex and led the Soviet Union into the nuclear age.

    BRITANNICA QUIZ

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    Stalin’s biography was long obscured by a mendacious Soviet-propagated “legend” exaggerating his prowess as a heroic Bolshevik boy-conspirator and faithful follower of Lenin, the founder of the Soviet Union. In his prime, Stalin was hailed as a universal genius, as a “shining sun,” or “the staff of life,” and also as a “great teacher and friend” (especially of those communities he most savagely persecuted); once he was even publicly invoked as “Our Father” by a metropolitan of the Russian Orthodox Church. Achieving wide visual promotion through busts, statues, and icons of himself, the dictator became the object of a fanatical cult that, in private, he probably regarded with cynicism.

    Gori

    Monument of Joseph Stalin in front of the town hall in Gori, Georgia.

    © Tomasz Parys/Shutterstock.com

    Early years

    Did you know these facts about Joseph Stalin?

    Learn more about Joseph Stalin.

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    Stalin was of Georgian—not Russian—origin, and persistent rumours claim that he was Ossetian on the paternal side. He was the son of a poor cobbler in the provincial Georgian town of Gori in the Caucasus, then an imperial Russian colony. The drunken father savagely beat his son. Speaking only Georgian at home, Joseph learned Russian—which he always spoke with a guttural Georgian accent—while attending the church school at Gori (1888–94). He then moved to the Tiflis Theological Seminary, where he secretly read Karl Marx, the chief theoretician of international Communism, and other forbidden texts, being expelled in 1899 for revolutionary activity, according to the “legend”—or leaving because of ill health, according to his doting mother. The mother, a devout washerwoman, had dreamed of her son becoming a priest, but Joseph Dzhugashvili was more ruffianly than clerical in appearance and outlook. He was short, stocky, black-haired, fierce-eyed, with one arm longer than the other, his swarthy face scarred by smallpox contracted in infancy. Physically strong and endowed with prodigious willpower, he early learned to disguise his true feelings and to bide his time; in accordance with the Caucasian blood-feud tradition, he was implacable in plotting long-term revenge against those who offended him.

    In December 1899, Dzhugashvili became, briefly, a clerk in the Tiflis Observatory, the only paid employment that he is recorded as having taken outside politics; there is no record of his ever having done manual labour. In 1900 he joined the political underground, fomenting labour demonstrations and strikes in the main industrial centres of the Caucasus, but his excessive zeal in pushing duped workers into bloody clashes with the police antagonized his fellow conspirators. After the Social Democrats (Marxist revolutionaries) of the Russian Empire had split into their two competing wings—Menshevik and Bolshevik—in 1903, Dzhugashvili joined the second, more militant, of these factions and became a disciple of its leader, Lenin. Between April 1902 and March 1913, Dzhugashvili was seven times arrested for revolutionary activity, undergoing repeated imprisonment and exile. The mildness of the sentences and the ease with which the young conspirator effected his frequent escapes lend colour to the unproved speculation that Dzhugashvili was for a time an agent provocateur in the pay of the imperial political police.

    Source : www.britannica.com

    How Mussolini Seized Power in Italy—And Turned It Into a Fascist State

    Mussolini, who coined the term fascism, crushed opposition with violence and projected an image of himself as a powerful, indispensable leader.

    How Mussolini Seized Power in Italy—And Turned It Into a Fascist State

    Mussolini, who coined the term fascism, crushed opposition with violence and projected an image of himself as a powerful, indispensable leader.

    Author: Fred Frommer Updated: Apr 13, 2022 Original: Apr 11, 2022

    Italian dictator Benito Mussolini circa, 1940. (Roger Viollet via Getty Images)

    Mussolini, who coined the term fascism, crushed opposition with violence and projected an image of himself as a powerful, indispensable leader.

    Before becoming one of the most famous fascists of the 20th century, Benito Mussolini was a young socialist, but he split with the movement and then rode a wave of anti-socialist violence to power in Italy.

    Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini’s middle names came from Italian socialists Amilcare Cipriani and Andrea Costa, and his father was a socialist. In his 20s, Mussolini briefly edited a socialist newspaper in Austria-Hungary, then in 1912, when he was around 30, he took over as editor of Avanti! (Forward!), the official daily newspaper of Italy’s Socialist Party.

    But a couple of years later the party expelled Mussolini over his support for Italy’s entrance into World War I.

    “Mussolini was more of an authoritarian revolutionary than an orthodox Marxist,” says Michael R. Ebner, an associate professor of history in the Maxwell School at Syracuse University, and the author of Ordinary Violence in Mussolini's Italy (Cambridge University Press, 2011). “With the outbreak of World War I, he came to see nationalism and militarism as the keys to revolutionary upheaval. He therefore left behind Marxist economic determinism and pacifism.”

    After WWI, Mussolini's 'Blackshirts' Target Socialists

    Benito Mussolini (at center), general and Fascist politician Emilio de Bono and aviator and politician Count Italo Balbo leading the blackshirts in the Fascist "March on Rome."

    BIPs/Getty Images

    Mussolini might have left the Socialist Party behind, but many Italians embraced it after the war, in part because establishment politicians were ineffective in solving postwar problems, says Ebner, who is also co-editor of The Politics of Everyday Life in Fascist Italy (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017).

    “After the sacrifices of the war, and the example of the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, anything seemed possible,” he says, adding that Socialists made huge electoral gains, taking over local governments, which alarmed some middle- and upper-class Italians.

    Seeing those gains, Mussolini took on the Socialists by force. In 1919, Mussolini created the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, (Italian Combat Squads), the precursor to his Fascist Party. This group engaged in violence against Socialists and other enemies. In 1921, he founded the Fascist Party, turning his paramilitary movement into a formal political party. He coined the name of the party based on the Italian word for bundle—fascio—in reference to bundles of rods used in ancient Rome to symbolize strength through unity. The party emphasized national unity—even if it required violence to keep dissenters in check.

    “Basically, Mussolini hated the Socialists, and so did the rest of the Fascists,” Ebner said. “One driving force behind Fascist violence was their desire to punish the Socialists for not supporting Italy during the Great War (World War I). The Fascists viewed the Socialists as cowardly traitors, internal enemies, who needed to be eradicated.”

    He noted Mussolini’s paramilitary groups that attacked the Socialist Party and labor unions—known as the Blackshirts—were often paid or supplied by wealthy landowners. Fascist squads burned down Communist and Socialist offices as they took over cities.

    Italy's King Asks Mussolini to Form Government 

    In 1921 Mussolini was elected to the lower chamber of Italy's parliament, the Chamber of Deputies, and the next year, tens of thousands of armed Fascists marched on Rome, demanding Mussolini be named prime minister. Italy’s King, Victor Emmanuel III, refused to declare a state of emergency and impose martial law. Instead he dissolved the government and asked Mussolini to form a new one. Mussolini became both prime minister and interior minister, the latter post, critically, giving him control over the police.

    Before Mussolini became prime minister, Fascist squads had used violence to kill, harm, frighten, and humiliate their enemies. After Mussolini became prime minister in October 1922, the squads were still important, but Mussolini could also then rely on the police to go after enemies like Communists, Socialists and Anarchists.

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    “Mussolini could therefore mix 'legal' state repression with 'illegal' squad violence,” Ebner says. “The police found cause to arrest and harass left-wing political opponents, while the squads could engage in beatings and assassinations to silence other critics.”

    Source : www.history.com

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